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  • political spin (politics)

    Political spin, in politics, the attempt to control or influence communication in order to deliver one’s preferred message. Spin is a pejorative term often used in the context of public relations practitioners and political communicators. It is used to refer to the sophisticated selling of a

  • political succession

    ancient Iran: The Middle Elamite period: …period the old system of succession to, and distribution of, power appears to have broken down. Increasingly, son succeeded father, and less is heard of divided authority within a federated system. This probably reflects an effort to increase the central authority at Susa in order to conduct effective military campaigns…

  • political system

    Political system, the set of formal legal institutions that constitute a “government” or a “state.” This is the definition adopted by many studies of the legal or constitutional arrangements of advanced political orders. More broadly defined, however, the term comprehends actual as well as

  • Political System, The (work by Easton)

    political science: Systems analysis: …employing the approach, David Easton’s The Political System (1953), conceived the political system as integrating all activities through which social policy is formulated and executed—that is, the political system is the policy-making process. Easton defined political behaviour as the “authoritative allocation of values,” or the distribution of rewards in wealth,…

  • Political Theology (work by Schmitt)

    Carl Schmitt: In Political Theology (1922) and Roman Catholicism and Political Form (1923), he insisted that transcendental, extrarational, and supramaterial sources are necessary to ground moral-political authority. He also held that Russian anarchism and communism represented a general revolt against authority that would destroy Europe and irrevocably degrade…

  • Political Theories of the Middle Age (work by Maitland)

    Otto Friedrich von Gierke: …English jurist Frederic William Maitland’s Political Theories of the Middle Age (1900) was a partial translation of Gierke’s longest work, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht, 4 vol. (1868–1913; “The German Law of Associations”).

  • political theory (political science)

    mirror for princes: …Renaissance theories of politics and political theory and thus for modern political science.

  • Political Theory: Foundations of Twentieth-Century Thought (work by Brecht)

    Arnold Brecht: In Political Theory (1959) he distinguished scientific from nonscientific theory. Brecht clarified the doctrine (known as standard value relativism) that ultimate values cannot be validated by science, since the value of particular goals and purposes cannot be set scientifically without knowing their relation to other goals…

  • political treaty (international relations)

    treaty: …their object, as follows: (1) political treaties, including peace treaties, alliances, territorial cessions, and disarmament treaties; (2) commercial treaties, including tariff, consular, fishery, and navigation agreements; (3) constitutional and administrative treaties, such as the conventions establishing and regulating international unions, organizations, and specialized agencies; (4) treaties relating to criminal justice,…

  • political unionism (labour movement)

    organized labour: Characteristics of the continental labour movement: …but to define themselves as political movements—at least until conditions for independent, economic unionism had been created—and in fact they typically started out as industrial arms of political parties, usually socialist or Roman Catholic. Where political unionism was of the Roman Catholic kind, it aimed at establishing an autonomous space…

  • political warning system (military science)

    warning system: Long-term, or political, warning systems employ diplomatic, political, technological, and economic indicators to forecast hostilities. The defender may react by strengthening defenses, by negotiating treaties or concessions, or by taking other action. Political warning, equivocal and incapable of disclosing fully an attacker’s intention, often results…

  • political Zionism

    Theodor Herzl: …Edlach, Austria), founder of the political form of Zionism, a movement to establish a Jewish homeland. His pamphlet The Jewish State (1896) proposed that the Jewish question was a political question to be settled by a world council of nations. He organized a world congress of Zionists that met in…

  • Politically Incorrect (American television program)

    Bill Maher: …debut of his own show, Politically Incorrect, in 1993.

  • Politician, The (American television series)

    Jessica Lange: …grandmother in the Netflix series The Politician.

  • Politicorum sive civilis doctrinae libri sex (work by Lipsius)

    Stoicism: Revival of Stoicism in modern times: …civilis doctrinae libri sex (1589; Six Books of Politics or Political Instruction) were widely known in many editions and translations. His defense of Stoic doctrine in Manuductio ad Stoicam Philosophiam (1604; Digest of Stoic Philosophy) and Physiologia Stoicorum (1604; Physics of the Stoics) provided the basis for the considerable Stoic…

  • Politics (work by Aristotle)

    Philip II: Last years: In his Politics a few years later he used this incident as an example of a monarch murdered for private and personal motives—which would have been a puerile indiscretion if either he or the world in general had ever taken the canard seriously.

