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  • Poetry for the People

    Anyone who believed in 1998 that American poetry had perished or was clinging to life only among a small group of academics writing inaccessible verse for themselves alone might have been surprised by recent trends. Poetry as an art form was showing renewed vitality and was being celebrated by the

  • Poetry Foundation (American organization)

    Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize: …annual prize given by the Poetry Foundation—an independent literary organization and publisher—to an American poet for lifetime achievement. The prize, which comes with an award of $100,000, was established in 1986 by philanthropist Ruth Lilly. It is considered one of the most prestigious awards in the field of poetry and…

  • Poetry Militant (work by O’Dowd)

    Bernard Patrick O'Dowd: …an important prose pamphlet “Poetry Militant” (1909), O’Dowd, a political and philosophical radical, argued that the poet should educate, propagandize, and indoctrinate. His later work included The Bush (1912), a long poem about the Australian nation; Alma Venus! and Other Verses (1921), social satire in verse; and The Poems:…

  • poetry reading

    qawwali: Sufi Muslim poetry that aims to lead listeners to a state of religious ecstasy—to a spiritual union with Allah (God). The music was popularized outside of South Asia in the late 20th century, owing largely to its promotion by the world-music industry.

  • Poetry Review, The (British journal of the English Poetry Society)

    Muriel Spark: …Poetry Society and editor of The Poetry Review (1947–49). She later published a series of critical biographies of literary figures and editions of 19th-century letters, including Child of Light: A Reassessment of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1951; rev. ed., Mary Shelley, 1987), John Masefield (1953), and The Brontë Letters (1954). Spark…

  • poetry slam (performance poetry)

    slam poetry: …is performed at events called poetry slams, or simply slams. The name slam came from how the audience has the power to praise or, sometimes, destroy a poem and from the high-energy performance style of the poets.

  • poetry, fleshly school of (English group)

    Fleshly school of poetry, a group of late 19th-century English poets associated with Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The term was invented by the Scottish author Robert Williams Buchanan (1841–1901) and appeared as the title of a pseudonymous article in the Contemporary Review (October 1871) in which he

  • Poetry: A Magazine of Verse (American magazine)

    Poetry, U.S. poetry magazine founded in Chicago in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who became its longtime editor. It became the principal organ for modern poetry of the English-speaking world and survived through World War II. Because its inception coincided with the Chicago literary renaissance, it is

  • Poets and playwrights, Essayists and editors, and Novelists (international organization)

    International PEN, international organization of writers. The original PEN was founded in London in 1921 by the English novelist John Galsworthy, and it has since grown to include writers worldwide. The name PEN is an acronym standing for “poets, playwrights, editors, essayists, and novelists.”

  • Poets of Great Britain complete from Chaucer to Churchill, The (work by Bell)

    John Bell: …issued the 109 volumes of The Poets of Great Britain complete from Chaucer to Churchill series. He influenced later publishing practice by introducing into his books illustrations prepared by competent artists and related to the text. In addition he founded a weekly newspaper, a monthly illustrated magazine, and various other…

  • poets’ war, the (English literature)

    War of the theatres, in English literary history, conflict involving the Elizabethan playwrights Ben Jonson, John Marston, and Thomas Dekker. It covered a period when Jonson was writing for one children’s company of players and Marston for another, rival group. In 1599 Marston presented a mildly

  • Poezje (work by Tetmajer)

    Kazimierz Tetmajer: His nostalgic and pessimistic Poezje (“Poetry”), published in eight series between 1891 and 1924, shows the influence of the Romantic poet and playwright Juliusz Słowacki and of French and Belgian verse. Tetmajer’s collection of sketches and tales Na skalnym Podhalu (1903–10; Tales of the Tatras), written almost entirely in…

  • Poezye (work by Mickiewicz)

    Polish literature: Romanticism: His two-volume Poezye (1822–23; “Poems”) was the first major literary event of the period. The second volume included parts two and four of Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve), in which he combined folklore and mystic atmosphere to create a new kind of Romantic drama. Mickiewicz wrote his greatest works…

  • Poezye (work by Mickiewicz)

    Polish literature: Romanticism: His two-volume Poezye (1822–23; “Poems”) was the first major literary event of the period. The second volume included parts two and four of Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve), in which he combined folklore and mystic atmosphere to create a new kind of Romantic drama. Mickiewicz wrote his greatest works…

