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  • Pollicipes polymerus (barnacle)

    cirripede: Importance to humans: …species in the eastern Pacific, P. polymerus and P. elegans, from the northeastern and tropical eastern Pacific, respectively, are often imported as substitutes. Indians of the American Pacific Northwest consume the large sessile barnacle Balanus nubilus, and the inhabitants of Chile eat yet another large balanid species. In Japan barnacles…

  • pollicus (ancient unit of length)

    measurement system: Greeks and Romans: 73 inch); the inch (uncia or pollicus), or 112 Roman foot, was 24.67 mm (0.97 inch); and the palm (palmus), or 14 Roman foot, was 74 mm (2.91 inches).

  • Pollin, Abe (American entrepreneur)

    Washington Wizards: …kept until 1995, when owner Abe Pollin renamed the team the Washington Wizards because of the violent overtones of the word bullet.

  • pollinarium (plant)

    orchid: Characteristic morphological features: …and viscidium are called the pollinarium.

  • pollination (ecology)

    Pollination, transfer of pollen grains from the stamens, the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to the ovules (seed precursors) themselves. In plants such as conifers and cycads, in which the ovules are exposed, the pollen is simply caught in a drop of fluid secreted by

  • pollinator (ecology)

    Pollination, transfer of pollen grains from the stamens, the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to the ovules (seed precursors) themselves. In plants such as conifers and cycads, in which the ovules are exposed, the pollen is simply caught in a drop of fluid secreted by

  • polling

    Opinion poll, a method for collecting information about the views or beliefs of a given group. Information from an opinion poll can shed light on and potentially allow inferences to be drawn about certain attributes of a larger population. Opinion polls typically involve a sample of respondents,

  • polling (communications)

    telecommunications network: Scheduled access: …TDMA is the process of polling, in which a central controller asks each node in turn if it requires channel access, and a node transmits a packet or message only in response to its poll. “Smart” controllers can respond dynamically to nodes that suddenly become very busy by polling them…

  • Pollini, Maurizio (Italian pianist)

    Maurizio Pollini, Italian pianist. He made his debut at age nine and won the Warsaw Chopin Competition in 1960. He first played in the United States in 1968. His recordings and performances range from works by Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven to Karlheinz Stockhausen. In 2010 he

  • pollinia (plant anatomy)

    orchid: Characteristic morphological features: …substance (viscin) in masses called pollinia. Two basic kinds of pollinia exist: one has soft, mealy packets bound together to a viscin core by viscin threads and is called sectile; the other kind ranges from soft, mealy pollinia, through more compact masses, to hard, waxlike pollinia; the latter usually have…

  • pollinium (plant anatomy)

    orchid: Characteristic morphological features: …substance (viscin) in masses called pollinia. Two basic kinds of pollinia exist: one has soft, mealy packets bound together to a viscin core by viscin threads and is called sectile; the other kind ranges from soft, mealy pollinia, through more compact masses, to hard, waxlike pollinia; the latter usually have…

  • Pollino, Mount (mountains, Italy)

    Calabria: …the Apennine Range by the Mount Pollino massif (7,375 feet [2,248 m]), which is continued southward by the west coast range, which is in turn separated by the Crati River from the extensive La Sila massif (rising to 6,325 feet [1,928 m]). A narrow isthmus between the gulfs of Sant’Eufemia…

  • Pollio, Gaius Asinius (Roman historian and orator)

    Gaius Asinius Pollio, Roman orator, poet, and historian who wrote a contemporary history that, although lost, provided much of the material for Appian and Plutarch. Pollio moved in the literary circle of Catullus and entered public life in 56. In 54 he impeached unsuccessfully the tribune C. Cato,

  • Pollio, Marcus Vitruvius (Roman architect)

    Vitruvius, Roman architect, engineer, and author of the celebrated treatise De architectura (On Architecture), a handbook for Roman architects. Little is known of Vitruvius’ life, except what can be gathered from his writings, which are somewhat obscure on the subject. Although he nowhere i

