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  • Praça Bom Jesus (square, Anápolis, Brazil)

    Anápolis: …with attractive squares, such as Praça Bom Jesus, and is the northwestern terminus of railroads leading inland from coastal Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It has an airport and is also strategically situated on the highway linking Brasília, the national capital, with Goiânia, the state capital, and with São…

  • Prachanda (prime minister of Nepal)

    Prachanda, Nepali rebel leader and politician who headed the Maoist insurgency that ended Nepal’s monarchy and established the country as a democratic republic, which he served as its first prime minister (2008–09); he later was returned to that office (2016–17). Pushpa Kamal Dahal was born into a

  • Prachanda Path (Nepali communism)

    Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre): …proposed what it called the Prachanda Path, which combined indoctrination of the masses with Marxist, Leninist, and Maoist thought and the creation of military bases in rural areas. The success of the CPN (M) in the villages can be attributed to its ability to deliver a modicum of governance where…

  • Prachim (Thailand)

    Prachin Buri, town, south-central Thailand. Prachin Buri lies along the Bang Pakong River and is a collecting centre for rice and sugar. It also trades in hardwoods and charcoal and is linked to Bangkok, 60 miles (97 km) southwest, by rail. Pop. (2000)

  • Prachin Buri (Thailand)

    Prachin Buri, town, south-central Thailand. Prachin Buri lies along the Bang Pakong River and is a collecting centre for rice and sugar. It also trades in hardwoods and charcoal and is linked to Bangkok, 60 miles (97 km) southwest, by rail. Pop. (2000)

  • Prachin Panth Prakash (work by Ratan Singh Bhangu)

    Sikhism: Devotional and other works: …Bhangu’s Panth Prakash (later termed Prachin Panth Prakash to distinguish it from Gian Singh’s work of the same name), was composed in 1809 and completed in 1841; it is notable for its description and high praise of the Khalsa. The two remaining works are Gian Singh’s Panth Prakash and his…

  • Practica arithmetica et mensurandi singularis (work by Cardano)

    Girolamo Cardano: …lectures, the more important being Practica arithmetica et mensurandi singularis (“Practice of Mathematics and Individual Measurements”). His Ars magna (1545) contained the solution of the cubic equation, for which he was indebted to the Venetian mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia, and also the solution of the quartic equation found by Cardano’s former…

  • Practica della mercatura (medieval trade manual)

    China: Yuan China and the West: …was so important that the Practica della mercatura, a handbook on foreign trade, included the description of trade routes to China.

  • Practica geometriae (work by Fibonacci)

    Fibonacci: Life: …produced a brief work, the Practica geometriae (“Practice of Geometry”), which included eight chapters of theorems based on Euclid’s Elements and On Divisions.

  • Practica musica (work by Gafori)

    tuning and temperament: Temperament: …in 1496 in the treatise Practica musica by the Italian theorist Franchino Gafori, who stated that organists flatten fifths by a small, indefinite amount. This practice tends to spread out the mistuning of the fifth D–A over several fifths, so that all are tolerable although none is perfect. This principle…

  • Practical Agitation (work by Chapman)

    John Jay Chapman: …books—Causes and Consequences (1898) and Practical Agitation (1900). Both stressed his belief that individuals should take a moral stand on issues troubling the nation.

  • Practical Criticism (work by Richards)

    I.A. Richards: …of Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929), companion volumes that he used to develop his critical method. The latter two were based on experimental pedagogy: Richards would give students poems in which the titles and authors’ names had been removed and then use their responses for further development of…

  • Practical Education (work by Edgeworth and Edgeworth)

    Richard Lovell Edgeworth: Practical Education (1798), written in collaboration with his daughter, was inspired by the French-Swiss moralist Jean-Jacques Rousseau and by Edgeworth’s second wife, Honora. The book argued that children should be given a strong motive to learn and that the pace should be adjusted to the…

  • practical extraction and report language (computer programming language)

    Perl, a cross-platform, open-source computer programming language used widely in the commercial and private computing sectors. Perl is a favourite among Web developers for its flexible, continually evolving text-processing and problem-solving capabilities. In December 1987 American programmer and

  • practical Hinduism (religion)

    Hinduism: Practical Hinduism: Practical Hinduism is both a quest to achieve well-being and a set of strategies for locating sources of affliction and removing or appeasing them. Characterized in this way, it has much in common with the popular beliefs and practices of many other religions.…

