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  • Powstanie narodu polskiego w latach 1830–1831 (work by Mochnacki)

    Maurycy Mochnacki: His Powstanie narodu polskiego w r. 1830 i 1831 (1834; “The Insurrection of the Polish Nation in the Years 1830 and 1831”) is considered the best firsthand account and study of that period. Of his literary essays, “O literaturze polskiej wieku XIX” (1830; “On Polish Literature…

  • powwow (Native American celebration)

    Powwow, a celebration of American Indian culture in which people from diverse indigenous nations gather for the purpose of dancing, singing, and honouring the traditions of their ancestors. The term powwow, which derives from a curing ritual, originated in one of the Algonquian nations of the

  • Powys (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Powys, county of east-central Wales, bordering England. Powys is by far the largest county in Wales. It encompasses a rugged landscape of valleys and mountains, including most of Brecon Beacons National Park, and the entire historic counties of Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire, most of

  • Powys Castle (castle, Welshpool, Wales)
  • Powys, John Cowper (British author)

    John Cowper Powys, Welsh novelist, essayist, and poet, known chiefly for his long panoramic novels, including Wolf Solent (1929), A Glastonbury Romance (1932), and Owen Glendower (1940). He was the brother of the authors T.F. Powys and Llewelyn Powys. Educated at Sherborne School and the University

  • Powys, Llewelyn (British author)

    Llewelyn Powys, British author known for his books of essays, travel books, and memoirs. Powys was the eighth of 11 children of a country clergyman. Unlike his brothers T.F. Powys and John Cowper Powys, both also authors, Llewelyn preferred writing nonfiction, and he published only one novel,

  • Powys, T. F. (English author)

    T.F. Powys, English novelist and short-story writer whose works dealt mainly with the hardships and brutalities of rural life. The brother of the authors John Cowper and Llewelyn Powys, he did not go to a university but rather turned to farming for several years. Thereafter he lived frugally on an

  • Powys, Theodore Francis (English author)

    T.F. Powys, English novelist and short-story writer whose works dealt mainly with the hardships and brutalities of rural life. The brother of the authors John Cowper and Llewelyn Powys, he did not go to a university but rather turned to farming for several years. Thereafter he lived frugally on an

  • pox disease (pathology)

    Pox disease, any of a complex of viral diseases in human beings and domestic animals, marked chiefly by eruptions of the skin and mucous membranes. Sheep pox and rabbit pox are spread by airborne infectious particles that are inhaled. Horse pox, fowl pox, and mouse pox usually are spread by skin

  • Poxviridae (virus group)

    Poxvirus, (family Poxviridae), any of a group of viruses constituting the family Poxviridae, responsible for a wide range of pox diseases in humans and other animals. In humans, variola major and variola minor isolates of the poxvirus species Variola virus were the cause of smallpox, which was

  • poxvirus (virus group)

    Poxvirus, (family Poxviridae), any of a group of viruses constituting the family Poxviridae, responsible for a wide range of pox diseases in humans and other animals. In humans, variola major and variola minor isolates of the poxvirus species Variola virus were the cause of smallpox, which was

  • POY (fibre manufacturing)

    man-made fibre: Drawing techniques: …yield what is known as partially oriented yarns (POY)—i.e., filaments that are partially drawn and partially crystallized and that can be drawn at a later time during textile operations. Many fibres, such as PET, require that a hot-drawing step follow the spinning process fairly soon, or they will become brittle.…

  • Poyang Hu (lake, China)

    Lake Poyang, largest freshwater lake in China, located in northern Jiangxi province, in the southeastern part of the country. It lies in a structural depression south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and is fed by various rivers from Jiangxi, the most important being the Gan River, which drains

  • Poyang, Lake (lake, China)

    Lake Poyang, largest freshwater lake in China, located in northern Jiangxi province, in the southeastern part of the country. It lies in a structural depression south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and is fed by various rivers from Jiangxi, the most important being the Gan River, which drains

  • Poyarkov, Vasily (Russian explorer)

    Amur River: History: …basin was by the adventurers Vasily Poyarkov, who visited much of the basin and estuary between 1644 and 1646, and Yerofey P. Khabarov (1649–51), for whom Khabarovsk is named. In 1849–55 an expedition led by the Russian naval officer Gennady I. Nevelskoy proved that Sakhalin is an island and that,…