  • poffertjes (food)

    Poffertjes, small Dutch pancakes, traditionally served with powdered sugar and knobs of butter. They are made of a batter that typically includes yeast and buckwheat flour, yielding a light, fluffy texture. The batter is poured over a hot cast-iron pan with shallow half-spherical molds, and then

  • Poffo, Randy (American professional wrestler)

    Randy Savage, (Randy Poffo; “Macho Man”), American professional wrestler (born Nov. 15, 1952, Columbus, Ohio—died May 20, 2011, Pinellas county, Fla.), was known during the 1980s and ’90s for his flamboyant attire, gravelly voice, and trademark flying elbow drop. Savage came from a family of

  • pogge (fish)

    Poacher, (family Agonidae), any of the marine fishes of the family Agonidae (order Scorpaeniformes), a group of approximately 50 species that also includes alligatorfishes, sea poachers, and starsnouts. Poachers live in cold water, on the bottom, and are found mainly in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  • Poggendorff illusion (psychology)

    illusion: Visual perceptual illusions: The Poggendorff illusion depends on the steepness of the intersecting lines. As obliqueness is decreased, the illusion becomes less compelling. In the Zöllner illusion, the cross-hatching disturbs the perception of parallel lines. A figure seen touching converging lines, as in the Ponzo illusion, seems larger than…

  • Poggfred, ein kunter-buntes Epos (work by Liliencron)

    Detlev, baron von Liliencron: His loosely constructed satiric epic Poggfred, ein kunter-buntes Epos (1896; “Poggfred, a Topsy-Turvy Epic”) achieved some success.

  • Poggio Bracciolini, Gian Francesco (Italian scholar)

    Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist and calligrapher, foremost among scholars of the early Renaissance as a rediscoverer of lost, forgotten, or neglected Classical Latin manuscripts in the monastic libraries of Europe. While working in Florence as a copyist of manuscripts, Poggio

  • Poggio Civitate (archaeological site, Italy)

    ancient Italic people: Archaeological evidence: …finds from the site of Poggio Civitate (Murlo) near Siena, where excavations (begun in 1966) have revealed a huge building of the Archaic period with rammed earth walls, measuring about 197 feet on each side and featuring a large court in the middle. It was adorned with life-size terra-cotta figures,…

  • Pogo (American comic-strip character)

    Pogo, popular 20th-century American comic-strip character, a cartoon possum who was the main actor in an often politically charged daily newspaper strip of the same name. Pogo Possum represented Everyman, though he was a classic comedic straight man among the denizens of Okefenokee Swamp, a

  • Pogo (American rock group)

    Poco, American band of the 1970s and ’80s that strongly influenced the development of country rock. The original members were Richie Furay (b. May 9, 1944, Yellow Springs, Ohio, U.S.), George Grantham (b. November 20, 1947, Cordell, Oklahoma), Randy Meisner (b. March 8, 1946, Scottsbluff,

  • pogo (dance)

    Western dance: Social dance: …and dances such as the pogo, in which dancers jumped in place to the music’s rhythm. Partner dancing never disappeared completely, however, and was especially prominent in the “western-swing” dancing of American country and western music.

  • Pogo Possum (American comic-strip character)

    Pogo, popular 20th-century American comic-strip character, a cartoon possum who was the main actor in an often politically charged daily newspaper strip of the same name. Pogo Possum represented Everyman, though he was a classic comedic straight man among the denizens of Okefenokee Swamp, a

  • Pogonia (plant genus)

    Pogonia, genus of two species of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae) native to temperate zones of Asia and North America. Pogonia species have a slender rootstock and usually bear one leaf about halfway up the stem and several at the base. The pinkish flowers have an odour similar to

  • Pogonia japonica (plant)
  • Pogonia ophioglossoides (plant)

    Pogonia: Snakemouth (P. ophioglossoides), also known as rose pogonia and adder’s mouth, is common in bogs and swamps of eastern North America. The plant is about 8 to 53 cm (3 to 21 inches) tall. The Asian pogonia (P. japonica) grows in moist open areas of…

  • Pogonias cromis (fish)

    drum: …an air bladder; and the sea drum, or black drum (Pogonias cromis), a gray or coppery red, western Atlantic fish.