  • practical joke (comedy)

    humour: Situational humour: …type of humour is the practical joke: pulling away the chair from under the dignitary’s lowered bottom. The victim is perceived first as a person of consequence, then suddenly as an inert body subject to the laws of physics: authority is debunked by gravity, mind by matter; man is degraded…

  • Practical Learning (Korean political philosophy)

    Silhak, (Korean: “Practical Learning”), school of thought that came into existence in the midst of the chaotic conditions of 18th-century Korea, dedicated to a practical approach to statecraft, instead of the blind and uncritical following of Confucian teachings. The Silhak school attacked

  • Practical Methods of Organic Chemistry (work by Gattermann)

    Robert Burns Woodward: Early life and education: …a copy of Ludwig Gattermann’s Practical Methods of Organic Chemistry and requested issues of chemistry journals from Verlag Chemie of Berlin. Later in life he did nothing to discourage a persistent legend that he had performed all the experiments in Gattermann’s book.

  • practical reason (philosophy)

    Practical reason, Rational capacity by which (rational) agents guide their conduct. In Immanuel Kant’s moral philosophy, it is defined as the capacity of a rational being to act according to principles (i.e., according to the conception of laws). Unlike the ethical intuitionists (see intuitionism),

  • practical salinity (oceanography)

    seawater: Dissolved inorganic substances: Practical salinity, symbol S, is determined through measurements of the electrical conductivity and temperature of seawater, which are interpreted by an algorithm developed by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Practical salinity, along with temperature, can be used to calculate precisely the…

  • practical syllogism (logic)

    Aristotle: Virtue: …formulation of prescriptions for action—“practical syllogisms,” as Aristotle calls them. A practical syllogism consists of a general recipe for a good life, followed by an accurate description of the agent’s actual circumstances and concluding with a decision about the appropriate action to be carried out.

  • practice (psychology)

    animal learning: Circumstances that produce learning: …claim that learning depends on practice. (An older generation of experimental psychologists would have claimed that it depended on “reinforced” practice.) This definition can be misleading, however, if it causes one to attribute to learning all behavioral changes that follow what appears to be practice. In other words, it is…

  • Practice and Theory of Bolshevism, The (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: …communism, which he expressed in The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1920).

  • Practice of Behavior Therapy, The (work by Wolpe)

    mental disorder: Behavioral psychotherapy: …described by Joseph Wolpe in The Practice of Behavior Therapy (1973),

  • Practice of Diplomacy, The (work by Callières)

    François de Callières: …négocier avec les souverains (1716; The Practice of Diplomacy) was considered a model introduction to the subject of diplomacy.

  • Practice of Piety (work by Bayly)

    English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose: …by 1640) and Lewis Bayly’s Practice of Piety (1611; some 50 editions followed), two copies of which formed the meagre dowry of preacher and author John Bunyan’s first wife. Puritans preferred sermons in the plain style too, eschewing rhetoric for an austerely edifying treatment of doctrine, though some famous preachers,…

  • Practice of the Presence of God, The (work by Brother Lawrence)

    Christianity: The readjustment: …at the Blessed Sacrament” (The Practice of the Presence of God, chapter 4). Second, the spiritual marriage is a theopathic state: the soul is felt to be in all things the organ or instrument of God. In the unitive life Mme Guyon says that the soul “no longer lives…

  • Practice, The (American television series)

    David E. Kelley: …shows included Ally McBeal (1997–2002), The Practice (1997–2004), and Boston Legal (2004–08).

  • Practicing New Historicism (work by Greenblatt and Gallagher)

    Stephen Greenblatt: In Practicing New Historicism (2000), Greenblatt and coauthor Catherine Gallagher mounted a rigorous defense of New Historicism in response to charges that it lacked definition, casting it as an empirical means of interpretation rather than a dogmatic theory. Greenblatt’s Hamlet in Purgatory (2001) delved into Shakespeare’s…

  • practitioner (Christian Science)

    Christian Science: Beliefs and practices: …ministry are called Christian Science practitioners and are listed in a directory published monthly in the denomination’s major religious periodical, The Christian Science Journal. Practitioners usually charge their patients a nominal fee.

  • Prācyā (Indian literary style)

    Gauda: In literature, the poetic style Gauda or Gaudi, also known as Pracya (Eastern), is described by Dandin in his work on poetics, Kavyadarsha (“Mirror of Poetry”).