  • Pollitt, Harry (British politician)

    Harry Pollitt, British Communist, general secretary (1929–39, 1941–56) and chairman (1956–60) of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). Pollitt’s father was a factory worker and trade unionist and his mother a weaver. At age 13 (1903) he left school to work in the local textile mill and

  • polliwog (zoology)

    Tadpole, aquatic larval stage of frogs and toads. Compared with the larvae of salamanders, tadpoles have short, oval bodies, with broad tails, small mouths, and no external gills. The internal gills are concealed by a covering known as an operculum. Most tadpoles are vegetarians, although those of

  • pollock (fish)

    Pollock, (Pollachius, or Gadus, virens), North Atlantic fish of the cod family, Gadidae. It is known as saithe, or coalfish, in Europe. The pollock is an elongated fish, deep green with a pale lateral line and a pale belly. It has a small chin barbel and, like the cod, has three dorsal and two

  • Pollock (film by Harris [2000])

    Ed Harris: …made his directorial debut with Pollock. His performance resulted in an Oscar nomination for best actor.

  • Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Company (law case)

    Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Company, (1895), U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court voided portions of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894 that imposed a direct tax on the incomes of American citizens and corporations, thus declaring the federal income tax unconstitutional. The decision

  • Pollock, Charles (American stockholder)

    Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company: Charles Pollock, a citizen of Massachusetts who owned 10 shares of the company’s stock, filed a lawsuit seeking to enjoin the company from carrying out its stated intention to comply with the act. He lost in the lower courts, but the Supreme Court ruled in…

  • Pollock, Jackson (American artist)

    Jackson Pollock, American painter who was a leading exponent of Abstract Expressionism, an art movement characterized by the free-associative gestures in paint sometimes referred to as “action painting.” During his lifetime he received widespread publicity and serious recognition for the radical

  • Pollock, Paul Jackson (American artist)

    Jackson Pollock, American painter who was a leading exponent of Abstract Expressionism, an art movement characterized by the free-associative gestures in paint sometimes referred to as “action painting.” During his lifetime he received widespread publicity and serious recognition for the radical

  • Pollock, Sir Frederick, 3rd Baronet (British scholar)

    Sir Frederick Pollock, 3rd Baronet, English legal scholar, noted for his History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I, 2 vol. (with F.W. Maitland, 1895), and for his correspondence over 60 years with U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. Pollock was called to the bar in 1871,

  • pollucite (mineral)

    cesium: …Earth’s crust in the minerals pollucite, rhodizite, and lepidolite. Pollucite (Cs4Al4Si9O26∙H2O) is a cesium-rich mineral resembling quartz. It contains 40.1 percent cesium on a pure basis, and impure samples are ordinarily separated by hand-sorting methods to greater than 25 percent cesium. Large pollucite deposits have been found in Zimbabwe and…

  • polluter-pays principle (law)

    environmental law: The polluter pays principle: Since the early 1970s the “polluter pays” principle has been a dominant concept in environmental law. Many economists claim that much environmental harm is caused by producers who “externalize” the costs of their activities. For example, factories that emit unfiltered exhaust into…

  • pollution (environment)

    Pollution, the addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually

  • pollution (religion)

    caste: Jatis: …living below the line of pollution. As for “untouchability,” this was declared unlawful in the Indian constitution framed after independence and adopted in 1949–50.

  • pollution control

    Pollution control, in environmental engineering, any of a variety of means employed to limit damage done to the environment by the discharge of harmful substances and energies. Specific means of pollution control might include refuse disposal systems such as sanitary landfills, emission control

  • Pollution Prevention Act (United States [1990])

    green chemistry: …under the auspices of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. This program marked a radical departure from previous EPA initiatives in emphasizing the reduction or elimination of the production of hazardous substances, as opposed to managing these chemicals after they were manufactured and released into the environment. This research program…

  • Pollux (star)

    Pollux, brightest star in the zodiacal constellation Gemini. A reddish giant star, it has an apparent visual magnitude of 1.15. The stars Castor and Pollux are named for the mythological twins. Pollux is 33.7 light-years from Earth. In 2006 a planet, Pollux b, was discovered. Pollux b has nearly

  • Pollux b (extrasolar planet)

    Pollux: In 2006 a planet, Pollux b, was discovered. Pollux b has nearly three times the mass of Jupiter, orbits Pollux every 590 days, and is at an average distance of 253 million km (157 million miles).

