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  • Pott Island (island, New Caledonia)

    Bélep Islands: Comprising Pott and Art islands and several islets, the group lies within the northern continuation of the barrier reef that surrounds the main island of New Caledonia. The chief settlement is Wala, on Art Island. The largest of the group, Art Island is 10 miles (16…

  • Pott, August (German linguist)

    August Pott, German linguist who was one of the founders of Indo-European historical linguistics. He established modern etymological studies on the basis of the correspondence of sounds occurring in related words in Indo-European languages. As a theology student at the University of Göttingen, Pott

  • Pott, August Friedrich (German linguist)

    August Pott, German linguist who was one of the founders of Indo-European historical linguistics. He established modern etymological studies on the basis of the correspondence of sounds occurring in related words in Indo-European languages. As a theology student at the University of Göttingen, Pott

  • Pott, Sir Percivall (English surgeon)

    Sir Percivall Pott, English surgeon noted for his many insightful and comprehensive surgical writings who was the first to associate cancer with occupational exposure. Pott, whose father died when he was a young boy, was raised under the care of his mother and a relative, Joseph Wilcocks, the

  • Pottawatomie Massacre (United States history [1856])

    Pottawatomie Massacre, (May 24–25, 1856), murder of five men from a proslavery settlement on Pottawatomie Creek, Franklin county, Kan., U.S., by an antislavery party led by the abolitionist John Brown and composed largely of men of his family. The victims were associated with the Franklin County

  • potter (fishing vessel)

    commercial fishing: Potters: These are generally inshore vessels using pots or traps to catch shellfish. They come in a wide variety of types and sizes, but a typical inshore potter is 10 metres in length. King crab potters working off of the coast of Alaska are up…

  • Potter (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Potter, county, northern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordering New York state to the north. It consists of a mountainous region on the Allegheny Plateau drained by the Allegheny, Cowanesque, and Genesee rivers and Oswayo, Pine, Kettle, and Sinnemahoning creeks. The county contains more than 390 square

  • potter wasp (insect)

    wasp: The potter, or mason, wasps (subfamily Eumeninae) of the Vespidae build nests of mud, which are sometimes vaselike or juglike and may be found attached to twigs or other objects.

  • potter’s mark

    Potter’s mark, device for the purpose of identifying commercial pottery wares. Except for those of Wedgwood, stonewares before the 20th century were not often marked. On some earthenware, potters’ marks are frequently seen, but signatures are rare. One of the few found on ancient Greek vases reads:

  • Potter’s syndrome (pathology)

    agenesis: In renal agenesis, or Potter’s syndrome (absence of one or both kidneys), the ureters also are usually absent, and sex organs may be abnormal. Affected children have wide-set eyes, large, low-set ears, and flattened nose. Agenesis of the lung may be unilateral, a relatively common defect, or bilateral, the…

  • potter’s wheel

    Aegean civilizations: Period of the Early Palaces in Crete (c. 2000–1700): The fast potter’s wheel began to come into use in Crete about the same time as in the Cyclades and on the mainland. Meanwhile, a revolution in the style of Cretan pottery was taking place. During the Early Bronze Age most of the finer vases everywhere in…

  • Potter, Beatrix (British author)

    Beatrix Potter, English author of children’s books, who created Peter Rabbit, Jeremy Fisher, Jemima Puddle-Duck, Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, and other animal characters. Potter, the only daughter of heirs to cotton fortunes, spent a solitary childhood, enlivened by long holidays in Scotland or the English

  • Potter, Bessie Onahotema (American sculptor)

    Bessie Potter Vonnoh, American sculptor known for her delicate portrayals in bronze of mothers and children and young women. Her Impressionistic style and intimate designs set her apart from other sculptors of her generation. After the death of her father, the Potter family moved from St. Louis to

  • Potter, Dennis (British author)

    Dennis Christopher George Potter, British dramatist (born May 17, 1935, Berry Hill, near the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, England—died June 7, 1994, Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, England), wrote television dramas that challenged the conventions of the medium as well as the expectations of the a

  • Potter, Dennis Christopher George (British author)

    Dennis Christopher George Potter, British dramatist (born May 17, 1935, Berry Hill, near the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, England—died June 7, 1994, Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, England), wrote television dramas that challenged the conventions of the medium as well as the expectations of the a

  • Potter, Edward T. (American architect)