  • Poyedinok (work by Kuprin)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin: …fame came with Poyedinok (1905; The Duel), a realistically sordid picture of the emptiness of life in a remote military garrison. Its appearance during the Russo-Japanese War coincided with and confirmed a national wave of antimilitary sentiment. Kuprin wrote prolifically; his subjects might be best described by the title of…

  • Poyet, Guillaume (French official)

    Guillaume Poyet, chancellor of France (from 1538) who sought to reform legal procedures in France during the reign of Francis I. After practicing successfully as a barrister at Angers and Paris, he was instructed by Louise of Savoy, mother of King Francis I, to uphold her rights against the

  • Poynings’s Law (English law)

    Ireland: The Kildare ascendancy: …to be known as “Poynings’s Law,” which subjected the meetings and legislative drafts of the Irish Parliament to the control of the English king and council. But Poynings’s administrative expenses were too great, and Henry VII decided in 1496 to restore Kildare.

  • Poynings, Sir Edward (English lord deputy of Ireland)

    Sir Edward Poynings, lord deputy of Ireland from September 1494 to December 1495, mainly remembered for the laws—“Poynings’ Laws”—that subjected the Irish Parliament to the control of the English king and council. A grandson of William Paston, he was a rebel (1483) against Richard III and attached

  • Poynting vector (physics)

    Poynting vector, a quantity describing the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy in electromagnetic waves. It is named after English physicist John Henry Poynting, who introduced it in 1884. The Poynting vector S is defined as to be equal to the cross product (1/μ)E × B, where μ is the

  • Poynting, John Henry (British physicist)

    John Henry Poynting, British physicist who introduced a theorem that assigns a value to the rate of flow of electromagnetic energy known as the Poynting vector. He was a professor of physics at Mason Science College (later the University of Birmingham) from 1880 until his death. In papers published

  • Poynting-Robertson drag (astronomy)

    meteor and meteoroid: Directing meteoroids to Earth: …belt through a process called Poynting-Robertson drag. The time it takes a particle to traverse the distance from the asteroid belt to Earth depends inversely on its radius and where in the asteroid belt it started out. For 10–50-μm dust particles, traverse time is calculated to be about 100,000 years.…

  • Poynting-Robertson effect (astronomy)

    meteor and meteoroid: Directing meteoroids to Earth: …belt through a process called Poynting-Robertson drag. The time it takes a particle to traverse the distance from the asteroid belt to Earth depends inversely on its radius and where in the asteroid belt it started out. For 10–50-μm dust particles, traverse time is calculated to be about 100,000 years.…

  • Poza Rica (Mexico)

    Poza Rica, city, north-central Veracruz estado (state), east-central Mexico. Northeast of Mexico City, Poza Rica lies on the Cazones River approximately 200 feet (60 metres) above sea level. The hot, humid climate is inhospitable, but Poza Rica is situated in the midst of one of Mexico’s most

  • Poza Rica de Hidalgo (Mexico)

    Poza Rica, city, north-central Veracruz estado (state), east-central Mexico. Northeast of Mexico City, Poza Rica lies on the Cazones River approximately 200 feet (60 metres) above sea level. The hot, humid climate is inhospitable, but Poza Rica is situated in the midst of one of Mexico’s most

  • Požarevac, Peace of (Europe [1718])

    Treaty of Passarowitz, (July 21, 1718), pact signed at the conclusion of the Austro-Turkish (1716–18) and Venetian-Turkish (1716–18) wars at Passarowitz (now Požerevac, Serb.). By its terms the Ottoman Empire lost substantial territories in the Balkans to Austria, thus marking the end of Ottoman

  • Pożegnanie z Marią (work by Borowski)

    Tadeusz Borowski: …two collections of short stories, Pożegnanie z Marią (1948; “Farewell to Maria”) and Kamienny świat (1948; “The World of Stone”), that explored the depths of human degradation in the Nazi concentration camps. (Both collections appear in the English translation This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, and Other Stories…

  • Poznań (Poland)

    Poznań, city, capital of Wielkopolskie województwo (province), west-central Poland, located on the Warta River near its confluence with the Cybina. Beginning as a small stronghold in the 9th century, Poznań became the capital of Poland (with Gniezno) and the residence of Poland’s first two

  • Poznań Riots (Polish history)