  • Pollux, Julius (Greek scholar and rhetorician)

    Julius Pollux, Greek scholar and rhetorician. The emperor Commodus appointed him to a chair of rhetoric in Athens. He wrote an Onomasticon, a Greek thesaurus of terms. The 10-volume work, which has survived incomplete, contains rhetorical material and technical terms relating to a wide variety of

  • Polly (cloned sheep)

    pharming: …generated another pharmed sheep named Polly, a Poll Dorset clone made from nuclear transfer using a fetal fibroblast nucleus genetically engineered to express a human gene known as FIX. This gene encodes a substance called human factor IX, a clotting factor that occurs naturally in most people but that is…

  • Polly (work by Gay)

    John Gay: The production of its sequel, Polly, was forbidden by the lord chamberlain (doubtless on Walpole’s instructions); but the ban was an excellent advertisement for the piece, and subscriptions for copies of the printed edition made more than £1,000 profit for the author. (It was eventually produced in 1777, when it…

  • Pollyanna (novel by Porter)

    Pollyanna: of Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s novel Pollyanna (1913).

  • Pollyanna (fictional character)

    Pollyanna, fictional character, the orphaned but ever-optimistic heroine of Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s novel Pollyanna

  • Pollyanna (film by Powell [1920])

    Mary Pickford: Pickford’s popularity continued unabated in Pollyanna (1920), Little Lord Fauntleroy (1921), Little Annie Rooney (1925), My Best Girl (1927), Coquette (1929; her first talking picture), The Taming of the Shrew (1929; her only film with Fairbanks), and Kiki (1931). Although she won an Academy Award for best actress for her…

  • pollywog (zoology)

    Tadpole, aquatic larval stage of frogs and toads. Compared with the larvae of salamanders, tadpoles have short, oval bodies, with broad tails, small mouths, and no external gills. The internal gills are concealed by a covering known as an operculum. Most tadpoles are vegetarians, although those of

  • polnische Geige (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The violin family: …violin may have been the polnische Geige (Polish fiddle), mentioned as early as 1545 by German composer and teacher Martin Agricola and later by German composer and theorist Michael Praetorius.

  • Polnoye sobraniye sochineny (work by Lomonosov)

    Mikhail Lomonosov: The publication of his Polnoye sobraniye sochineny (“Complete Works”) in 1950–83 by Soviet scholars has revealed the full contributions of Lomonosov, who has long been misunderstood by historians of science.

  • polo (sport)

    Polo, game played on horseback between two teams of four players each who use mallets with long, flexible handles to drive a wooden ball down a grass field and between two goal posts. It is the oldest of equestrian sports. A game of Central Asian origin, polo was first played in Persia (Iran) at

  • polo pony

    polo: Polo ponies.: Restrictions on size were removed after World War I, and the term pony is purely traditional. The mount is a full-sized horse and should have docility, speed, endurance, and intelligence. The pony is judged to be 60 to 75 percent of a player’s…

  • Polo y Martínez Valdés de Franco, Carmen (Spanish consort)

    Carmen Polo de Franco, Spanish consort who was thought to be the force behind many of the religious and social strictures imposed on Spain during the repressive regime of her husband, Francisco Franco (1939–75). She was born into a middle-class provincial family and had a strict Roman Catholic

  • Polo, Maffeo (Italian explorer)

    Marco Polo: Polo’s journey to Asia: Niccolò and Maffeo remained in Venice anticipating the election of a new pope, but in 1271, after two years of waiting, they departed with Marco for the Mongol court. In Acre (now ʿAkko, Israel) the papal legate, Teobaldo of Piacenza, gave them letters for the Mongol emperor.…