    Western architecture: United States: …and completed in 1875, by Edward T. Potter, a pupil of Upjohn. The banded and pointed arches of this building suggest the influence of Ruskin. More successful—and controversial—as an exponent of the Ruskinian aesthetic was Peter B. Wight, architect of the National Academy of Design, New York City (1863–65). There…

  • Potter, H. C. (American director)

    H.C. Potter, American film and stage director who was best known for his comedies, notably The Farmer’s Daughter (1947) and Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House (1948). After studying in Yale University’s drama department, Potter helped found (1927) the Hampton Players, a summer theatre group in

  • Potter, Hank (American director)

    H.C. Potter, American film and stage director who was best known for his comedies, notably The Farmer’s Daughter (1947) and Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House (1948). After studying in Yale University’s drama department, Potter helped found (1927) the Hampton Players, a summer theatre group in

  • Potter, Harry (fictional character)

    Harry Potter, fictional character, a boy wizard created by British author J.K. Rowling. His coming-of-age exploits were the subject of seven enormously popular novels (1997–2007), which were adapted into eight films (2001–11); a play and a book of its script appeared in 2016. Harry Potter was first

  • Potter, Helen Beatrix (British author)

    Beatrix Potter, English author of children’s books, who created Peter Rabbit, Jeremy Fisher, Jemima Puddle-Duck, Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, and other animal characters. Potter, the only daughter of heirs to cotton fortunes, spent a solitary childhood, enlivened by long holidays in Scotland or the English

  • Potter, Henry Codman (American director)

    H.C. Potter, American film and stage director who was best known for his comedies, notably The Farmer’s Daughter (1947) and Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House (1948). After studying in Yale University’s drama department, Potter helped found (1927) the Hampton Players, a summer theatre group in

  • Potter, Martha Beatrice (British economist)

    Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Early life of Beatrice Potter Webb.: Beatrice Potter was born in Gloucester, into a class which, to use her own words, “habitually gave orders.” She was the eighth daughter of Richard Potter, a businessman, at whose death she inherited a private income of £1,000 a year, and Laurencina Heyworth, daughter of…

  • Potter, Maureen (Irish actress)

    Maureen Potter, (Maria Philomena Potter), Irish actress (born 1925, Fairview, near Dublin, Ire.—died April 7, 2004, Dublin), was a popular entertainer for some seven decades and was particularly well regarded for her physically demanding comic roles. As a child she was an Irish dancing champion a

  • Potter, Paul (Dutch painter)

    Paulus Potter, Dutch painter and etcher celebrated chiefly for his paintings of animals. Animals appear prominently in all of Potter’s works, sometimes singly but usually in small groups silhouetted against the sky, or in greater numbers with peasant figures and rustic buildings in an extensive

  • Potter, Paulus (Dutch painter)

    Paulus Potter, Dutch painter and etcher celebrated chiefly for his paintings of animals. Animals appear prominently in all of Potter’s works, sometimes singly but usually in small groups silhouetted against the sky, or in greater numbers with peasant figures and rustic buildings in an extensive

  • Potter, Paulus Pieterszoon (Dutch painter)

    Paulus Potter, Dutch painter and etcher celebrated chiefly for his paintings of animals. Animals appear prominently in all of Potter’s works, sometimes singly but usually in small groups silhouetted against the sky, or in greater numbers with peasant figures and rustic buildings in an extensive

  • Potteries, the (region, England, United Kingdom)

    The Potteries, region in the north of the geographic county of Staffordshire, England, the country’s main producer of china and earthenware. It is centred on the city and unitary authority of Stoke-on-Trent and includes areas in the neighbouring borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. Wedgwood and Minton

  • pottery

    Pottery, one of the oldest and most widespread of the decorative arts, consisting of objects made of clay and hardened with heat. The objects made are commonly useful ones, such as vessels for holding liquids or plates or bowls from which food can be served. Clay, the basic material of pottery, has

  • pottery drum (music)

    percussion instrument: Membranophones: …lacings, whether they were small pottery drums, such as those excavated in Costa Rica, or the large footed drums of Mexico. Slender pottery drums of the Guatemala highlands, open top and bottom, can be dated to the late Classical period (c. 700–1000). Skeletons of wooden cylinder drums, very shallow, have…