    Poznań Riots, (June 1956), uprising of Polish industrial workers that caused a crisis among the Polish communist leadership as well as in the Soviet bloc and resulted in the establishment of a new Polish regime headed by Władysław Gomułka. After the death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (March

  • Pozo Colorado (Paraguay)

    Pozo Colorado, town, west-central Paraguay, just south of an economically important forest zone. The town is the centre of the region’s livestock activity and processes a major portion of the country’s beef production. Pozo Colorado is located at the intersection of roads connecting it with the

  • Pozo, Chano (Cuban musician and dancer)

    Latin jazz: …Cuban percussionist, dancer, and composer Chano Pozo. Gillespie and Pozo’s musical synthesis became known as Afro-Cuban jazz or, for a short period, “Cubop.” One of their collaborative efforts produced the 1947 hit “Manteca,” which quickly became a standard of the jazz repertoire.

  • pozo, El (novella by Onetti)

    Juan Carlos Onetti: …the novella El pozo (1939; The Pit), treats the aimless life of a man lost within a city where he is unable to communicate with others. The book’s complex fusion of reality with fantasy and inner experience makes it one of the first distinctively modern Spanish American novels. In the…

  • Pozsgay, Imre (Hungarian politician)

    Hungary: Political reforms: …uprising” (not a “counterrevolution”) was Imre Pozsgay, who, though a member of the Politburo, was already moving away from strict Marxist ideology. He joined forces with a most unlikely partner, Archduke Otto von Habsburg, the oldest son of the last king of Hungary, to sponsor the Pan-European Picnic of August…

  • Pozsony (national capital, Slovakia)

    Bratislava, city, capital of Slovakia. It lies in the extreme southwestern part of the country, along the Danube where that river has cut a gorge in the Little Carpathian Mountains near the meeting point of the frontiers of Slovakia, Austria, and Hungary. Vienna is 35 miles (56 km) west.

  • Poztupimi (Germany)

    Potsdam, city, capital of Brandenburg Land (state), eastern Germany. Lying on the southwest border of Berlin, it is sited where the Nuthe River flows into the Havel River, the confluence becoming a series of lakes. First mentioned in 993 as a Slavic settlement known as Poztupimi, it received its

  • Pozzo di Borgo, Carlo Andrea (Corsican noble)

    Charles-André, Comte Pozzo di Borgo, Corsican nobleman who entered the Russian diplomatic service and promoted French interests after the Napoleonic Wars in the courts of the Russian emperors Alexander I (reigned 1801–25) and Nicholas I (reigned 1825–55). A native of Corsica, Pozzo favoured its

  • Pozzo di Borgo, Charles-André, Comte (Corsican noble)

    Charles-André, Comte Pozzo di Borgo, Corsican nobleman who entered the Russian diplomatic service and promoted French interests after the Napoleonic Wars in the courts of the Russian emperors Alexander I (reigned 1801–25) and Nicholas I (reigned 1825–55). A native of Corsica, Pozzo favoured its

  • Pozzo, Andrea (Italian painter)

    Andrea Mantegna: Years as court painter in Mantua: …such as Giovanni Lanfranco and Andrea Pozzo, utilized a basically identical concept of total illusion dependent upon the location of a hypothetical viewer standing at a single point in the room.

  • Pozzo, Cassiano dal (Italian antiquarian)

    Nicolas Poussin: Beginnings: …the scholar, antiquarian, and collector Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was destined to become his chief Italian patron and one of his closest friends. One year later, Pozzo assisted him in securing the commission for The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, an altarpiece for St. Peter’s. Poussin’s altarpiece did not meet with…

  • pozzolan (hydraulic cement)

    Pozzolana, hydraulic cement discovered by the Romans and still used in some countries, made by grinding pozzolana (a type of slag that may be either natural—i.e., volcanic—or artificial, from a blast furnace) with powdered hydrated lime. Roman engineers used two parts by weight of pozzolana mixed

  • pozzolana (hydraulic cement)

    Pozzolana, hydraulic cement discovered by the Romans and still used in some countries, made by grinding pozzolana (a type of slag that may be either natural—i.e., volcanic—or artificial, from a blast furnace) with powdered hydrated lime. Roman engineers used two parts by weight of pozzolana mixed