  • Politics (American magazine)

    Dwight Macdonald: …II to found the magazine Politics. It featured the work of such figures as André Gide, Albert Camus, and Marianne Moore. Macdonald, one of the first serious film critics, was a staff writer for The New Yorker (1951–71) and reviewed films for Esquire magazine (1960–66). Politically, he moved from Stalinism…

  • Politics Among Nations (work by Morgenthau)

    Hans Morgenthau: In 1948 Morgenthau published Politics Among Nations, a highly regarded study that presented what became commonly known as the classical realist approach to international politics. In this work, Morgenthau maintained that politics is governed by distinct immutable laws of nature and that states could deduce rational and objectively correct…

  • Politics and Administration (work by Goodnow)

    Frank J. Goodnow: In his most noted work, Politics and Administration (1900), he showed how the popular will is articulated from administration, in which expertise and hierarchy work to fulfill that will. The book influenced U.S. public administration for a half century and contributed to bureaucratic reform.

  • Politics of Disablement: A Sociological Approach (work by Oliver)

    disability studies: …into academia with his book Politics of Disablement: A Sociological Approach (1990), in which he analyzed how a social issue such as disability gets cast as an individual medicalized phenomenon.

  • Politics of Parenthood: Child Care, Women’s Rights, and the Myth of the Good Mother, The (work by Berry)

    Mary Frances Berry: …Experience in America (1982); and The Politics of Parenthood: Child Care, Women’s Rights, and the Myth of the Good Mother (1993), which put forth the thesis that in order for women to work, men must take on a larger share of child care. Among her later books were The Pig…

  • Politics of Recognition, The (essay by Taylor)

    Charles Taylor: Religion and secularity: …of his well-known essays, “The Politics of Recognition” (1992), Taylor tried to provide a deeper philosophical explanation of why groups within Western societies were increasingly making claims for public acknowledgment of their particular identities, be this on the basis of gender, race, or ethnicity.

  • Politics of the Developing Areas, The (work by Almond)

    Gabriel Abraham Almond: …The Appeals of Communism (1954), The Politics of the Developing Areas (1960; written with others and edited by Almond), Political Development (1970), and Plutocracy and Politics in New York City (1998). He also wrote, with others, Comparative Politics: System, Process, Policy (1978), The Civic Culture Revisited (1980), and Progress and…

  • Politics, Trials and Errors (book by Hankey)

    Maurice Pascal Alers Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey: In his Politics, Trials and Errors (1949) he opposed the war-crimes trials after World War II, especially those in Tokyo.

  • Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (work by Lasswell)

    Harold Lasswell: In Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (1936)—a work whose title later served as the standard lay definition of politics—he viewed the elite as the primary holders of power, but in Power and Society: A Framework for Political Inquiry (1950), written with Abraham Kaplan, the discussion…

  • Politicus (work by Plato)

    Plato: Late dialogues: …of the Sophist and the Statesman, to be treated by genus-species division, are important roles in the Greek city; and the Philebus is a consideration of the competing claims of pleasure and knowledge to be the basis of the good life. (The Laws, left unfinished at Plato’s death, seems to…

  • Politika (Serbian newspaper)

    Serbia: Media and publishing: Politika, founded in 1904, is considered the most authoritative of the republic’s dailies. Among weekly magazines the most popular is Nedeljne Informativne Novine, better known as NIN. Semimonthly and monthly journals and other serials are published in the republic. Book publishing also is active, with…

  • Politika ili razgovor ob vladatelystvu (work by Križanić)

    Juraj Križanić: …Slavs through linguistic unity, and Politika ili razgovor ob vladatelystvu (“Politics; or, a Discourse on Government”), which criticizes the Muscovite government, outlines reforms based on education and on certain elements of Western culture, and advocates the union of all Slavs under the improved Russian state.