  • Pogoniulus (bird)

    Tinkerbird, any of several species of tiny barbets, which, at 9 cm (3.5 inches), are the smallest of the family Capitonidae (order Piciformes). Tinkerbirds constitute the genus Pogoniulus. They are named for their metallic call—like a tinker mending pots—repeated unendingly in African forest and

  • Pogoniulus chrysoconus (bird)

    tinkerbird: …the best known is the yellow-fronted tinkerbird (P. chrysoconus) of east-central Africa. It is glossy black above, with yellow rump and forehead, white eye stripes, and black moustache mark; the breast is pale gray, the belly greenish yellow.

  • Pogonophora (polychaete)

    Beard worm, (family Siboglinidae), any of a group of polychaetes (marine worms) constituting the family Siboglinidae. Beard worms live sedentary lives in long protective tubes on the seafloor throughout the world. The common name beard worm refers to the beardlike mass of pinnate (featherlike)

  • pogonophoran (polychaete)

    Beard worm, (family Siboglinidae), any of a group of polychaetes (marine worms) constituting the family Siboglinidae. Beard worms live sedentary lives in long protective tubes on the seafloor throughout the world. The common name beard worm refers to the beardlike mass of pinnate (featherlike)

  • Pogostemon cablin (plant)

    Patchouli, (Pogostemon cablin), aromatic flowering plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), the leaves of which are a source of essential oil that is used as a fragrance in perfumes, cosmetics, and incense. Patchouli is native to tropical Asia, where it is widely cultivated and has been used for

  • pogrom (mob attack)

    Pogrom, (Russian: “devastation,” or “riot”), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The

  • Pogson, Norman Robert (English astronomer)

    magnitude: In 1850 the English astronomer Norman Robert Pogson proposed the system presently in use. One magnitude is defined as a ratio of brightness of 2.512 times; e.g., a star of magnitude 5.0 is 2.512 times as bright as one of magnitude 6.0. Thus, a difference of five magnitudes corresponds to…

  • Pogue, William R. (American astronaut)

    William Reid Pogue, American astronaut (born Jan. 23, 1930, Okemah, Okla.—died March 3, 2014, Cocoa Beach, Fla.), piloted (Nov. 16, 1973–Feb. 8, 1974) Skylab 4, the last manned mission of the scientific research space station, and was renowned for staging the only “strike” in outer space, arguing

  • Pogue, William Reid (American astronaut)

    William Reid Pogue, American astronaut (born Jan. 23, 1930, Okemah, Okla.—died March 3, 2014, Cocoa Beach, Fla.), piloted (Nov. 16, 1973–Feb. 8, 1974) Skylab 4, the last manned mission of the scientific research space station, and was renowned for staging the only “strike” in outer space, arguing

  • pogy (fish)

    Menhaden, any of several species of valuable Atlantic coastal fishes in the genus Brevoortia of the herring family (Clupeidae), utilized for oil, fish meal, and fertilizer. Menhaden have a deep body, sharp-edged belly, large head, and tooth-edged scales. Adults are about 37.5 cm (about 15 inches)

  • Pohamba, Hifikepunye (president of Namibia)

    Hifikepunye Pohamba, Namibian politician who served as the second president of Namibia (2005–15). He served as the president of the SWAPO Party of Namibia (2007–15). Pohamba was born in a small village in northern Owambo (Ovamboland) when Namibia was still known as South West Africa and was

  • Pohamba, Hifikepunye Lucas (president of Namibia)

    Hifikepunye Pohamba, Namibian politician who served as the second president of Namibia (2005–15). He served as the president of the SWAPO Party of Namibia (2007–15). Pohamba was born in a small village in northern Owambo (Ovamboland) when Namibia was still known as South West Africa and was

  • Pohang (South Korea)

    P’ohang, city and port, North Kyŏngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), eastern South Korea. A fishing and shipping port, it lies on the eastern side of Yŏngil Gulf, about 50 miles (80 km) east-northeast of Taegu (Daegu), the provincial capital. Formerly a small village, it began to develop after 1930

  • Pohe (Chinese artist)

    Wu Changshuo, Chinese seal carver, painter, and calligrapher who was prominent in the early 20th century. Wu was born into a scholarly family and began writing poems and carving seals by age 10. As a young man, Wu passed the civil service examinations and started a family, while still pursuing art