  • pozzolanic cement (cement)

    cement: Slag cements: Pozzolanic cements are mixtures of portland cement and a pozzolanic material that may be either natural or artificial. The natural pozzolanas are mainly materials of volcanic origin but include some diatomaceous earths. Artificial materials include fly ash, burned clays, and shales. Pozzolanas are materials that,…

  • pozzuolana (hydraulic cement)

    Pozzolana, hydraulic cement discovered by the Romans and still used in some countries, made by grinding pozzolana (a type of slag that may be either natural—i.e., volcanic—or artificial, from a blast furnace) with powdered hydrated lime. Roman engineers used two parts by weight of pozzolana mixed

  • Pozzuoli (Italy)

    Pozzuoli, town and episcopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. It occupies a promontory that projects into the Gulf of Pozzuoli (an inlet of the Bay of Naples), just west of Naples. The town was founded about 529 bc by Greek emigrants who called it Dicaearchia (City of Justice). Captured by

  • Poʿel ha-Mizraḥi, ha- (Zionist political party)

    Mizraḥi: Younger Orthodox elements founded ha-Poʿel ha-Mizraḥi (the Mizraḥi Worker Party) in 1922. After the creation of Israel in 1948, the Mizraḥi became an influential partner with the Mapai party in coalition governments with the Israel Labour Party, then the country’s largest political party, which could not obtain an absolute…

  • PP (political party, Spain)

    Popular Party, Spanish conservative political party. The Popular Party (PP) traces its origins to the Popular Alliance, a union of seven conservative political parties formed in the 1970s by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a prominent cabinet member under Spain’s longtime dictator Francisco Franco. In March

  • PP (chemical compound)

    Polypropylene, a synthetic resin built up by the polymerization of propylene. One of the important family of polyolefin resins, polypropylene is molded or extruded into many plastic products in which toughness, flexibility, light weight, and heat resistance are required. It is also spun into fibres

  • PPA (Algerian revolutionary movement)

    Ahmed Messali Hadj: …the Parti Populaire Algérien (PPA; Algerian Popular Party), which was suppressed only to reemerge in 1946 as the Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (MTLD; Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties). His influence, however, declined dramatically in the postwar period. In 1954 he formed the Mouvement National Algérian…

  • PPACA (United States [2010])

    Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), in the United States, health care reform legislation signed into law by U.S. Pres. Barack Obama in March 2010, which included provisions that required most individuals to secure health insurance or pay fines, made coverage easier and less costly

  • PPARγ (biochemistry)

    antidiabetic drug: Oral antidiabetic drugs: …their effects by activating so-called PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) receptors, which are found primarily in adipose tissue; when activated, PPARγ prompts the transcription (synthesis of RNA from DNA) of genes that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Because hepatotoxicity is a major

  • PPBS (economics)

    public administration: Responses to incrementalism: …less successful, technique was the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS), introduced into the U.S. Department of Defense in 1961 and extended to the federal budget in 1965. According to PPBS, the objectives of government programs were to be identified, and then alternative means of achieving these objectives were to…

  • PPD (firearm)

    small arm: The submachine gun: The PPD was fed by a drum-shaped magazine containing 71 7.62-mm cartridges, and it fired at a rate of 900 rounds per minute—far too fast for accuracy. In the United States, John T. Thompson’s submachine gun, chambered for the .45-inch Colt pistol cartridge, was adopted by…

  • PPD (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Government: …two leading parties are the Popular Democratic Party, which supports the continuation of commonwealth status, and the New Progressive Party, which favours U.S. statehood. Together these two parties have commanded virtually all the vote in elections since the late 20th century. The Puerto Rican Independence Party, which won one-fifth of…

  • PPFA (American family planning, social service organization)

    Planned Parenthood, American organization that, since its founding in 1942, has worked as an advocate for education and personal liberties in the areas of birth control, family planning, and reproductive health care. Clinics operated by Planned Parenthood provide a range of reproductive health care

  • PPG (chemical compound)

    polyether: Polypropylene glycols are liquids, mostly insoluble in water, used to suppress foaming in industrial processes and for making polyurethane resins, hydraulic fluids, and various other materials.

  • PPG Industries, Inc. (American company)

    PPG Industries, Inc., a leading American and international producer of coatings, flat glass, chemicals, and chemical products. Its headquarters are in Pittsburgh, Pa. The company was incorporated in 1883 as the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company at a time when European producers had a virtual m

  • PPI (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party, former centrist Italian political party whose several factions were united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocated programs ranging from social reform to the defense of free enterprise. The DC usually dominated Italian politics from World War II until the

  • PPI (radar display)

    radar: Displays: …used radar display is the plan position indicator (PPI), which provides a maplike presentation in polar coordinates of range and angle. The display is “dark” except when echo signals are present.