  • Polo, Marco (Italian explorer)

    Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and adventurer who traveled from Europe to Asia in 1271–95, remaining in China for 17 of those years, and whose Il milione (“The Million”), known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo, is a classic of travel literature. Polo’s way was paved by the pioneering efforts

  • Polo, Niccolò (Italian explorer)

    Marco Polo: Polo’s journey to Asia: Niccolò and Maffeo remained in Venice anticipating the election of a new pope, but in 1271, after two years of waiting, they departed with Marco for the Mongol court. In Acre (now ʿAkko, Israel) the papal legate, Teobaldo of Piacenza, gave them letters for the…

  • Polochic River (river, Guatemala)

    Polochic River, river in eastern Guatemala. Its major headstreams arise in the Chamá and Minas mountain ranges. Flowing eastward for 150 miles (240 km), it forms a delta in Lake Izabal, south of the town of El Estor. The Polochic is navigable as far upstream as Panzós; its principal cargo traffic

  • polocrosse (sport)

    Polocrosse, equestrian team sport that combines the disparate sports of polo and lacrosse. Polocrosse riders use a lacrosselike stick (racquet) with a netted head for carrying, catching, bouncing, and throwing an approximately four-inch (10-cm) rubber ball. The objective is to score goals by

  • poloidal field (physics)

    fusion reactor: Toroidal confinement: …the torus, and (2) a poloidal component directed the short way around the machine. Both components are necessary for the plasma to be in stable equilibrium. If the poloidal field were zero, so that the field lines were simply circles wrapped about the torus, then the plasma would not be…

  • Polokwane (South Africa)

    Polokwane, city, capital of Limpopo province, South Africa. It is located about midway between Pretoria and the Zimbabwe border, at an elevation of 4,199 feet (1,280 metres). It was founded by Voortrekkers (Afrikaans: “Pioneers”) in 1886 on land purchased in 1884 from a local farmer and named

  • Polomnik, Daniil (Russian author)

    Daniel Of Kiev, the earliest known Russian travel writer, whose account of his pilgrimage to the Holy Land is the earliest surviving record in Russian of such a trip. Abbot of a Russian monastery, he visited Palestine probably during 1106–07. His narrative begins at Constantinople; from there he

  • polonaise (dance)

    Polonaise, in dance, dignified ceremonial dance that from the 17th to 19th century often opened court balls and other royal functions. Likely once a warrior’s triumphal dance, it was adopted by the Polish nobility as a formal march as early as 1573 for the coronation of Henry of Anjou as king of

  • polonaise (dress)

    Polonaise, in clothing, a coatlike dress, originally worn by Polish women, that was extremely popular in the 1770s and 1780s in western Europe and North America. It consisted of a fitted bodice with a full skirt, draped in front from the waist and caught up on either side at the back, so that it f

  • Polonaise carpet (carpet)

    Polonaise carpet, any of various handwoven floor coverings with pile of silk, made in Eṣfahān and other weaving centres of Persia in the late 16th and 17th centuries, at first for court use and then commercially. Because the first examples of this type to be exhibited publicly in Europe in the 19th

  • Polonaise in G Minor (work by Chopin)

    Frédéric Chopin: Life: At seven he wrote a Polonaise in G Minor, which was printed, and soon afterward a march of his appealed to the Russian grand duke Constantine, who had it scored for his military band to play on parade. Other polonaises, mazurkas, variations, ecossaises, and a rondo followed, with the result…

  • polonese (dress)

    Polonaise, in clothing, a coatlike dress, originally worn by Polish women, that was extremely popular in the 1770s and 1780s in western Europe and North America. It consisted of a fitted bodice with a full skirt, draped in front from the waist and caught up on either side at the back, so that it f

  • polonez (dance)

    Polonaise, in dance, dignified ceremonial dance that from the 17th to 19th century often opened court balls and other royal functions. Likely once a warrior’s triumphal dance, it was adopted by the Polish nobility as a formal march as early as 1573 for the coronation of Henry of Anjou as king of

  • polonium (chemical element)

    Polonium (Po), a radioactive, silvery-gray or black metallic element of the oxygen group (Group 16 [VIa] in the periodic table). The first element to be discovered by radiochemical analysis, polonium was discovered in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie, who were investigating the radioactivity of a

  • polonium-210 (chemical isotope)

    alpha decay: Thus polonium-210 (mass number 210 and atomic number 84, i.e., a nucleus with 84 protons) decays by alpha emission to lead-206 (atomic number 82).