  • Poher, Alain-Émile-Louis-Marie (president of France)

    Alain-Émile-Louis-Marie Poher, French politician who, as president of the French Senate (1968-92), was twice called upon to serve as short-term interim president of France--in 1969 and again in 1974. He was also president (1966-69) of the European Parliament (b. April 17, 1909--d. Dec. 9,

  • Pohiva, ʿAkilisi (prime minister of Tonga)

    Tonga: History: …in December 2014 elections, ‘Akilisi Pohiva took office as prime minister in January 2015. Pohiva died in September 2019, however, and was replaced by Semisi Sika, who held the title of acting prime minister until later that month, when Pohiva Tu‘i‘onetoa was elected by the Fale Alea to fill…

  • Pohjan Lahti (gulf, Baltic Sea)

    Gulf of Bothnia, northern arm of the Baltic Sea, between Sweden (west) and Finland (east). Covering an area of about 45,200 square miles (117,000 square km), the gulf extends for 450 miles (725 km) from north to south but only 50 to 150 miles (80 to 240 km) from east to west; it is nearly closed

  • põhjanael (Estonian folklore)

    Põhjanael, (Estonian: “nail of the north”) in Estonian folklore, the North Star. Before the influence of Christianity, Finnic peoples shared a worldview in which the firmament was supported by a gigantic pillar, tree, or mountain, around the top of which the sky turned. Estonians visualized the sky

  • Pohjanmaa (plain, Finland)

    Pohjanmaa, lowland plain in western Finland, along the Gulf of Bothnia. Pohjanmaa is about 60 miles (100 km) wide and 160 miles (257 km) long. It consists of flat plains of sand and clay soil that are broken by rivers and bog areas. It is drained mainly by the Lapuan, Kyrön, and Iso rivers, which

  • Pohjola (Finnish mythology)

    Manala, in Finnish mythology, the realm of the dead. The word is possibly derived from the compound maan-ala, “the space (or area) under the earth.” It is also called Tuonela, the realm of Tuoni, and Pohjola, derived from the word pohja, meaning “bottom” and also “north.” The Finnish underworld

  • Pohl, Frederik (American author)

    Frederik Pohl, American science-fiction writer whose best work uses the genre as a mode of social criticism and as an exploration of the long-range consequences of technology in an ailing society. Pohl was a high-school dropout, but, by the time he was 20 years old, he was editing the

  • Pohl, Frederik George (American author)

    Frederik Pohl, American science-fiction writer whose best work uses the genre as a mode of social criticism and as an exploration of the long-range consequences of technology in an ailing society. Pohl was a high-school dropout, but, by the time he was 20 years old, he was editing the

  • Pöhl, Karl Otto (German financial executive)

    Karl Otto Pöhl, German financial executive (born Dec. 1, 1929, Hanover, Ger.—died Dec. 9, 2014, Switzerland), served for more than a decade (1980–91) as president of the Deutsche Bundesbank, the central bank of Germany. During his tenure he was a strong advocate of price stability and was

  • Pohnpei (island, Micronesia)

    Pohnpei, high coral-capped volcanic island, eastern Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, western Pacific Ocean. Pohnpei is roughly square in shape; it is well watered and hilly (rising to Dolohmwar, 2,595 feet [791 metres] above sea level) and is surrounded by a barrier reef with many

  • Pohnpeian (people)

    Micronesian culture: High-island and low-island cultures: …the large Chuuk Lagoon; the Pohnpeians; the Kosraeans; and some inhabitants of the isolated island of Nauru, which is geologically a raised atoll (without exposed volcanic rock).

  • Pohwagyo (Korean religion)

    Poch’ŏngyo, (Korean: “Universal Religion”), indigenous Korean religion, also popularly called Humch’igyo from the distinctive practice of chanting humch’i, a word said to have mystical significance. Poch’ŏngyo was founded by Kang Il-sun (1871–1909), who initially gained a following by offering to

  • poi (food)

    Poi, starchy Polynesian food paste made from the taro root. In Samoa and other Pacific islands, poi is a thick paste of pounded bananas or pineapples mixed with coconut cream; the word originally denoted the action of pounding the food to a pulp. In Hawaii, where poi is a staple of local cuisine,

  • poi (song)