  • Prada Foundation (Italian organization)

    Miuccia Prada: …the PradaMilanoarte, later renamed the Prada Foundation (Fondazione Prada), a nonprofit organization dedicated to the support of various up-and-coming contemporary designers, including architects and artists. In the same year, Prada launched a menswear line, and in 1995 she gained international recognition after top Hollywood actress Uma Thurman wore one of…

  • Prada Group (Italian company)

    Rem Koolhaas: …of international stores for the Prada fashion house, the Netherlands embassy (1997–2003) in Berlin, a student centre at the Illinois Institute of Technology (1997–2003) in Chicago, the Seattle (Washington) Public Library (1999–2004), and the headquarters for Beijing’s state-owned China Central Television (CCTV; 2004–08). The CCTV building, noted for its angular-loop…

  • Prada, Miuccia (Italian fashion designer)

    Miuccia Prada, Italian fashion designer best known as the head designer at the Prada fashion house. She is renowned for utilizing minimalist designs to achieve a traditional style with modern influence. The second of three children, Maria Bianchi was born into an affluent family. Her father, Luigi

  • pradakshina (Hindu and Buddhist rite)

    Pradakshina, in Hinduism and Buddhism, the rite of circumambulating in a clockwise direction an image, relic, shrine, or other sacred object. The worshiper, by beginning in the east and keeping the sacred object on his right-hand side, proceeds to the south, thus moving in the direction followed

  • Prader-Willi syndrome (genetic disorder)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare human genetic disorder characterized by weak muscle tone at birth, small stature, intellectual disabilities, overeating leading to childhood obesity, and high rates of morbidity and mortality. PWS arises from the deletion or disruption of genes in a particular

  • pradesha chakravartin (Indian ruler)

    chakravartin: …powerful than the first; and pradesha chakravartin, a monarch who leads the people of only a part of a continent, the equivalent of a local king. The first reference to a secular king who achieved the status of a chakravala chakravartin appears in texts and monuments from the Mauryan dynasty…

  • pradhāna (Indian philosophy)

    Prakriti, (Sanskrit: “nature,” “source”) in the Samkhya system (darshan) of Indian philosophy, material nature in its germinal state, eternal and beyond perception. When prakriti (female) comes into contact with the spirit, purusha (male), it starts on a process of evolution that leads through

  • Pradier, Louise (friend of Flaubert)

    Gustave Flaubert: Mature career: …the adventures and misfortunes of Louise Pradier (née d’Arcet), the wife of the sculptor James Pradier, as dictated by herself, and, apart from the suicide, it bears a strong resemblance to the story of Emma Bovary. Flaubert, out of kindness as well as out of professional curiosity, had continued to…

  • Prado Museum (museum, Madrid, Spain)

    Prado Museum, art museum in Madrid, housing the world’s richest and most comprehensive collection of Spanish painting, as well as masterpieces of other schools of European painting, especially Italian and Flemish art. The Prado’s building had its start in 1785 when Charles III commissioned the

  • Prado, Adélia (Brazilian poet)

    Brazilian literature: Poetry: …urban, tormented, feminist voice, and Adélia Prado, who produced earthy yet mystical verses.

  • Prado, Manuel (president of Peru)

    Peru: Troubled democracy: … of 1939, the Apristas supported Manuel Prado, a banker and a member of an aristocratic family of Lima.

  • Prado, Mariano Ignacio (president of Peru)

    Talambo affair: Mariano Ignacio Prado to oust him in 1865. Prado forged an alliance with Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile and declared war against Spain in 1866; that year the South American allies defeated the Spanish fleet off Callao, Peru, thus effectively ending the Spanish intervention, although the…

  • Pradyota the Fierce (king of Avanti)

    Avanti: …enough at that time, under King Pradyota the Fierce, to threaten the empire of Magadha. In the same period there was also an Avanti-daksinapatha (Sanskrit: “Avanti of the South”; perhaps modern Nimar), of which Mahismati may have been the capital.