  • pottery mark

    Potter’s mark, device for the purpose of identifying commercial pottery wares. Except for those of Wedgwood, stonewares before the 20th century were not often marked. On some earthenware, potters’ marks are frequently seen, but signatures are rare. One of the few found on ancient Greek vases reads:

  • Potthast, August (historian)

    diplomatics: Post-Renaissance scholarship: …of the papal chancery, while August Potthast covered the period from 1198 to 1304. Prominent scholars in the research of papal records in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century were Michael Tangl, Rudolf von Heckel, and, particularly, Paul Fridolin Kehr. In comparison with the amount of work done…

  • Pottinger, Henry (British general)

    China: The first Opium War and its aftermath: Elliot’s successor, Henry Pottinger, arrived at Macau in August and campaigned northward, seizing Xiamen (Amoy), Dinghai, and Ningbo. Reinforced from India, he resumed action in May 1842 and took Wusong, Shanghai, and Zhenjiang. Nanjing yielded in August, and peace was restored with the Treaty of Nanjing. According…

  • Pottle, Frederick A. (American scholar)

    Frederick A. Pottle, American scholar who became the foremost authority on the 18th-century English biographer James Boswell. Pottle graduated from Colby College in 1917 and earned a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1925. He taught at Yale from 1925 until his retirement in 1966, becoming a full

  • Pottle, Frederick Albert (American scholar)

    Frederick A. Pottle, American scholar who became the foremost authority on the 18th-century English biographer James Boswell. Pottle graduated from Colby College in 1917 and earned a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1925. He taught at Yale from 1925 until his retirement in 1966, becoming a full

  • potto (primate)

    Potto, (Perodicticus potto), slow-moving tropical African primate. The potto is a nocturnal tree dweller found in rainforests from Sierra Leone eastward to Uganda. It has a strong grip and clings tightly to branches, but when necessary it can also move quickly through the branches with a smooth

  • Potts, Sean Desmond (Irish musician)

    Sean Desmond Potts, Irish musician (born Oct. 5, 1930, Dublin, Ire.—died Feb. 11, 2014, Dublin), played the tin whistle with aching purity and was a founding member of the widely loved traditional Irish band the Chieftains. Potts, who was trained in the art of the tin whistle by his grandfather,

  • Pottstown (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pottstown, borough (town), Montgomery county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., on the Schuylkill River, 37 miles (59 km) northwest of Philadelphia. The region’s first iron forge (known as Pool) was erected there (1716) by Thomas Rutter, and the Coventry forge produced the first commercial steel in

  • Pottsville (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pottsville, city, seat (1851) of Schuylkill county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S. It is situated at the gap of the Schuylkill River through Sharp Mountain, on the southern edge of the Pennsylvania anthracite-coal region, 35 miles (56 km) northwest of Reading. The first settlers were massacred

  • Pottsville Series (geology)

    Pottsville Series, in geology, division of the Late Carboniferous Epoch (318 million to 299 million years ago). It was named for exposures studied in the region of Pottsville, in the anthracite coal district of Pennsylvania. Found from Pennsylvania to Ohio and from Maryland to Virginia, the

  • POTUS (United States government)

    Presidency of the United States of America, chief executive office of the United States. In contrast to many countries with parliamentary forms of government, where the office of president, or head of state, is mainly ceremonial, in the United States the president is vested with great authority and

  • Potvin, Denis (Canadian hockey player)

    New York Islanders: …including goaltender Billy Smith, defenseman Denis Potvin, right wing Mike Bossy, centre Bryan Trottier, and left wing Clark Gillies. That young group (all but Smith were no older than age 25 at the start of the 1979–80 season) played with postseason poise that belied their youth, losing just three games…

  • Potwar Plateau (region, Pakistan)

    Potwar Plateau, tableland in Rāwalpindi, Attock, and Jhelum districts, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Lying between the Indus and Jhelum rivers and bounded on the north by the Hazāra Hills and on the south by the Salt Range, its varied landscape is constantly affected by erosion. Its elevation varies

  • Pouce, Le (sculpture by César)

    César: …a representation of his thumb; Le Pouce, a 12-metre (40-foot) version, was erected in the Parisian quarter of La Défense. César’s most massive work was a 520-ton barrier of compressed automobiles erected at the Venice Biennale in 1995.