    New Zealand literature: Maori narrative: the oral tradition: …there are pao (gossip songs), poi (songs accompanying a dance performed with balls attached to flax strings, swung rhythmically), oriori (songs composed for young children of chiefly or warrior descent, to help them learn their heritage), and karanga (somewhere between song and chant, performed by women welcoming or farewelling visitors…

  • poi supper (banquet)

    Luau, a modern Hawaiian banquet. Luau originally denoted only the leaves of the taro plant, which are eaten as a vegetable; it came to refer to the dishes prepared with the leaves and then to the feasts at which the dishes were eaten. The term designates the modern, informal feast, as distinct

  • Poiana richardsoni (mammal)

    linsang: The African linsang (Poiana richardsoni), the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang), and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor) vary in colour, but all resemble elongated cats. They grow to a length of 33–43 cm (13–17 inches), excluding a banded tail almost as long, and have slender bodies, relatively…

  • Poiana Ruscăi Mountains (mountains, Romania)

    Romania: Relief: …massifs themselves, the Banat and Poiana Ruscăi mountains contain a rich variety of mineral resources and are the site of two of the country’s three largest metallurgical complexes, at Reșița and Hunedoara. The marble of Ruschița is well known. To the north lie the Apuseni Mountains, centred on the Bihor…

  • Poike Peninsula (peninsula, Easter Island)

    Easter Island: Traditional culture: …along an ancient ditch at Poike on the far northeastern coast. Carbon dating and genealogies concur in placing this event and the beginning of the late period at about 1680. The original construction of the artificial Poike ditch, according to carbon dating, took place about 380 ce.

  • poikilitic texture (geology)

    igneous rock: Important textural types: Poikilitic texture describes the occurrence of one mineral that is irregularly scattered as diversely oriented crystals within much larger host crystals of another mineral.

  • poikilothermy (zoology)

    Cold-bloodedness, the state of having a variable body temperature that is usually only slightly higher than the environmental temperature. This state distinguishes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrate animals from warm-blooded, or homoiothermic, animals (birds and mammals). Because of

  • Poillevilain, Nicolas (French theologian)

    Nicholas Of Clémanges, theologian, humanist, and educator who denounced the corruption of institutional Christianity, advocated general ecclesiastical reform, and attempted to mediate the Western Schism (rival claimants to the papacy) during the establishment of the papal residence in Avignon, F

  • Poincaré conjecture (mathematics)

    Poincaré conjecture, in topology, conjecture—now proven to be a true theorem—that every simply connected, closed, three-dimensional manifold is topologically equivalent to S3, which is a generalization of the ordinary sphere to a higher dimension (in particular, the set of points in

  • Poincaré disk model (geometry)

    non-Euclidean geometry: Hyperbolic geometry: In the Poincaré disk model (see figure, top right), the hyperbolic surface is mapped to the interior of a circular disk, with hyperbolic geodesics mapping to circular arcs (or diameters) in the disk that meet the bounding circle at right angles. In the Poincaré upper half-plane model…

  • Poincaré section (mathematics)

    analysis: Dynamical systems theory and chaos: …novel idea, now called a Poincaré section. Suppose one knows some solution path and wants to find out how nearby solution paths behave. Imagine a surface that slices through the known path. Nearby paths will also cross this surface and may eventually return to it. By studying how this “point…

  • Poincaré upper half-plane model (geometry)

    non-Euclidean geometry: Hyperbolic geometry: In the Poincaré upper half-plane model (see figure, bottom), the hyperbolic surface is mapped onto the half-plane above the x-axis, with hyperbolic geodesics mapped to semicircles (or vertical rays) that meet the x-axis at right angles. Both Poincaré models distort distances while preserving angles as measured by…

  • Poincaré, Henri (French mathematician)

    Henri Poincaré, French mathematician, one of the greatest mathematicians and mathematical physicists at the end of 19th century. He made a series of profound innovations in geometry, the theory of differential equations, electromagnetism, topology, and the philosophy of mathematics. Poincaré grew

  • Poincaré, Jules Henri (French mathematician)

    Henri Poincaré, French mathematician, one of the greatest mathematicians and mathematical physicists at the end of 19th century. He made a series of profound innovations in geometry, the theory of differential equations, electromagnetism, topology, and the philosophy of mathematics. Poincaré grew

  • Poincaré, Raymond (president of France)