  • Politique tirée des propres paroles de l’Écriture sainte (work by Bossuet)

    Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet: Lenten sermons and funeral orations.: His major political work, the Politique tirée des propres paroles de l’Écriture sainte (“Statecraft Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scriptures”)—which uses the Bible as evidence of divine authority for the power of kings—earned Bossuet his reputation as a great theoretician of royal absolutism. In the Politique he…

  • Politiques (French religious group)

    France: Political ideology: …of the emergence of the Politique Party after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day. In the opinion of this moderate Catholic group, toleration should be granted to the Huguenots for the sake of peace and national unity. The Politiques were the spiritual heirs of the chancellor L’Hospital and represented an…

  • Politis, Kosmas (Greek writer)

    Greek literature: Literature after 1922: …1920s; and Eroica (1937) by Kosmás Polítis, about the first encounter of a group of well-to-do schoolboys with love and death.

  • Politis, Nikolaos Sokrates (Greek jurist and diplomat)

    Nikolaos Sokrates Politis, Greek jurist and diplomat, a champion of disarmament and the peaceful settlement of disputes. He was president of the Institute of International Law (1937–42) and was largely responsible for the founding of the Academy of International Law at The Hague. After holding law

  • Politkovskaya, Anna (Russian journalist)

    Anna Politkovskaya, (Anna Stepanovna Mazepa), Russian investigative journalist (born Aug. 30, 1958, New York, N.Y.—died Oct. 7, 2006, Moscow, Russia), denounced the government of Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin for corruption and human rights abuses, particularly in regard to alleged atrocities c

  • polity (political unit)

    election: Functions of elections: …confirm the viability of the polity. As a result, elections help to facilitate social and political integration.

  • Politzer, H. David (American physicist)

    H. David Politzer , American physicist who, with David J. Gross and Frank Wilczek, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2004 for discoveries regarding the strong force—the nuclear force that binds together quarks (the smallest building blocks of matter) and holds together the nucleus of the

  • Politzer, Hugh David (American physicist)

    H. David Politzer , American physicist who, with David J. Gross and Frank Wilczek, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2004 for discoveries regarding the strong force—the nuclear force that binds together quarks (the smallest building blocks of matter) and holds together the nucleus of the

  • Poliuto (opera by Donizetti)

    Gaetano Donizetti: Success in Paris.: …to the production of his Poliuto, which dealt with a Christian martyr, on the ground that the sacred subject was unsuitable for the stage. He thereupon returned to Paris, where the field had been cleared for him by Bellini’s early death and Rossini’s retirement. There he revived some of his…

  • Polivanov, Aleksey Andreyevich (Russian general)

    Aleksey Andreyevich Polivanov, general in the imperial Russian army who, during World War I, was appointed minister of war in 1915 to revitalize the sagging Russian war effort. A capable administrator of liberal sympathies, he was dismissed after less than a year. Having fought in the Russo-Turkish

  • Polixenes (fictional character)

    The Winter's Tale: …Sicilia, entertaining his old friend Polixenes, the king of Bohemia. Leontes jealously mistakes the courtesy between his wife, Hermione, and Polixenes as a sign of Hermione’s adultery with him. In a fit of jealousy, he attempts to have Polixenes killed, but Polixenes escapes with Camillo, Leontes’ faithful counselor, whom Leontes…

  • Polizia de Stato (Italian police)

    Italy: Security: …Italy with general duties: the Polizia de Stato (“State Police”), which is under the authority of the minister of the interior, and the Carabinieri, a corps of the armed forces that reports to both the minister of the interior and the minister of defense. The functions of the police are…

  • Poliziano (Italian poet and humanist)

    Poliziano, Italian poet and humanist, a friend and protégé of Lorenzo de’ Medici, and one of the foremost classical scholars of the Renaissance. He was equally fluent in Greek, Italian, and Latin and was equally talented in poetry, philosophy, and philology. The murder of Poliziano’s father in May

  • polje (geology)

    Polje, (Serbo-Croatian: “field”), elongated basin having a flat floor and steep walls; it is formed by the coalescence of several sinkholes. The basins often cover 250 square km (about 100 square miles) and may expose “disappearing streams.” Most such basins have steep enclosing walls that range

  • Polk, James K. (president of United States)

    James K. Polk, 11th president of the United States (1845–49). Under his leadership the United States fought the Mexican War (1846–48) and acquired vast territories along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest. Polk was the eldest child of Samuel and Jane Knox Polk. At age 11 he moved with his

  • Polk, James Knox (president of United States)

    James K. Polk, 11th president of the United States (1845–49). Under his leadership the United States fought the Mexican War (1846–48) and acquired vast territories along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest. Polk was the eldest child of Samuel and Jane Knox Polk. At age 11 he moved with his

  • Polk, Leonidas (Confederate general and clergyman)

    Leonidas Polk, U.S. bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, founder of the University of the South, and lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the U.S. Civil War. After two years at the University of North Carolina (1821–23), Polk entered the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, from

  • Polk, Sarah (American first lady)

    Sarah Polk, American first lady (1845–49), the wife of James K. Polk, 11th president of the United States. Compared with most other first ladies of the 19th century, she was deeply involved in her husband’s career and, through him, exerted considerable influence on public affairs and politics.