  • pouch (anatomy)

    Marsupium, specialized pouch for protecting, carrying, and nourishing newborn marsupial young. A marsupium is found in most members of the order Marsupialia (class Mammalia). In some marsupials (e.g., kangaroos) it is a well-developed pocket, while in others (e.g., dasyurids) it is a simple fold

  • pouch flower (plant)

    Slipper flower, any of some 240 to 270 species of flowering plants native from Mexico to South America and named for their flowers’ pouchlike shape. They belong to the genus Calceolaria and the family Calceolariaceae. Many large-flowered and showy varieties of slipper flower exist in the florist

  • Pouchet, Félix-Archimède (French naturalist)

    Félix-Archimède Pouchet, French naturalist who was a leading advocate of the idea of the spontaneous generation of life from nonliving matter. Pouchet was director of the Rouen Museum of Natural History and the Rouen Jardin des Plantes (1828) and later a professor at the School of Medicine at Rouen

  • Pouèmo dóu Rose, Lou (poem by Mistral)

    Frédéric Mistral: Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose tells of a voyage on the Rhône River from Lyon to Beaucaire by the barge Lou Caburle, which is boarded first by a romantic young prince of Holland and later by the daughter of a poor ferryman. The romance between them…

  • Pough, Richard Hooper (American ornithologist)

    Richard Hooper Pough, American ornithologist and conservationist (born April 19, 1904, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died June 24, 2003, Chilmark, Mass.), served as the founding president (1954–56) of the Nature Conservatory (formerly known as the Ecologists Union), which became one of the world’s leading l

  • Poughkeepsie (New York, United States)

    Poughkeepsie, city, seat of Dutchess county, eastern New York, U.S. It lies on the east bank of the Hudson River (there bridged to Highland), 75 miles (121 km) north of New York City. It was settled by the Dutch in 1683; its name, of Wappinger Indian origin, means “reed-covered lodge by the little

  • Pougny, Jean (Russian artist)

    Ivan Albertovich Puni, Russian painter and graphic artist who actively furthered the early (prewar) development of the Russian avant-garde. The son of a cellist and grandson of the renowned composer Tsezar Puni (1802–70, originally Cesare Pugni from Italy), Ivan Puni was exposed to music and art at

  • Pouilly, Jean de (13th-century scholar)

    Blessed John Duns Scotus: Final period at Cologne: …quodlibetal disputation, the secular master Jean de Pouilly, for example, declared the Scotist thesis not only improbable but even heretical. Should anyone be so presumptuous as to assert it, he argued impassionedly, one should proceed against him “not with arguments but otherwise.” At a time when Philip IV had initiated…

  • Poujade, Pierre (French politician)

    Pierre Poujade, French bookseller, publisher, and politician who led a much publicized right-wing protest movement in France during the 1950s. Poujade served (1939–40) in the aviation wing of the French army during World War II. He fled to Morocco in 1942 and then to England, where he joined the

  • Poujade, Pierre-Marie (French politician)

    Pierre Poujade, French bookseller, publisher, and politician who led a much publicized right-wing protest movement in France during the 1950s. Poujade served (1939–40) in the aviation wing of the French army during World War II. He fled to Morocco in 1942 and then to England, where he joined the

  • Poujadisme (French political movement)

    National Front: …the right-wing populism of the Poujadisme movement led by Pierre Poujade in the 1950s. Indeed, Le Pen himself was closely tied to Poujadisme, having won a seat in the National Assembly in the 1956 election that proved to be the movement’s high point. Electoral success was slow to come for…

  • poulaine (shoe)

    Crakow, long, pointed, spiked shoe worn by both men and women first in the mid-14th century and then condemned by law. Crakows were named after the city of Kraków (Cracow), Pol., and they were also known as poulaines (Polish). Crakows were admired on the feet of the courtiers of Anne of Bohemia,

  • Poular language (African language)

    western Africa: The wider influence of the Sudanic kingdoms: The Fulani language, however, is classified as part of the Niger-Congo family of languages spoken by black Africans, and the earliest historical documentation reports that the Fulani were living in the westernmost Sudan close to ancient Ghana. The development of this organized kingdom thrust pastoral peoples…

  • Poulenc, Camille (French scientist)

    Rhône-Poulenc SA: …the pharmaceutical house established by Camille Poulenc (1864–1942), the founder of the French pharmaceutical industry and a collaborator of Pierre and Marie Curie. The new Société des Usines Chimiques Rhône-Poulenc immediately founded subsidiaries to develop pharmaceutical specialties and new techniques for the manufacture of synthetic textiles.