    Raymond Poincaré, French statesman who as prime minister in 1912 largely determined the policy that led to France’s involvement in World War I, during which he served as president of the Third Republic. The son of an engineer, he was educated at the École Polytechnique. After studying law at the

  • Poindexter, Buster (American singer)

    the New York Dolls: The members were lead singer David Johansen (b. January 9, 1950, New York, New York, U.S.), lead guitarist Johnny Thunders (byname of John Genzale; b. July 15, 1952, New York—d. April 23, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana), drummer Billy Murcia (b. 1951, New York—d. November 6, 1972, London, England), guitarist Sylvain…

  • Poindexter, John M. (United States government official)

    20th-century international relations: Nicaragua and El Salvador: National Security Adviser John Poindexter and his aide, Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, were eventually indicted for obstructing justice, although North’s eloquent appeal to patriotism and anti-Communism in the televised hearings garnered much public support for the administration’s ends, if not means.

  • Poinsat, Juan (Portuguese philosopher)

    John of Saint Thomas, philosopher and theologian whose comprehensive commentaries on Roman Catholic doctrine made him a leading spokesman for post-Reformation Thomism, a school of thought named after its foremost theorist, St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–74), who systematically integrated Catholic

  • Poinsett, Joel R. (United States statesman)

    Joel R. Poinsett, American statesman noted primarily for his diplomacy in Latin America. A fervent liberal, he frequently meddled in the affairs of Latin American nations, incurring their animosity by his misdirected good intentions. The son of a prominent South Carolina physician, Poinsett was

  • Poinsett, Joel Roberts (United States statesman)

    Joel R. Poinsett, American statesman noted primarily for his diplomacy in Latin America. A fervent liberal, he frequently meddled in the affairs of Latin American nations, incurring their animosity by his misdirected good intentions. The son of a prominent South Carolina physician, Poinsett was

  • Poinsette, Septima (American educator and civil rights advocate)

    Septima Poinsette Clark, American educator and civil rights activist. Her own experience of racial discrimination fueled her pursuit of racial equality and her commitment to strengthen the African-American community through literacy and citizenship. Septima Poinsette was the second of eight

  • poinsettia (plant)

    Poinsettia, (Euphorbia pulcherrima), well-known member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), commonly sold as an ornamental at Christmastime. The poinsettia is native to Mexico and Central America, where it grows in moist, wet, wooded ravines and on rocky hillsides. It was named for Joel R.

  • point (mathematics)

    mathematics: Projective geometry: This associates with each point a line and with each line a point, in such a way that (1) three points lying in a line give rise to three lines meeting in a point and, conversely, three lines meeting in a point give rise to three points lying on…

  • point (engine part)

    ignition system: …are produced by means of breaker points controlled by a revolving distributor cam. When the points are in contact they complete an electrical circuit through the primary winding of the ignition coil. When the points are separated by the cam, the primary circuit is broken, which creates a high-voltage surge…

  • point (ice hockey)

    ice hockey: Strategies: …position known as the "point." Long shots rarely go in, so defensemen try to keep long shots low, which gives the attackers a chance at a rebound.

  • point (gem measurement)

    carat: 200 g, and the point, equal to 0.01 carat, were adopted by the United States in 1913 and subsequently by most other countries. The weights of diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, aquamarine, garnet, tourmaline, zircon, spinel, and sometimes opal and pearl are expressed in carats.

  • point appliqué

    Application lace, lace produced by the application, by stitching, of design motifs (typically floral) to a background net made either by hand or by machine. This technique was common in the second half of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century. The only handmade net commonly used was made

  • point at infinity (geometry)

    projective geometry: Parallel lines and the projection of infinity: …who first introduced a single point at infinity to represent the projected intersection of parallel lines. Furthermore, he collected all the points along the horizon in one line at infinity.) With the introduction of Ω, the projected figure corresponds to a theorem discovered by Menelaus of Alexandria in the 1st…

  • Point Barrow (point, Alaska, United States)

    Point Barrow, northernmost point of Alaska, U.S., situated on the Arctic Ocean. Archaeological evidence dates human habitation (by Inupiaq Eskimos) in the area from about 500 ce. The headland was explored in 1826 by Frederick W. Beechey and named for Sir John Barrow, British promoter of Arctic

  • Point Blank (film by Boorman [1967])