  • polka (dance)

    Polka, lively courtship dance of Bohemian folk origin. It is characterized by three quick steps and a hop and is danced to music in 24 time. The couples cover much space as they circle about the dance floor. Introduced in Paris in about 1843, it became extraordinarily popular in ballrooms and on

  • Polke, Sigmar (German artist)

    Sigmar Polke, German artist whose complex and layered paintings played an important role in the resurgence of modern German art. Polke emigrated with his family from East Germany to West Germany in 1953, settling in Düsseldorf, where he studied at the Staatliche Kunstakademie from 1961 to 1967. His

  • Polkinghorne, John (English physicist and priest)

    John Polkinghorne, English physicist and priest who publicly championed the reconciliation of science and religion. Polkinghorne was raised in a quietly devout Church of England family. His mathematical ability was evident as a youngster. He earned a bachelor’s degree in mathematics (1952) as well

  • Polkinghorne, John Charlton (English physicist and priest)

    John Polkinghorne, English physicist and priest who publicly championed the reconciliation of science and religion. Polkinghorne was raised in a quietly devout Church of England family. His mathematical ability was evident as a youngster. He earned a bachelor’s degree in mathematics (1952) as well

  • Poll (work by Demand)

    Thomas Demand: Poll (2001) makes reference to the disputed ballot count in the 2000 U.S. presidential election. Kitchen (2004) reconstructs the kitchen in the hideout of Ṣaddām Ḥussein, former president of Iraq, before his 2003 capture.

  • poll

    Opinion poll, a method for collecting information about the views or beliefs of a given group. Information from an opinion poll can shed light on and potentially allow inferences to be drawn about certain attributes of a larger population. Opinion polls typically involve a sample of respondents,

  • poll tax

    Poll tax, in English history, a tax of a uniform amount levied on each individual, or “head.” Of the poll taxes in English history, the most famous was the one levied in 1380, a main cause of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler. In the United States, most discussion of the poll tax has

  • polla (philosophy)

    Eleaticism: The paradoxes of Zeno: …the pluralistic presupposition of the polla (the multiple beings of daily experience) were far more severe than those that seemed to be produced by the Parmenidean reduction of all reality to the single and universal Being.

  • Pollachius virens (fish)

    Pollock, (Pollachius, or Gadus, virens), North Atlantic fish of the cod family, Gadidae. It is known as saithe, or coalfish, in Europe. The pollock is an elongated fish, deep green with a pale lateral line and a pale belly. It has a small chin barbel and, like the cod, has three dorsal and two

  • pollack (fish)

    Pollock, (Pollachius, or Gadus, virens), North Atlantic fish of the cod family, Gadidae. It is known as saithe, or coalfish, in Europe. The pollock is an elongated fish, deep green with a pale lateral line and a pale belly. It has a small chin barbel and, like the cod, has three dorsal and two

  • pollack whale (mammal)

    Sei whale, (Balaenoptera borealis), species of baleen whale capable of short bursts of speed that make it the swiftest of the rorquals. Usually attaining a length of about 13–15 metres (43–49 feet), this cetacean is bluish gray or blackish above with paler underparts and a relatively large

  • Pollack, Ben (American musician)

    Benny Goodman: Early years: …he joined the orchestra of Ben Pollack, one of the leading Dixieland drummers. With Pollack, Goodman recorded his first solo, on “He’s the Last Word” (1926), and contributed significantly to several recordings during the next few years, sometimes performing on saxophone. After leaving Pollack in 1929, Goodman worked for the…

  • Pollack, Sydney (American director, producer, and actor)