  • Poulenc, Francis (French composer)

    Francis Poulenc, composer who made an important contribution to French music in the decades after World War I and whose songs are considered among the best composed during the 20th century. Poulenc was largely self-taught. His first compositions—Rapsodie Nègre (1917), Trois Mouvements Perpétuels,

  • poulet en barbouille (food)

    Berry: Poulet en barbouille is chicken cooked in brandy and served with a sauce made from blood, cream, yolk, and chopped liver. Wines from Quincy and Sancerre in Cher and Reuilly in Indre are produced from Sauvignon vines and have a flinty taste.

  • Poulet, Georges (Belgian critic)

    Georges Poulet, Belgian writer, who was a major exponent of the nouvelle critique (“new criticism”) of French literature that developed after World War II. Poulet was educated at the University of Liège, where he received an LL.D. (1925) and a Ph.D. (1927). He served as professor of French at the

  • Poulin, Alfred A., Jr. (American poet)

    A.A. Poulin, Jr., U.S. poet who from 1971 taught at the State University of New York College at Brockport, where in 1976 he founded BOA Editions, one of the top independent U.S. publishers of contemporary poetry and often credited with advancing the careers of lesser-known poets (b. March 14,

  • Poulin, Jacques (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: La Guerre, Yes Sir!); and Jacques Poulin, whose early novels, set in the old city of Quebec, are comic visions of life (Mon cheval pour un royaume [1967], Jimmy [1969], and Le Coeur de la baleine bleue [1970]; translated into English under the title The Jimmy Trilogy). His novel Volkswagen…

  • Poullart des Places, Claude-François (French priest)

    Holy Ghost Father: …in 1703 at Paris by Claude-François Poullart des Places. Originally intended only for the training of seminarians, the congregation gradually took an active part in missionary work. Suppressed by the French Revolution, it was restored under Napoleon, but persecution kept it weak until 1848, when the Congregation of the Immaculate…

  • Poulo Condore Island (island, Vietnam)

    Con Son: Con Son Island, which is 13 miles (21 km) long and 5 miles (8 km) wide, is well wooded and has an indented coast. It has also been known as Penitentiary Island because it was used for political prisoners.

  • Poulo Condore Islands (island group, Vietnam)

    Con Son: The island group consists of 13 volcanic islands and islets about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of the Ca Mau Peninsula in the South China Sea. Con Son Island, which is 13 miles (21 km) long and 5 miles (8 km) wide, is well wooded and…

  • Poulsen family (Danish theatrical family)

    Poulsen family, famous Danish theatrical family. Emil Poulsen (b. July 9, 1842, Copenhagen, Den.—d. June 3, 1911, Helsinger) and Olaf Poulsen (b. April 26, 1849, Copenhagen, Den.—d. March 26, 1923, Fredensborg) made their acting debuts on the same night in 1867 at the Danish Royal Theatre. Olaf,

  • Poulsen, Emil (Danish actor)

    Poulsen family: Emil excelled in such serious roles as Macbeth and Shylock and gained equal prominence as a director. Emil’s sons Adam and Johannes Poulsen were successful actors, and another son, Olaf, was a professional ballet dancer, as was Johannes’s wife, Ulla.

  • Poulsen, Johannes (Danish actor)

    Johannes Poulsen, actor and director with the Royal Danish Theatre and perhaps the primary member of a famous theatrical family. Poulsen made his professional acting debut at the Dagmar Theatre in Copenhagen in 1901 with his older brother, the actor Adam Poulsen (1879–1969). Johannes joined the

  • Poulsen, Olaf (Danish actor)

    Poulsen family: Olaf, one of Denmark’s most popular comic actors, was critically acclaimed for his appearances in works by Ludvig Holberg and for a myriad of Shakespearean roles, including Falstaff, Bottom in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and Sir Toby in Twelfth Night. Emil excelled in such serious…

  • Poulsen, Valdemar (Danish engineer)

    Valdemar Poulsen, Danish engineer who in 1903 developed the first device for generating continuous radio waves, thus aiding the development of radio broadcasting. After his education Poulsen joined the Copenhagen Telephone Company as an assistant in the technical section. While working there, he

  • poulter’s measure (poetry)