    Point Blank, American crime thriller film, released in 1967, that overcame weak box-office results to become a cult favourite, especially known for Lee Marvin’s lead performance as an emotionless man seeking revenge and for John Boorman’s stylish direction. On the deserted prison island of

  • Point Break (film by Bigelow [1991])

    Kathryn Bigelow: Bigelow’s next film, Point Break (1991), centres on a FBI agent (played by Keanu Reeves) whose loyalty is tested when he infiltrates a charismatic gang of bank-robbing surfers. In addition to being a box-office success, it solidified Bigelow’s place in the traditionally male-dominated world of action films. With…

  • point charge (physics)

    electricity: Calculating the value of an electric field: …the electric field of a point charge. The electric field E produced by charge Q2 is a vector. The magnitude of the field varies inversely as the square of the distance from Q2; its direction is away from Q2 when Q2 is a positive charge and toward Q2 when Q2…

  • point Colbert (lace)

    Point Colbert, (French: “Colbert lace”), needle-made lace developed at Bayeux in France in 1855, inspired by 17th-century Alençon lace (q.v.) and named after Louis XIV’s minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who started Alençon’s industry. Like Alençon, it had conventionalized flowers, stems, and the

  • Point Counter Point (novel by Huxley)

    Point Counter Point, novel by Aldous Huxley, published in 1928. In his most ambitious and complex work, Huxley offers a vision of life from a number of different points of view, using a large cast of characters who are compared to instruments in an orchestra, each playing his separate portion of

  • point d’Alençon (lace)

    Alençon lace, needle lace produced in Alençon in northwestern France. The city of Alençon was already famous for its cutwork and reticella (see embroidered lace) when in 1665 Louis XIV’s minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert introduced Venetian lacemakers into the area to teach the local women the secrets

  • point d’Angleterre (lace)

    Angleterre, bobbin lace comparable to fine Brussels lace in thread, technique, and design; but whether it was made in England or Brussels or both is debatable. To encourage home industries, both England and France had laws in the 1660s prohibiting the importation of Brussels lace, which was much in

  • point d’Argentan (lace)

    Argentan lace, lace produced in Normandy from the 17th century. The town of Argentan lies in the same lace-making area of Normandy as Alençon, and its products were for some time referred to as Alençon lace. However, technical differences, particularly in the background mesh, were distinguishable

  • point de France (school of French lace)

    Point de France, (French: “French lace”), the 17th-century school of French lace set up by Louis XIV’s minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert to curb the national extravagance in buying foreign lace. Colbert imported laceworkers from Venice and Flanders and settled them in and around centres where lace was

  • Point de Galle (Sri Lanka)

    Galle, port and city, Sri Lanka, situated on a large harbour on the island’s southern coast. Galle dates from the 13th century, possibly much earlier, but it became the island’s chief port during the period of Portuguese rule (1507–c. 1640). Under Dutch rule it was the island capital until 1656,

  • point de gaze (lace)

    Point de gaze, (French: “gauze lace”), needle lace produced in Brussels, principally from 1851 to around 1900, though in the late 20th century it was still being produced for the tourist trade. It was the last of the great laces to be developed. Its gauzy appearance is the result of a delicate,

  • point de Paris (lace)

    Point de Paris, (French: “Paris lace”), product of a lace industry known to have existed around 1634 in the Île de France. No authenticated examples of this lace have been found, however. In modern usage, point de Paris has come to mean any bobbin-made lace with a six-pointed star mesh that is

  • point de rose (lace)

    Venetian needle lace: Rose point (point de rose) was less grandiose than gros point but even more ornamented with many little loops (picots) and rosettes; lace with more light bars of thread (brides) worked with such motifs as picots and stars like snowflakes was called point de neige…

  • point de Venise (lace)

    Venetian needle lace, Venetian lace made with a needle from the 16th to the 19th century. Early examples were deep, acute-angled points, each worked separately and linked together by a narrow band, or “footing,” stitched with buttonholing. These points were used in ruffs and collars in the 16th

  • point de Venise à réseau (lace)

    Venetian needle lace: Point de Venise à réseau (“Venetian lace with a mesh”), imitated c. 1650 from French lace, had a mesh ground instead of bars. Lace making declined in Venice in the early 19th century but was revived in 1872 at nearby Burano.

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