  • Pradyumna (Hindu theologian)

    Indian philosophy: Vaishnava schools: …and courage predominate (known as Pradyumna); and the form in which power and energy predominate (known as Aniruddha). Shankara identified Samkarshana with the individual soul, Pradyumna with mind, and Aniruddha with the ego sense. Furthermore, five powers of God are distinguished: creation, maintenance, destruction, favour, and disfavour. Bhakti is regarded…

  • Prae-Adamitae (book by La Peyrère)

    Benedict de Spinoza: Early life and career: In 1655 a book titled Prae-Adamitae (Latin: “Men Before Adam”), by the French courtier Isaac La Peyrère, appeared in Amsterdam. It challenged the accuracy of the Bible and insisted that the spread of human beings to all parts of the globe implies that there must have been humans before Adam…

  • praecepta (Roman law)

    constitutiones principum: …of imperial legislation were (1) edicta, or proclamations, which the emperor, like other magistrates, might issue, (2) mandata, or instructions to subordinates, especially provincial governors, (3) rescripta, written answers to officials or others who consulted the emperor, in particular on a point of law, and (4) decreta, or decisions of…

  • Praecepta honestatis atque decoris puerilis (work by Camerarius)

    Joachim Camerarius: …classics in Latin verse (Praecepta honestatis atque decoris puerilis, 1528) and Latin biographies of Hessus (1553) and Melanchthon (1566). He was present with Melanchthon at the reading of the Confutatio pontificia at Augsburg in 1530, and also at a diet there in 1555. In the same year he was…

  • Praeclara Gratulationis (encyclical by Pope Leo XIII)

    Anthimus VII Tsatsos: …world refuting a papal encyclical, Praeclara Gratulationis (“Splendid Rejoicing”) of Pope Leo XIII (June 20, 1894), which proposed grounds for the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches. Besides citing the traditional Eastern arguments attacking Western corruption of early Christian doctrine, Anthimus made new charges occasioned by Roman Catholic teaching…

  • Praed, Rosa (Australian author)

    Australian literature: The century after settlement: …by the late 1800s were Rosa Praed—her Policy and Passion (1881) is an interesting account of the personal life of a Queensland politician—and the prolific Ada Cambridge.

  • Praed, Winthrop Mackworth (British politician and poet)

    Winthrop Mackworth Praed, English writer and politician remembered for his humorous verse. After a brilliant career at Eton College and the University of Cambridge, Praed entered Parliament in 1830 as a Tory. In 1834–35 he was secretary to the Board of Control. Expectations of a great political

  • praefecti (ancient Roman official)

    Prefect, in ancient Rome, any of various high officials or magistrates having different functions. In the early republic, a prefect of the city (praefectus urbi) was appointed by the consuls to act in the consuls’ absence from Rome. The position lost much of its importance temporarily after the m

  • praefectus (ancient Roman official)

    Prefect, in ancient Rome, any of various high officials or magistrates having different functions. In the early republic, a prefect of the city (praefectus urbi) was appointed by the consuls to act in the consuls’ absence from Rome. The position lost much of its importance temporarily after the m

  • praefectus praetorio (Roman official)

    prefect: …prefect of the city, two praetorian prefects (praefectus praetorio), a prefect of the fire brigade, and a prefect of the grain supply. The prefect of the city was responsible for maintaining law and order within Rome and acquired full criminal jurisdiction in the region within 100 miles (160 km) of…

  • praefectus urbi (ancient Roman official)

    prefect: …a prefect of the city (praefectus urbi) was appointed by the consuls to act in the consuls’ absence from Rome. The position lost much of its importance temporarily after the mid-4th century bc, when the consuls began to appoint praetors to act in the consuls’ absence. The office of prefect…

  • Praeludia botanica (work by Morison)

    Robert Morison: Morison’s Praeludia botanica (1669), based on the catalog of plants at Blois, contained detailed criticism of the seminal classification theories of Jean and Gaspard Bauhin. Morison was dissatisfied with classification based on habit, inflorescence, and vegetative or medicinal qualities; he argued for basing it on morphological…

  • Praemium Imperiale (international arts award)

    Praemium Imperiale, an international arts prize awarded annually since 1989 by the Japan Art Association in Tokyo. The prize is awarded in five fields: architecture, music, painting, sculpture, and theatre/film. It is considered one of the highest honours among awards in the arts. The Japan Art

  • Praemunire, Statute of (England [1353])

    United Kingdom: Domestic achievements: …benefices in England, and the Statute of Praemunire two years later forbade appeals to Rome in patronage disputes. The crown in practice had sufficient weapons available to it to deal with these matters, but Edward was ready to accept the views of his subjects, even though he did little about…

  • Praeneste (ancient town, Italy)