    Sydney Pollack, American director, producer, and actor who helmed a number of popular films, including The Way We Were (1973), Tootsie (1982), Out of Africa (1985), and The Firm (1993). Although lacking a distinctive style, he was known for eliciting strong performances from actors. After high

  • Pollack, Sydney Irwin (American director, producer, and actor)

    Sydney Pollack, American director, producer, and actor who helmed a number of popular films, including The Way We Were (1973), Tootsie (1982), Out of Africa (1985), and The Firm (1993). Although lacking a distinctive style, he was known for eliciting strong performances from actors. After high

  • Pollack, William (British-born American immunologist)

    William Pollack, British-born American immunologist (born Feb. 26, 1926, London, Eng.—died Nov. 3, 2013, Yorba Linda, Calif.), contributed, in collaboration with Vincent J. Freda and John G. Gorman, to the development in the 1960s of a vaccine that prevents erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as

  • Pollaiolo, Simone Del (Italian architect)

    Il Cronaca, Italian Renaissance architect whose sober style emphasizes planes and linear design. He was not related to Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo. According to Vasari, it was his accurate accounts of the marvels of Rome, where he studied, that earned him the nickname of “Il Cronaca” (“The

  • Pollaiuolo brothers (Italian artists)

    Pollaiuolo brothers, Italian brothers who, as sculptors, painters, engravers, and goldsmiths, produced myriad works together under a combined signature. Antonio del Pollaiuolo (original name Antonio di Jacopo d’Antonio Benci; b. Jan. 17, 1431/32, Florence [Italy]—d. 1496, Rome) and Piero del

  • Pollaiuolo, Antonio del (Italian artist)

    Pollaiuolo brothers: Antonio learned goldsmithing and metalworking from either Vittore Ghiberti (son of Lorenzo) or Andrea del Castagno. Piero probably learned painting from Andrea del Castagno and became his brother’s associate in goldsmithing, painting, sculpture, and engraving.

  • Pollaiuolo, Piero del (Italian artist)

    Pollaiuolo brothers: Piero probably learned painting from Andrea del Castagno and became his brother’s associate in goldsmithing, painting, sculpture, and engraving.

  • Pollaiuolo, Simone Del (Italian architect)

    Il Cronaca, Italian Renaissance architect whose sober style emphasizes planes and linear design. He was not related to Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo. According to Vasari, it was his accurate accounts of the marvels of Rome, where he studied, that earned him the nickname of “Il Cronaca” (“The

  • Pollán Toledo, Laura (Cuban political activist)

    Laura Pollán Toledo, Cuban political activist (born Feb. 13, 1948, Manzanillo, Cuba—died Oct. 14, 2011, Havana, Cuba), founded the group Las Damas de Blanco (“Ladies in White”), whose members (composed of wives, mothers, and daughters of political prisoners) gathered each Sunday after mass (wearing

  • Pollard script

    Hmong-Mien languages: Writing systems: …missionary Samuel Pollard invented the Pollard script for writing A-Hmao, a Hmongic language spoken in northeast Yunnan and northwest Guizhou provinces. The Pollard system uses primary symbols to represent consonants and smaller secondary symbols to represent vowels. The placement of the vowel symbols in relation to the consonant symbols (above,…

  • Pollard, A. F. (English historian and author)

    A. F. Pollard, English historian who was the leading Tudor scholar of the early 20th century. He was educated at Felsted School and at Jesus College, Oxford. In 1893 he was appointed to the editorial staff of the Dictionary of National Biography, to which he contributed about 500 entries, mainly on

  • Pollard, Albert Frederick (English historian and author)

    A. F. Pollard, English historian who was the leading Tudor scholar of the early 20th century. He was educated at Felsted School and at Jesus College, Oxford. In 1893 he was appointed to the editorial staff of the Dictionary of National Biography, to which he contributed about 500 entries, mainly on

  • Pollard, C. William (American businessman)

    The ServiceMaster Company: …ServiceMaster’s chief executive officer (CEO), C. William Pollard, balanced the company’s success in business with a Christian approach to management. His book The Soul of the Firm (1996) became a best seller. Yet by 1999 investors were criticizing ServiceMaster for declining profits and unproductive acquisitions. Questions were also raised about…

  • Pollard, Frederick Douglass, Sr. (American football player and coach)

    Fritz Pollard, pioneering African American player and coach in American collegiate and professional gridiron football. He was the first African American selected to a backfield position on Walter Camp’s All-America team (1916) and the first African American head coach in the National Football