  • PPK (president of Peru)

    Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Peruvian economist and centrist politician who served as president of Peru (2016–18) but was forced to resign because of his alleged involvement in an influence-peddling scandal. Kuczynski was the son of European immigrants who fled Nazi Germany in the 1930s and settled in

  • PPLO (biology)

    life: Sizes of organisms: …smallest free-living cells include the pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLOs). Whereas an amoeba has a mass of 5 × 10−7 gram (2 × 10−8 ounce), a PPLO, which cannot be seen without a high-powered electron microscope, weighs 5 × 10−16 gram (2 × 10−15 ounce) and is only about 100 nanometres across.…

  • PPMS (pathology)

    multiple sclerosis: Prevalence and types of multiple sclerosis: (RRMS), secondary-progressive (SPMS), primary-progressive (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing (PRMS). About 80–85 percent of patients are diagnosed initially with RRMS. In this form of the disease, onset is usually gradual, and there are alternating intervals of symptom exacerbation and complete symptom remission. In many patients with RRMS, symptoms may worsen…

  • PPN theory (physics)

    gravity: Field theories of gravitation: …parameters; such formulations are called parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) theories. There is now considerable experimental and observational evidence for limits to the parameters. So far, no deviation from general relativity has been demonstrated convincingly.

  • PPO (chemical compound)

    polyether: Polyphenylene oxide resins, such as Noryl, possess great resistance to water and to high temperatures (175°–300° C; 350°–575° F). Penton, a chlorine-containing polyether unaffected by many chemicals, is fabricated into sheets used for lining storage tanks and the like.

  • PPO (health insurance)

    health insurance: …to the HMO is the preferred provider organization (PPO), also known as a participating provider option, which offers features of traditional fee-for-service insurance plans, such as the ability of patients to choose their own health care providers, but also follows the lower-cost strategies of HMOs. For example, those enrolled in…

  • PPP (political party, The Gambia)

    The Gambia: Independence: Yet Jawara and the PPP easily won reelection in 1987 and 1992, although opposition parties gained some support in each election.

  • PPP (political party, Indonesia)

    United Development Party, moderate Islamist political party in Indonesia. The PPP was formed in 1973 through the merger of four Islamic groups—the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul Ulama), the Indonesian Islamic Party (Partai Muslimin Indonesia), the United Islamic Party of Indonesia (Partai Syarikat

  • PPP (economics)

    Public-private partnership (PPP), partnership between an agency of the government and the private sector in the delivery of goods or services to the public. Areas of public policy in which public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been implemented include a wide range of social services, public

  • PPP (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Political process: The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) was formed in 1968 by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, working with a number of liberal leftists who wanted Pakistan to disregard the idiom of religion in politics in favour of a program of rapid modernization of the country and the introduction of…

  • PPP (political party, Thailand)

    Thailand: Thaksin Shinawatra: …backing the ousted prime minister—the People Power Party (PPP)—clearly won the most seats in parliament, which effectively amounted to a popular rejection of the coup. The head of the PPP, Samak Sundaravej, became prime minister.

  • PPP (political party, Guyana)

    Cheddi Jagan: …first modern political party, the People’s Progressive Party (PPP), with himself as its leader. In elections held under the new British-granted constitution of 1953, the PPP won a majority of the seats in the House of Assembly and Jagan became the country’s prime minister. His subsequent program of radical socioeconomic…

  • PPPP (political party, Pakistan)

    Benazir Bhutto: …legally distinct branch called the Pakistan People’s Party Parliamentarians (PPPP). Legally separate and free from the restrictions brought upon the PPP by Bhutto’s leadership, the PPPP participated in the 2002 elections, in which it proceeded to earn a strong vote. However, Bhutto’s terms for cooperation with the military government—that all…

  • PPR (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Political process: …Poland was governed by the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza), the country’s communist party, which was modeled on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The postwar government was run as a dual system in which state organs were controlled by parallel organs of the PUWP.…

  • PPR (French company)