    Praeneste, ancient city of Latium, located 23 miles east-southeast of Rome on a spur of the Apennines, home of the great temple to Fortuna Primigenia. After the Gallic invasion (390 bc), Praeneste fought many battles with Rome; defeated in the Latin War (340–338), it lost part of its territory and

  • Praeneste Fibula (cloak pin)

    Romance languages: Latin and the protolanguage: …is an inscription on a cloak pin (fibula) of the 6th century bce, from Palestrina (Praeneste). Other Latinian inscriptions show marked differences from Roman Latin, for which there is, however, little evidence before the end of the 3rd century bce. What is certain is that the language changed so rapidly…

  • praenomen (name)

    name: European patterns of naming: …personal name consisted of a praenomen (given name, forename) and a nomen (or nomen gentile). Only intimates used the praenomen, and its choice was restricted to fewer than 20 names, among them Gaius, Gnaeus, Marcus, Quintus, Publius, Tiberius, and Titus. The nomen that followed was hereditary in each gens (a…

  • Praeparatio evangelica (work by Eusebius of Caesrea)

    Syrian and Palestinian religion: Sources of modern knowledge: …section of Eusebius of Caesarea’s Praeparatio evangelica (“Preparation for the Gospel”; 4th century ce) that cites extracts from a history of Phoenicia by Philo of Byblos (c. 100 ce); Philo himself claimed to be translating the work of an early Phoenician priest, Sanchuniathon. While indigenous sources now confirm isolated elements…

  • praese (ancient Egyptian official)

    ancient Egypt: Byzantine government of Egypt: …military officials were established (the praeses and the dux, respectively). By the middle of the 6th century the emperor Justinian was eventually forced to recognize the failure of this policy and to combine civil and military power in the hands of the dux with a civil deputy (the praeses) as…

  • Praesepe (astronomy)

    Praesepe, (catalog numbers NGC 2632 and M 44), open, or galactic, cluster of about 1,000 stars in the zodiacal constellation Cancer and located about 550 light-years from Earth. Visible to the unaided eye as a small patch of bright haze, it was first distinguished as a group of stars by Galileo. It

  • Praeterita (work by Ruskin)

    John Ruskin: Cultural criticism: …last major work: his autobiography, Praeterita (1885–89). Unfinished, shamelessly partial (it omits, for example, all mention of his marriage), and chronologically untrustworthy, it provides a subtle and memorable history of the growth of Ruskin’s distinctive sensibility.

  • praetersound (physics)

    ultrasonics: Hypersound, sometimes called praetersound or microsound, is sound waves of frequencies greater than 1013 hertz. At such high frequencies it is very difficult for a sound wave to propagate efficiently; indeed, above a frequency of about 1.25 × 1013 hertz it is impossible for longitudinal…

  • praetor (Roman official)

    Praetor, in ancient Rome, a judicial officer who had broad authority in cases of equity, was responsible for the production of the public games, and, in the absence of consuls, exercised extensive authority in the government. The institution of consuls arose c. 510 bc with the expulsion of the

  • Praetorian Cohorts (Roman military)

    Praetorian Guard, household troops of the Roman emperors. The cohors praetoria existed by the 2nd century bc, acting as bodyguards for Roman generals. In 27 bc the emperor Augustus created a permanent corps of nine cohorts, stationing them around Rome; in 2 bc he appointed two equestrian prefects t

  • Praetorian Guard (Roman military)

    Praetorian Guard, household troops of the Roman emperors. The cohors praetoria existed by the 2nd century bc, acting as bodyguards for Roman generals. In 27 bc the emperor Augustus created a permanent corps of nine cohorts, stationing them around Rome; in 2 bc he appointed two equestrian prefects t

  • Praetorian Palace (palace, Koper, Slovenia)

    Koper: …several Venetian palaces, including the Praetorian Palace, which dates from the mid-15th century. In 1991, when Slovenia gained independence, the port of Koper was the scene of the departure of the Yugoslav army, which is commemorated by a monument. In 1957 work on new port facilities on the eastern side…

  • praetorian prefect (Roman official)

    prefect: …prefect of the city, two praetorian prefects (praefectus praetorio), a prefect of the fire brigade, and a prefect of the grain supply. The prefect of the city was responsible for maintaining law and order within Rome and acquired full criminal jurisdiction in the region within 100 miles (160 km) of…

  • Praetorius, Michael (German musician)