  • Pollard, Fritz (American football player and coach)

    Fritz Pollard, pioneering African American player and coach in American collegiate and professional gridiron football. He was the first African American selected to a backfield position on Walter Camp’s All-America team (1916) and the first African American head coach in the National Football

  • Pollard, Henry Graham (British writer)

    forgery: Instances of literary forgery: Carter and Henry Graham Pollard published An Enquiry into the Nature of Certain Nineteenth Century Pamphlets, proving that about 40 or 50 of these, commanding high prices, were forgeries, and that all could be traced to Wise. Subsequent research confirmed the finding of Carter and Pollard and…

  • Pollard, Jonathan (American civilian defense analyst and spy)

    Jonathan Pollard, American civilian defense analyst who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1987 for having sold classified information to Israel; he was paroled in 2015. His arrest caused acute embarrassment to Israel, whose officials were caught spying on a key ally. Israeli Prime Minister

  • Pollard, Jonathan Jay (American civilian defense analyst and spy)

    Jonathan Pollard, American civilian defense analyst who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1987 for having sold classified information to Israel; he was paroled in 2015. His arrest caused acute embarrassment to Israel, whose officials were caught spying on a key ally. Israeli Prime Minister

  • Pollard, Marjorie (English athlete)

    Marjorie Pollard, field hockey player who became one of England’s greatest players. She was also editor of Hockey Field magazine from 1946 to 1970. Pollard competed in her first hockey match at school as a goalkeeper, but when her team was beaten 17–0, she opted to become a forward. She won her

  • Pollard, Michael J. (American actor)

    Bonnie and Clyde: Moss (Michael J. Pollard). The gang thwarts all police efforts to capture them, until a fateful encounter on a lonely country road.

  • pollarding (botany)

    Pollarding, cutting of top tree branches back to the trunk, leaving club-headed stems that grow a thick head of new branches. The purpose in some areas is to limit the area of top growth or to create an annual harvest of boughs for basket weaving, securing thatch, and the like. In cities such as

  • Polled Hereford (breed of cattle)

    origins of agriculture: Beef cattle: The Polled Shorthorn and the Polled Hereford breeds were established by locating and breeding the few naturally hornless animals to be found among the horned herds of Shorthorns and Herefords, first established as distinctive breeds in England. It is of particular note that the originator of the Polled Herefords made…

  • Polled Shorthorn (livestock)

    origins of agriculture: Beef cattle: The Polled Shorthorn and the Polled Hereford breeds were established by locating and breeding the few naturally hornless animals to be found among the horned herds of Shorthorns and Herefords, first established as distinctive breeds in England. It is of particular note that the originator of…

  • pollen (plant anatomy)

    Pollen, a mass of microspores in a seed plant appearing usually as a fine dust. Each pollen grain is a minute body, of varying shape and structure, formed in the male structures of seed-bearing plants and transported by various means (wind, water, insects, etc.) to the female structures, where

  • pollen analysis

    Palynology, scientific discipline concerned with the study of plant pollen, spores, and certain microscopic planktonic organisms, in both living and fossil form. The field is associated with the plant sciences as well as with the geologic sciences, notably those aspects dealing with stratigraphy,

  • pollen dispersal (ecology)

    Pollination, transfer of pollen grains from the stamens, the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to the ovules (seed precursors) themselves. In plants such as conifers and cycads, in which the ovules are exposed, the pollen is simply caught in a drop of fluid secreted by

  • pollen grain (plant anatomy)

    Pollen, a mass of microspores in a seed plant appearing usually as a fine dust. Each pollen grain is a minute body, of varying shape and structure, formed in the male structures of seed-bearing plants and transported by various means (wind, water, insects, etc.) to the female structures, where

  • pollen sac (plant anatomy)

    magnoliid clade: Reproduction and life cycles: pairs of microspore- (pollen-) producing sacs in an immature, developing stamen, each divided by a partition to make four compartments. The stamens of the most primitive magnoliids have four pollen sacs, although some genera of a few families have only two pollen sacs as a derived condition. The tapetum, the…