  • Polonius (fictional character)

    Polonius, fictional character, councillor to King Claudius and the father of Ophelia and Laertes in William Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet (written c. 1599–1601). He is especially known for his maxim-filled speech (“Neither a borrower nor a lender be”). His meddling garrulousness eventually costs him

  • Polonization (social policy)

    Ukraine: Social changes: …century became increasingly prone to Polonization, a process often initiated by education in Jesuit schools and conversion to Roman Catholicism.

  • Polonnaruva (Sri Lanka)

    Polonnaruwa, town, north-central Sri Lanka (Ceylon), near the Mahaweli River. It is an ancient capital that was long deserted but has been revived in modern times. Polonnaruwa (Polonnaruva) became the residence of Sri Lanka’s kings in 368 ce and succeeded Anuradhapura as the capital in the 8th

  • Polonnaruwa (Sri Lanka)

    Polonnaruwa, town, north-central Sri Lanka (Ceylon), near the Mahaweli River. It is an ancient capital that was long deserted but has been revived in modern times. Polonnaruwa (Polonnaruva) became the residence of Sri Lanka’s kings in 368 ce and succeeded Anuradhapura as the capital in the 8th

  • Polotsk (Belarus)

    Polatsk, city, Vitsyebsk oblast (region), Belarus. It is situated on the Western Dvina River at its confluence with the Polota. Polatsk, first mentioned in 862, has always been a major trading centre and an important fortress with a remarkably stormy history. Modern Polatsk and its satellite town,

  • Polotski, Simeon (Belarusian writer and theologian)

    Fyodor III: …in Polish and Latin by Simeon Polotsky, a noted theologian who had studied in Kiev and Poland. When Alexis died, Fyodor ascended the throne (Jan. 19 [Jan. 29], 1676), but his youth and poor health prevented him from actively participating in the conduct of government affairs. His uncle Ivan B.…

  • Polotsky, Simeon (Belarusian writer and theologian)

    Fyodor III: …in Polish and Latin by Simeon Polotsky, a noted theologian who had studied in Kiev and Poland. When Alexis died, Fyodor ascended the throne (Jan. 19 [Jan. 29], 1676), but his youth and poor health prevented him from actively participating in the conduct of government affairs. His uncle Ivan B.…

  • Polovtsian Dances (work by Borodin)

    Aleksandr Borodin: …Prince Igor contains the often-played “Polovtsian Dances.” He also found time to write two string quartets, a dozen remarkable songs, the unfinished Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, and his tone poem In the Steppes of Central Asia.

  • Polovtsy (people)

    Kipchak, a loosely organized Turkic tribal confederation that by the mid-11th century occupied a vast, sprawling territory in the Eurasian steppe, stretching from north of the Aral Sea westward to the region north of the Black Sea. Some tribes of the Kipchak confederation probably originated near

  • Polowsky, Ernestine Louise (American social reformer)

    Ernestine Rose, Polish-born American reformer and suffragist, an active figure in the 19th-century women’s rights, antislavery, and temperance movements. Born in the Polish ghetto to the town rabbi and his wife, Ernestine Potowski received a better education and more freedom than was typical for

  • Polozheniya o Krestyanakh Vykhodyashchikh iz Krepostnoy Zavisimosty (Russian history)

    Emancipation Manifesto: (The acts were collectively called Statutes Concerning Peasants Leaving Serf Dependence, or Polozheniya o Krestyanakh Vykhodyashchikh iz Krepostnoy Zavisimosty.)