    Michael Praetorius, German music theorist and composer whose Syntagma musicum (1614–20) is a principal source for knowledge of 17th-century music and whose settings of Lutheran chorales are important examples of early 17th-century religious music. He studied at Frankfurt an der Oder and was

  • Prag, Florence (American public official)

    Florence Prag Kahn, American public official who, after winning her husband’s seat in the U.S. Congress following his death, established herself as an effective representative in her own right. Florence Prag graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1887. Her ambition to study law

  • Praga, Emilio (Italian author)

    scapigliatura: …the novelists Giuseppe Rovani and Emilio Praga. Other members included the poet and musician Arrigo Boito (chiefly remembered today as Verdi’s librettist), the poet and literary professor Arturo Graf, and Iginio Ugo Tarchetti.

  • Pragian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Pragian Stage, second of the three standard worldwide divisions of Early Devonian rocks and time. Pragian time spans the interval between 410.8 million and 407.6 million years ago. The name is derived from Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic. The section is made up of fine-grained gray

  • Pragjyotisa (India)

    Guwahati, city, western Assam state, northeastern India. It lies along the Brahmaputra River (there bridged) and is picturesquely situated with an amphitheatre of wooded hills to the south. Guwahati was the capital of the Hindu kingdom of Kamarupa (under the name of Pragjyotisa) about 400 ce. In

  • pragmatic inference (logic)

    truth: Coherence and pragmatist theories: Starting in the mid-19th century, this line of criticism led some philosophers to think that they should concentrate on larger theories, rather than sentences or assertions taken one at a time. Truth, on this view, must be a feature of the overall body…

  • Pragmatic Sanction (European history)

    history of the Low Countries: The Habsburgs: …(“Circle”) (1548) and in the Pragmatic Sanction (1549), which stated that succession would be regulated in identical fashion in all the regions of the Low Countries that he had included in his empire. The Low Countries were thus prevented from being split up.

  • Pragmatic Sanction (Roman history)

    Italy: The end of the Roman world: …in 554 Justinian issued the Pragmatic Sanction setting forth its terms: Italy was made a province of the Byzantine Empire, with its capital still at Ravenna (Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, however, were to remain administratively separate), and the Ostrogothic political system was to be dissolved. Indeed, the Ostrogoths virtually vanished…

  • Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (French history)

    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, (July 7, 1438), decree issued by King Charles VII of France after an assembly had examined the decrees of the Council of Basel (see Basel, Council of). It approved the decree Sacrosancta of the council, which asserted the supremacy of a council over the pope, and

  • Pragmatic Sanction of Emperor Charles VI (Holy Roman Empire)

    Pragmatic Sanction of Emperor Charles VI, (April 19, 1713), decree promulgated by the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI with the intent that all his Habsburg kingdoms and lands descend as an integral whole without partition. It stipulated that his undivided heritage go to his eldest son, should he have

  • Pragmatic Sanction of King Ferdinand VII (Spanish history)

    Pragmatic Sanction of King Ferdinand VII, (March 29, 1830), decree of Ferdinand VII of Spain, which promulgated his predecessor Charles IV’s unpublished decision of 1789 revoking the Salic law of succession, which had denied royal succession to females. The Pragmatic Sanction was intended to permit

  • pragmatics (linguistics and philosophy)

    Pragmatics, In linguistics and philosophy, the study of the use of natural language in communication; more generally, the study of the relations between languages and their users. It is sometimes defined in contrast with linguistic semantics, which can be described as the study of the rule systems

  • pragmatiké historia (historical concept)

    Polybius: Conception of history: …military matters; and this is pragmatiké historia, in contrast to other sorts of history (IX, 1–2)—genealogies and mythical stories, appealing to the casual reader, and accounts of colonies, foundations of cities, and ties of kindred, which attract the man with antiquarian interests. Its nature is austere, though it may include…

  • pragmatism (philosophy)

    Pragmatism, school of philosophy, dominant in the United States in the first quarter of the 20th century, based on the principle that the usefulness, workability, and practicality of ideas, policies, and proposals are the criteria of their merit. It stresses the priority of action over doctrine, of

  • pragmatist school of chess

    chess: The pragmatists: The most important changes in chess thinking after 1970 concerned a more practical approach to competition. The Soviets maintained that by unbalancing a position they placed an onus on each player to find the best moves. In quieter positions, second-best moves could be permitted.…

  • Prägnanz (psychology)

    Max Wertheimer: …argument was Wertheimer’s concept of Pragnanz (“precision”) in organization; when things are grasped as wholes, the minimal amount of energy is exerted in thinking. To Wertheimer, truth was determined by the entire structure of experience rather than by individual sensations or perceptions.