    François Pinault: …formed Pinault-Printemps-Redoute in 1994 (renamed PPR in 2005). Working through his holding company, Artémis SA (founded in 1992), he added a wide range of firms. Pinault’s purchase of a nearly 30 percent stake in British auction house Christie’s in 1998 signaled his shift toward expensive brands—and affirmed his interest in…

  • PPS (political party, Poland)

    Józef Piłsudski: Early life and political activities: He joined the newly founded Polish Socialist Party (PPS), of which he soon became a leader. He started a clandestine newspaper, Robotnik (“The Worker”), in Wilno. In July 1899 he married, in a Protestant church, the beautiful Maria Juszkiewicz, the divorced wife of a Polish civil engineer, and moved to…

  • PPS (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfides: Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), a polymeric material derived from diphenyl sulfide, which has been known for more than 100 years, is used in electrical, electronic, and mechanical applications. Polythiophene conductors are of great interest for use in molecular electronic devices. Research has led to the preparation of macrocyclic…

  • PPS (political party, Syria)

    Anṭūn Saʿādah: 16, 1932, Saʿādah founded the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, a secret society that grew from a few students to about 1,000 members by 1935. During the 1930s the party expanded into Syria, Transjordan, and Palestine. Saʿādah had created perhaps the first indigenous Arab youth organization. It stressed discipline, struggle, and…

  • PPSH (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • PPT (political party, Thailand)

    Yingluck Shinawatra: …the For Thais Party (Phak Puea Thai; PPT), was formed in late 2008. Parliamentary elections were announced in early May 2011 for July 3, and Yingluck declared her candidacy for office shortly thereafter. Yingluck, seen as a fresh face in Thai politics and aided considerably by being Thaksin’s sister,…

  • PPT (political party, Chad)

    Chad: Independence: …become the leader of the Chad Progressive Party (PPT). An autonomous republic within the French Community was proclaimed in November 1958, and complete independence in the restructured community was attained on Aug. 11, 1960. The country’s stability was endangered by tensions between the black and often Christian populations of the…

  • PQ (political party, Canada)

    Parti Québécois, provincial Canadian political party founded in 1968 by journalist René Lévesque and other French Canadian separatists in the largely French-speaking province of Quebec. In 1968 Lévesque merged his Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (Sovereignty-Association Movement)—which advocated

  • PR (political coalition, Malaysia)

    Malaysia: Malaysia in the 21st century: …coalition of opposition parties—called the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat; PR)—that gained more than one-third of the seats in Malaysia’s lower house of parliament, even though he still could not run for office. Anwar officially returned to politics later that year, and in October he won a solid victory in a…

  • Pr (chemical element)

    Praseodymium (Pr), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Praseodymium is a moderately soft, ductile, and malleable silvery white metal. It rapidly displaces hydrogen from water in diluted acids (except hydrofluoric acid [HF]) and slowly oxidizes in

  • PR (political party, Guatemala)

    Guatemala: Political process: …the most continuity are the Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario; PR), which has shifted from left to right in political orientation, the centrist Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party (Partido Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca; PDCG), and the right-wing National Liberation Movement (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional; MLN). In the slightly more open political atmosphere of…

  • PR (political party, France)

    Republican Party, French political party formed in May 1977 when the former National Foundation of Independent Republicans (Fédération Nationale des Républicains Indépendents)—founded in 1966 by Valéry Giscard d’Estaing—was merged with other small groups. It is conservative in domestic social and

  • PR (communications)

    Public relations, aspect of communications involving the relations between an entity subject to or seeking public attention and the various publics that are or may be interested in it. The entity seeking attention may be a business corporation, an individual politician, a performer or author, a

  • PR (political party, Italy)

    Italy: Years of crisis: …by Felice Cavallotti and the Radical group in parliament, who in the 1890s strongly denounced bank scandals, tariff protectionism, colonial wars, and the Triple Alliance. The Radicals were a northern, anticlerical, moralistic group that denounced the corruption of the south (Crispi was the first southern prime minister), of the monarchy,…

  • Pra (Egyptian god)

    Re, in ancient Egyptian religion, god of the sun and creator god. He was believed to travel across the sky in his solar bark and, during the night, to make his passage in another bark through the underworld, where, in order to be born again for the new day, he had to vanquish the evil serpent

  • PRA

    nuclear reactor: The Reactor Safety Study of 1972–75: …study involved the application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for the first time on a system as complex as a large nuclear power reactor. Also for the first time, the study compared the risk of a nuclear power plant accident with other events such as natural disasters and human-caused…