  • pollen stratigraphy

    Cretaceous Period: Correlation: Angiosperm pollen provides for recognition of zones for the Late Cretaceous of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  • pollen tube (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Pollination: The pollen tube ultimately enters an ovule through the micropyle and penetrates one of the sterile cells on either side of the egg (synergids). These synergids begin to degenerate immediately after pollination. Pollen tubes can reach great lengths, as in corn, where the corn silk consists…

  • Pollen, Daniel (prime minister of New Zealand)

    Daniel Pollen, Irish-born physician, prime minister of New Zealand (1875–76), and a public figure who combined business and politics with his profession and worked for such liberal causes as the enfranchisement of women and the rights of the Maori. Pollen settled in New Zealand in the 1840s,

  • pollen-food allergy (pathology)

    food allergy: Oral allergy syndrome (also known as pollen-food allergy) is a result of cross-sensitivity to pollen proteins and certain proteins in fruits, vegetables, and nuts. It often affects individuals with allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and manifests as itchy, swollen lips and tongue. Atopic dermatitis, or eczema,…

  • Pollenia rudis (insect)

    blow fly: The adult cluster fly (Pollenia rudis) of Europe and North America is sluggish and dark in colour. The larvae of this species are parasites of earthworms. In autumn, huge buzzing clusters of the adults gather in attics or other sheltered places to hibernate; they return outdoors in…

  • Pollentia (Italy)

    Pollentia, ancient town in the territory of the Statielli in Liguria, northern Italy, located 10 miles north of Augusta Bagiennorum (Vagienna) on the Tenarus (Tanaro) River. Its position on the road from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) to Hasta (Asti) gave it military importance in ancient Roman times.

  • Pollenza (Italy)

    Pollentia, ancient town in the territory of the Statielli in Liguria, northern Italy, located 10 miles north of Augusta Bagiennorum (Vagienna) on the Tenarus (Tanaro) River. Its position on the road from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) to Hasta (Asti) gave it military importance in ancient Roman times.

  • pollex (anatomy)

    Thumb, short, thick first digit of the human hand and of the lower-primate hand and foot. It differs from other digits in having only two phalanges (tubular bones of the fingers and toes). The thumb also differs in having much freedom of movement and being opposable to tips of other digits. The

  • Polley, Eugene (American inventor)

    Eugene Polley, (Eugene Theodore Polley; later changed to Eugene Joseph Polley), American inventor (born Nov. 29, 1915, Chicago, Ill.—died May 20, 2012, Downers Grove, Ill.), created (1955) the first wireless television remote-control system, the light-activated Flash-Matic, while working in the

  • Polley, Eugene Joseph (American inventor)

    Eugene Polley, (Eugene Theodore Polley; later changed to Eugene Joseph Polley), American inventor (born Nov. 29, 1915, Chicago, Ill.—died May 20, 2012, Downers Grove, Ill.), created (1955) the first wireless television remote-control system, the light-activated Flash-Matic, while working in the

  • Polley, Eugene Theodore (American inventor)

    Eugene Polley, (Eugene Theodore Polley; later changed to Eugene Joseph Polley), American inventor (born Nov. 29, 1915, Chicago, Ill.—died May 20, 2012, Downers Grove, Ill.), created (1955) the first wireless television remote-control system, the light-activated Flash-Matic, while working in the

  • Polley, Sarah (Canadian actor, director, writer, and producer)

    Sarah Polley, Canadian actor, director, writer, and producer. One of Canada’s most-talented and best-known actors, Polley was also an acclaimed director and a political activist. As a child actor, her natural and unaffected performances on television series such as CBC’s Road to Avonlea (1990–96)

  • Pollicipes elegans (barnacle)

    cirripede: Importance to humans: polymerus and P. elegans, from the northeastern and tropical eastern Pacific, respectively, are often imported as substitutes. Indians of the American Pacific Northwest consume the large sessile barnacle Balanus nubilus, and the inhabitants of Chile eat yet another large balanid species. In Japan barnacles are used as…

  • Pollicipes pollicipes (barnacle)

    cirripede: Importance to humans: …a local intertidal pedunculate barnacle, Pollicipes pollicipes, is served in gourmet restaurants and occasionally becomes locally depleted. Two related species in the eastern Pacific, P. polymerus and P. elegans, from the northeastern and tropical eastern Pacific, respectively, are often imported as substitutes. Indians of the American Pacific Northwest consume the…

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