  • Polperro (port, England, United Kingdom)

    Cornwall: Ives, Newquay, and Polperro—are busy resorts. Cornwall is a favourite county for second homes and retirement, which, together, are causing basic changes in the social structure of rural areas. Many coastal towns—notably Falmouth, Penzance, and Fowey—are active ports.

  • pols (dance)

    polska: …19th-century offshoot of the gammal polska. The Norwegian dance analogous to the Swedish polska is the pols.

  • Polska

    Poland, country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries,

  • polska (dance)

    Polska, (Swedish: Polish), Scandinavian folk dance originating in the 16th century, possibly influenced by Polish courtly dances. Polska in Finland refers nonspecifically to many dances in 34 time, both for individual couples and for sets of several couples. In Sweden the polska is a turning dance

  • Polska Akademia Nauk (academy, Poland)

    Warsaw: Education: …of the headquarters of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which coordinates research in both physical and social sciences through a number of institutes and industrial establishments. The Technical University of Warsaw and the University of Warsaw are notable institutions. Major libraries include the library (established in 1817) of the University…

  • Polska Partia Robotnicza (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Political process: …Poland was governed by the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza), the country’s communist party, which was modeled on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The postwar government was run as a dual system in which state organs were controlled by parallel organs of the PUWP.…

  • Polska Rzeczpospolita

    Poland, country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries,

  • Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa

    Poland, country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries,

  • Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Political process: …Poland was governed by the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza), the country’s communist party, which was modeled on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The postwar government was run as a dual system in which state organs were controlled by parallel organs of the PUWP.…

  • Polskie Koleje Państwowe (government agency, Poland)

    Poland: Railways: The railways, administered by the Polish State Railways (Polskie Koleje Państwowe), began the process of privatization in the early 21st century. Light rail is available to commuters in more than a dozen cities.

  • Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (political party, Poland)

    Władysław Gomułka: …the struggle to crush the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), and he was a strong advocate of the merger, on communist terms, of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) and the PPR. At the same time, however, he came out against forcible collectivization of agriculture and spoke favourably of the socialist tradition.…

  • Poltava (Ukraine)

    Poltava, city, east-central Ukraine. It lies along the Vorskla River. Archaeological evidence dates the city from the 8th to the 9th century, although the first documentary reference is from 1174, when it was variously known as Oltava or Ltava. Destroyed by the Tatars in the early 13th century, it

  • Poltava, Battle of (European history [1709])

    Battle of Poltava, (8 July 1709), the decisive victory of Peter I the Great of Russia over Charles XII of Sweden in the Great Northern War. The battle ended Sweden’s status as a major power and marked the beginning of Russian supremacy in eastern Europe. In spite of his previous success against the

  • poltergeist (occultism)

    Poltergeist, (from German Polter, “noise” or “racket”; Geist, “spirit”), in occultism, a disembodied spirit or supernatural force credited with certain malicious or disturbing phenomena, such as inexplicable noises, sudden wild movements, or breakage of household items. Poltergeists are also blamed

  • Poltoratsk (national capital, Turkmenistan)

    Ashgabat, city and capital of Turkmenistan. It lies in an oasis at the northern foot of the Kopet-Dag (Turkmen: Köpetdag) Range and on the edge of the Karakum (Turkmen: Garagum) Desert, about 19 miles (30 km) from the Iranian frontier. It was founded in 1881 as a Russian military fort and took the

  • poludnitsa (Slavic mythology)

    Poludnitsa, in Slavic mythology, female field spirit, generally seen either as a tall woman or a girl dressed in white. The poludnitsa customarily appears in the field at noon, when the workers are resting from their labours. Any human who dares upset her traditional visit risks his health and his

  • Poluostrov Kamchatka (peninsula, Russia)

    Kamchatka Peninsula, peninsula in far eastern Russia, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk on the west and the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea on the east. It is about 750 miles (1,200 km) long north-south and about 300 miles (480 km) across at its widest; its area is approximately 140,000 square miles

  • Poluostrov Kanin (peninsula, Russia)