  • Pra River (river, Ghana)

    Pra, river of southern Ghana. The Pra River rises in the Kwahu Plateau near Mpraeso and flows 150 miles (240 km) southward to enter the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) at Shama. Its main tributaries are the Ofin, Anum, and Birim. Constantly broken by cataracts—especially the Bosomasi Rapids at

  • Prabalingga (Indonesia)

    Probolinggo, city, central East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Java, Indonesia. It is located on the southern side of Madura Strait, about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Surabaya. There is a good harbour for small ships, and the fishing industry is important. Cottage industries

  • Prabang Buddha (sculpture)

    Fa Ngum: …it is believed that the Prabang Buddha image, which served as the kingdom’s palladium and gave Luang Prabang its new name, was brought from Ceylon.

  • prabha painting (East Asian arts)

    Central Asian arts: Sculpture and painting: …fully developed in scrolls, or prabhas (most of them, vertical), on cotton known from the 13th century. These scrolls are of two kinds: one consists of arrays of religious images with a large figure of the main deity in their midst; the other consists of a maṇḍala, the Hindu and…

  • Prabhachandra (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: …Knowledge,” 12th century ce) and Prabhachandra’s Prameyakamalamartanda (“The Sun of the Lotus of the Objects of True Knowledge,” 11th century ce), were written during this period. Under the Chola kings (c. 850–1279) and later in the Vijayanagara kingdom (which, along with Mithila in the north, remained strongholds of Hinduism until…

  • Prabhakara (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The logical period: Mimamshakas Kumarila (7th century), Prabhakara (7th–8th centuries), Mandana Mishra (8th century), Shalikanatha (9th century), and Parthasarathi Mishra (10th century) belong to this age. The greatest Indian philosopher of the period, however, was Shankara. All these men defended Brahmanism against the “unorthodox” schools, especially against the criticisms of Buddhism.

  • Prabhakaran, Velupillai (Sri Lankan revolutionary)

    Velupillai Prabhakaran, Tamil nationalist and guerrilla leader (born Nov. 26, 1954, Velvettithurai, Jaffna Peninsula, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]—died May 18, 2009, near Nanthikadal Lagoon, Sri Lanka), founded (1972) the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and built that organization, commonly known

  • prabhākarī (Buddhism)

    bhūmi: …vimalā (“free from impurities”), (3) prabhākarī (“luminous” with the noble doctrine), (4) arciṣmatī (“brilliant,” the rays of his virtue consuming evil passions and ignorance), (5) sudurjayā (“hard to conquer”), (6) abhimukhī (“turning toward” both transmigration and nirvana), (7) dūraṅgamā (“far-going”), (8) acalā

  • Prabhāsa Patan (temple site, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style of Gujarāt: …and rebuilt, the Somanātha at Prabhāsa Patan was the most famous temple of Gujarāt, its best known structure dating from the time of Kumārapāla (mid-12th century). It has been now dismantled, but a great temple built at the site in recent years testifies to the survival of ancient traditions in…

  • Prabhupāda, Swami (Indian religious leader and author)

    A. C. Bhaktivedanta, Indian religious leader and author who in 1965 founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, commonly known as the Hare Krishna movement. In 1920 Bhaktivedanta completed his B.A. in chemistry at the Scottish Churches’ College in Calcutta; by that time, his family

  • Prabhutaratna pagoda (pagoda, Pulguk Temple, South Korea)

    Korean architecture: Unified Silla, or Great Silla, period (668–935): The other pagoda (Tabot’ap) is more elaborate and symbolizes the Prabhutaratna Buddha, or the Buddha of the Past. The arrangement apparently symbolizes the Buddhist legend that, when Shakyamuni preached the Avatamsaka-sutra, the pagoda of Prabhutaratna emerged out of the earth in witness of the greatness and truth of…

  • Prabowo Subianto (Indonesian general and politician)

    Indonesia: Indonesia after Suharto: …of Jakarta, defeated former general Prabowo Subianto of the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Partai Gerkan Indonesia Raya; Gerindra) in the July 2014 presidential election. Jokowi faced a legislative challenge, however, because Gerindra, led by Prabowo, was able to form a large-majority coalition in the parliament that included the PD, Golkar,…

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