    Poulter’s measure, a metre in which lines of 12 and 14 syllables alternate. Poulter is an obsolete variant of poulterer (poultry dealer); poulterers traditionally gave one or two extra eggs when selling by the

  • poulticing (art restoration)

    art conservation and restoration: Stone sculpture: …with water; in such instances, poulticing is an optional method that avoids prolonged submersion of the stone in water and yet maximizes desalination. Poulticing involves wetting the sculpture with water and then placing a clay or paper pulp-based material mixed with water on the surface. As the water is drawn…

  • poultry (agriculture)

    Poultry, in animal husbandry, birds raised commercially or domestically for meat, eggs, and feathers. Chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese are of primary commercial importance, while guinea fowl and squabs are chiefly of local interest. See also poultry

  • poultry farming

    Poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of primary importance, while guinea fowl and squabs (young pigeons) are chiefly of local interest. This article treats the principles and

  • poultry processing

    Poultry processing, preparation of meat from various types of fowl for consumption by humans. Poultry is a major source of consumable animal protein. For example, per capita consumption of poultry in the United States has more than quadrupled since the end of World War II, as the industry developed

  • POUM (political party, Spain)

    Spain: The Civil War: …Party of Marxist Unification (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; POUM), which rejected the Popular Front in favour of a workers’ government, set off a rebellion in Barcelona in May 1937. The communists, Republicans, and anti-Caballero socialists used this as an excuse to oust Largo Caballero, who proved insufficiently pliable…

  • pounce box (writing accessories)

    inkstand: …candlestick to hold small tapers), pounce box (for sprinkling pounce, a powdered gum that fixed ink to paper), wafer-box (to hold wafers used to seal letters), a penknife, and quills. The use of inkstands gradually disappeared after fountain pens were perfected early in the 20th century.

  • pouncet-box (metalwork)

    Pouncet-box, small silver box, the sides of which are “pounced,” or pierced, with holes, containing a sponge soaked in pungent vinegar to ward off diseases and offensive odours. The box was carried by English gentlemen from about the mid-16th to the early 17th century. See also pomander;

  • pound (money)

    Pound sterling, the basic monetary unit of Great Britain, divided (since 1971) decimally into 100 new pence. The term is derived from the fact that, about 775, silver coins known as “sterlings” were issued in the Saxon kingdoms, 240 of them being minted from a pound of silver, the weight of which

  • pound (unit of weight)

    Pound, unit of avoirdupois weight, equal to 16 ounces, 7,000 grains, or 0.45359237 kg, and of troy and apothecaries’ weight, equal to 12 ounces, 5,760 grains, or 0.3732417216 kg. The Roman ancestor of the modern pound, the libra, is the source of the abbreviation lb. In medieval England several

  • pound (telephone button)

    telephone: Push-button dialing: …bearing the star (*) and pound (#) symbols, to accommodate various data services and customer-controlled calling features. Each of the rows and columns is assigned a tone of a specific frequency, the columns having higher-frequency tones and the rows having tones of lower frequency. When a button is pushed, a…

  • pound avoirdupois (measurement)

    Imperial units: Early origins: …precious metals, and the pound avoirdupois, for other goods sold by weight.

  • pound cake

    baking: Foams and sponges: … and whole eggs, as in pound cakes, is an air-in-oil emulsion. Proteins and starch, scattered throughout the emulsion in a dispersed condition, gradually coalesce as the batter stands or is heated. Fats and oils, in addition to yolk lipids, can be added to such systems without causing complete collapse but…

  • pound lock (waterway)

    Lock, enclosure or basin located in the course of a canal or a river (or in the vicinity of a dock) with gates at each end, within which the water level may be varied to raise or lower boats. Where the required lift is of considerable height, a series of connected but isolable basins, or locks, is

  • pound net (fishing)

    commercial fishing: Traps: …or weirs, and the large pound nets. The oldest type may be the Italian tonnara, used in the Mediterranean for tuna from the Bosporus to the Atlantic. Very large pound nets are also used by the Japanese on the Pacific coast, by the Danes and their neighbours off the eastern…

  • Pound Quartzite (geology)

    Pound Quartzite, formation of Precambrian rocks (dating from 3.96 billion to 540 million years ago) in the region of Adelaide, South Australia. The Pound Quartzite consists of shales and siltstones, limestones, and quartzites; it is notable because from it a very early fossil assemblage, the