    Kanin Peninsula, peninsula in Arkhangelsk oblast (province), northwestern Russia. It separates the White Sea to the west from the Cheshskaya Guba (Bay), a gulf of the Barents Sea, to the east. It has an area of about 4,000 sq mi (10,500 sq km). Except in the north, where the Kanin Kamen runs n

  • Poluostrov Rybachy (peninsula, Russia)

    Rybachy Peninsula, peninsula in the northwestern part of the Murmansk oblast (province), northwestern Russia, jutting into the Barents Sea. Its most northerly point is Cape Nemetsky. Geologically, the peninsula is strikingly different from the rest of the Kola Peninsula, from which it is separated

  • Poluostrov Yamal (peninsula, Russia)

    Yamal Peninsula, Arctic lowland region in northwestern Siberia, west-central Russia. It is bounded on the west by the Kara Sea and Baydarata Bay, on the east and southeast by the Gulf of Ob, and on the north by the Malygina Strait. The peninsula has a total length of 435 miles (700 km), a maximum

  • Polus (Greek actor)

    directing: 19th-century directing: …speech by an actor named Polus. It is a reasonable assumption that, from the beginning of the existence of an acting profession, it became customary for the most experienced performers to give advice and instruction to their less experienced colleagues: actors are seldom as confident as their performances can suggest,…

  • Poluy (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …after the confluence of the Poluy (from the right) the river branches out again to form a delta, the two principal arms of which are the Khamanelsk Ob, which receives the Shchuchya from the left, and the Nadym Ob, which is the more considerable of the pair. At the base…

  • Polwarth, Lord (Scottish politician)

    Sir Patrick Hume, 2nd Baronet, Scottish Protestant opponent of James II, who was involved in the rebellion of the duke of Monmouth and the invasion of William of Orange. As a member of the Scottish Parliament in 1665, he was active in opposing the harsh policy of the earl of Lauderdale toward the

  • Poly Styrene (British musician)

    Poly Styrene, (Marianne Joan Elliot-Said), British musician (born July 3, 1957, Bromley, Kent, Eng.—died April 25, 2011, St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, Eng.), was a punk rock pioneer whose raw, intense vocals and colourful, subversive stage costumes inspired a generation of women in rock music.

  • poly-2-hydroxy butyrate (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Degradable polyesters: acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly-2-hydroxy butyrate (PHB), and polycaprolactone (PCL), as well as their copolymers:

  • poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (chemical compound)

    PolyHEMA, a soft, flexible, water-absorbing plastic used to make soft contact lenses. It is a polymer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), a clear liquid compound obtained by reacting methacrylic acid (CH2=C[CH3]CO2H) with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide. HEMA can be shaped into a contact lens

  • poly-4-hydroxybenzoate (chemical compound)

    polyarylate: Poly-4-hydroxybenzoate, a highly crystalline polymer consisting solely of aromatic rings linked by ester groups, does not soften below approximately 315 °C (600 °F). Blends of the latter resin with polytetrafluoroethylene, sold under the Ekonol trademark, are employed as self-lubricating bearings, O-ring seals, and pump vanes.

  • Poly-Olbion (work by Drayton)

    Michael Drayton: …of his most ambitious work, Poly-Olbion (1612), in which he intended to record comprehensively the Elizabethan discovery of England: the beauty of the countryside, the romantic fascination of ruined abbeys, its history, legend, and present life. He produced a second part in 1622. Written in alexandrines (12-syllable lines), Poly-Olbion is…

  • poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide (chemical compound)

    Kevlar, trademarked name of poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide, a nylonlike polymer first produced by Du Pont in 1971. Kevlar can be made into strong, tough, stiff, high-melting fibres, five times stronger per weight than steel; it is used in radial tires, heat- or flame-resistant fabrics,

  • Polya’s theorem (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Polya’s theorem: It is required to make a necklace of n beads out of an infinite supply of beads of k different colours. The number of different necklaces, c (n, k), that can be made is given by the reciprocal of n times a sum…

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