  • Prague (national capital, Czech Republic)

    Prague, city, capital of the Czech Republic. Lying at the heart of Europe, it is one of the continent’s finest cities and the major Czech economic and cultural centre. The city has a rich architectural heritage that reflects both the uncertain currents of history in Bohemia and an urban life

  • Prague (symphony by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: From Figaro to Don Giovanni: …a new symphony there, the Prague (K 504), a demanding work that reflects his admiration for the capabilities of that city’s musicians. After accepting a further operatic commission for Prague, he returned to Vienna in February 1787.

  • Prague articles of agreement (Europe [1436])

    Czechoslovak history: The Hussite wars: …known as the Compacts (Compactata) of Basel. The agreement followed the Four Articles of Prague but weakened them with subtle clauses (e.g., the council granted the Czechs the Communion in both kinds but under vaguely defined conditions). After the promulgation of the compacts in 1436, an agreement followed with…

  • Prague Castle (castle, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Prague Castle, collective name for an aggregation of palaces, churches, offices, fortifications, courtyards, and gardens in Prague, covering approximately 110 acres (45 hectares). The castle was formerly the seat of the kings of Bohemia and is currently the official residence of the president of

  • Prague Compactata (Europe [1436])

    Czechoslovak history: The Hussite wars: …known as the Compacts (Compactata) of Basel. The agreement followed the Four Articles of Prague but weakened them with subtle clauses (e.g., the council granted the Czechs the Communion in both kinds but under vaguely defined conditions). After the promulgation of the compacts in 1436, an agreement followed with…

  • Prague Compacts (Europe [1436])

    Czechoslovak history: The Hussite wars: …known as the Compacts (Compactata) of Basel. The agreement followed the Four Articles of Prague but weakened them with subtle clauses (e.g., the council granted the Czechs the Communion in both kinds but under vaguely defined conditions). After the promulgation of the compacts in 1436, an agreement followed with…

  • Prague National Committee (political group, Czechoslovakia)

    Czechoslovak history: Struggle for independence: …domestic political group called the Prague National Committee proclaimed a republic on October 28, and two days later at Turčiansky Svätý Martin (now Martin, Slvk.) a Slovak counterpart, the Slovak National Council, acceded to the Prague proclamation.

  • Prague Proposals (European history [1950])

    20th-century international relations: The nature and role of Germany: The Soviets’ Prague Proposals of October 1950 had envisioned a united, demilitarized German state—Kennan now endorsed such a neutral zone in central Europe to separate the Cold War rivals—but the Soviets insisted on a Constituent Council with equal representation for East and West Germany, even though the…

  • Prague school (linguistics)

    Prague school, school of linguistic thought and analysis established in Prague in the 1920s by Vilém Mathesius. It included among its most prominent members the Russian linguist Nikolay Trubetskoy and the Russian-born American linguist Roman Jakobson; the school was most active during the 1920s and

  • Prague Spring (Czechoslovak history)

    Prague Spring, brief period of liberalization in Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubček in 1968. Soon after he became first secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party on January 5, 1968, Dubček granted the press greater freedom of expression; he also rehabilitated victims of political purges

  • Prague Symphony (work by Mozart)

    Prague: …Mozart lived there, and his Prague Symphony and Don Giovanni were first performed in the city. In addition, the lyric music of the great Czech composers Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, and Leoš Janáček is commemorated each year in a spring music festival. The

  • Prague Zoo (zoo, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Prague Zoological Garden, zoological garden 4 km (2.5 miles) from downtown Prague, noted for breeding the rare Przewalski’s horse. This municipal zoo, opened in 1931, occupies 45 hectares (111 acres) and houses more than 2,300 specimens of about 465 species. Besides serving as a conservation centre

  • Prague Zoological Garden (zoo, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Prague Zoological Garden, zoological garden 4 km (2.5 miles) from downtown Prague, noted for breeding the rare Przewalski’s horse. This municipal zoo, opened in 1931, occupies 45 hectares (111 acres) and houses more than 2,300 specimens of about 465 species. Besides serving as a conservation centre

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