  • pound sterling (money)

    Pound sterling, the basic monetary unit of Great Britain, divided (since 1971) decimally into 100 new pence. The term is derived from the fact that, about 775, silver coins known as “sterlings” were issued in the Saxon kingdoms, 240 of them being minted from a pound of silver, the weight of which

  • Pound, Ezra (American poet)

    Ezra Pound, American poet and critic, a supremely discerning and energetic entrepreneur of the arts who did more than any other single figure to advance a “modern” movement in English and American literature. Pound promoted, and also occasionally helped to shape, the work of such widely different

  • Pound, Ezra Loomis (American poet)

    Ezra Pound, American poet and critic, a supremely discerning and energetic entrepreneur of the arts who did more than any other single figure to advance a “modern” movement in English and American literature. Pound promoted, and also occasionally helped to shape, the work of such widely different

  • Pound, Louise (American linguist)

    ballad: Theories: … (1844–1912) and the American linguist Louise Pound (1872–1958). They held that each ballad was the work of an individual composer, who was not necessarily a folk singer, tradition serving simply as the vehicle for the oral perpetuation of the creation. According to the widely accepted communal re-creation theory, put forward…

  • Pound, Robert V. (American physicist)

    Robert Vivian Pound, Canadian-born American physicist (born May 16, 1919, Ridgeway, Ont.—died April 12, 2010, Belmont, Mass.), confirmed a key prediction of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity when he and one of his Harvard University students, Glen A. Rebka, demonstrated in 1959 that

  • Pound, Robert Vivian (American physicist)

    Robert Vivian Pound, Canadian-born American physicist (born May 16, 1919, Ridgeway, Ont.—died April 12, 2010, Belmont, Mass.), confirmed a key prediction of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity when he and one of his Harvard University students, Glen A. Rebka, demonstrated in 1959 that

  • Pound, Roscoe (American jurist, botanist, and educator)

    Roscoe Pound, American jurist, botanist, and educator, chief advocate of “sociological jurisprudence” and a leader in the reform of court administration in the United States. After studying botany at the University of Nebraska and law at Harvard (1889–90), Pound was admitted to the Nebraska bar,

  • poundage (English history)

    Tonnage and poundage, customs duties granted since medieval times to the English crown by Parliament. Tonnage was a fixed subsidy on each tun (cask) of wine imported, and poundage was an ad valorem (proportional) tax on all imported and exported goods. Though of separate origin, they were granted

  • pounder (tool)

    hand tool: Hammers and hammerlike tools: …by other names, such as pounder, beetle, mallet, maul, pestle, sledge, and others. The best known of the tools that go by the name hammer is the carpenter’s claw type, but there are many others, such as riveting, boilermaker’s, bricklayer’s, blacksmith’s,

  • Poundmaker (Cree chief)

    Poundmaker, chief of the Cree people of the western plains of Canada who took part in the 1885 Riel Rebellion—an uprising of First Nations people and Métis (persons of mixed Native American and European ancestry)—against the Canadian government. When Sir John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, marquess

  • Poupard, Henri-Pierre (French composer)

    Henri Sauguet, French composer of orchestral, choral, and chamber music notable for its simple charm and melodic grace. While organist at a church near Bordeaux, Sauguet studied composition and, at the encouragement of Darius Milhaud, moved to Paris. There he became one of the four young Erik Satie

  • Pouplinière, Le Riche de la (French music patron)

    Jean-Philippe Rameau: …contact at this time was Le Riche de la Pouplinière, one of the wealthiest men in France and one of the greatest musical patrons of all time. Rameau was put in charge of La Pouplinière’s excellent private orchestra, a post he held for 22 years. He also taught the financier’s…

  • Pour le Mérite (Prussian honor)

    Pour le Mérite, distinguished Prussian order established by Frederick II the Great in 1740, which had a military class and a class for scientific and artistic achievement. This order superseded the Ordre de la Générosité (French: “Order of Generosity”) that was founded by Frederick I of Prussia in

  • pour point (petroleum oil)

    petroleum: Boiling and freezing points: However, the pour point—the temperature below which crude oil becomes plastic and will not flow—is important to recovery and transport and is always determined. Pour points range from 32 °C to below −57 °C (90 °F to below −70 °F).

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