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  • Poems (poetry by Meredith)

    George Meredith: Beginnings as poet and novelist.: …little collection of verse, entitled Poems, in 1851. Though the writer and critic William Michael Rossetti praised it, Charles Kingsley, the novelist, found “very high promise” in it, and the poet Alfred Tennyson said kindly that he wished he might have written the beautiful “Love in the Valley,” praise added…

  • Poems (poetry by Clough)

    Arthur Hugh Clough: Nonetheless, Clough’s Poems (1862) proved so popular that they were reprinted 16 times within 40 years of his death. His best verse has a flavour that is closer to the taste and temper of the 20th century than to the Victorian age, however. Among his works are…

  • Poems (poetry by Rossetti)

    Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The later years: The publication of these poems followed in 1870. The Poems were well enough received until a misdirected, savage onslaught by “Thomas Maitland” (pseudonym of the journalist-critic Robert Buchanan) on “The Fleshly School of Poetry” singled out Rossetti for attack. Rossetti responded temperately in “The Stealthy School of Criticism,” published…

  • Poems (poetry by Keats)

    John Keats: Early works: Keats’s first book, Poems, was published in March 1817 and was written largely under “Huntian” influence. This is evident in the relaxed and rambling sentiments evinced and in Keats’s use of a loose form of the heroic couplet and light rhymes. The most interesting poem in this volume…

  • Poems (poetry by Dugan)

    Alan Dugan: …in his first verse collection, Poems (1961), which in 1962 won a National Book Award and a Pulitzer Prize.

  • Poems (poetry by Tennyson)

    Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Major literary work: In 1842 Tennyson published Poems, in two volumes, one containing a revised selection from the volumes of 1830 and 1832, the other, new poems. The new poems included “Morte d’Arthur,” “The Two Voices,” “Locksley Hall,” and “The Vision of Sin” and other poems that reveal a strange naïveté, such…

  • Poems (poetry by Emerson)

    Ralph Waldo Emerson: Mature life and works: Emerson’s collected Poems (1846) were supplemented by others in May-Day (1867), and the two volumes established his reputation as a major American poet.

  • Poems (poetry by Finch)

    Robert Finch: His first collection, Poems (1946), won a Governor General’s Award, as did a later work, Acis in Oxford (1961), a series of meditations inspired by a performance of G.F. Handel’s dramatic oratorio Acis and Galatea. Dover Beach Revisited (1961), treating the World War II evacuation of Dunkirk and…

  • Poems (poetry by Cotton)

    Charles Cotton: …edition of Cotton’s poetry is Poems (1958), edited by John Buxton.

  • Poems (poetry by Jacobsen)

    Jens Peter Jacobsen: …partially translated into English as Poems [1920]). At the turn of the 20th century, his writings and exquisite style exerted a spellbinding influence upon a great number of writers both in Denmark and abroad. Among his most ardent worshipers were such poets as Stefan George and Rainer Maria Rilke.

  • Poems 1853 and 1854 (work by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: …Gedichte 1853 und 1854 (Poems 1853 and 1854), is of the same order. After nearly eight years of torment, Heine died and was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery.

  • Poems and Antipoems (work by Parra)

    Nicanor Parra: With Poemas y antipoemas (1954; Poems and Antipoems), Parra’s efforts to make poetry more accessible gained him national and international fame. In lucid, direct language, these verses treat with black humour and ironic vision common, everyday problems of a grotesque and often absurd world.

  • Poems and Ballads (works by Swinburne)

    Algernon Charles Swinburne: …by the first series of Poems and Ballads in 1866, which clearly display Swinburne’s preoccupation with masochism, flagellation, and paganism. This volume contains some of his finest poems, among them “Dolores” and “The Garden of Proserpine.” The book was vigorously attacked for its “feverish carnality”—Punch referred to the poet as…

  • Poems Before Congress (work by Browning)

    Elizabeth Barrett Browning: In Poems Before Congress (1860), the poem “A Curse for a Nation” was mistaken for a denunciation of England, whereas it was aimed at U.S. slavery. In the summer of 1861 Browning suffered a severe chill and died.

  • Poems by a Slave (work by Horton)

    George Moses Horton: …Hope of Liberty (1829; retitled Poems by a Slave), includes several love lyrics originally written for students, as well as hopeful poems about freedom from enslavement. Probably because of fears of punishment, The Poetical Works of George M. Horton, The Colored Bard of North Carolina (1845) addresses the issue of…

  • Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell (work by Brontë sisters)

    Anne Brontë: …Anne contributed 21 poems to Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell, a joint work with her sisters Charlotte and Emily. Her first novel, Agnes Grey, was published together with Emily’s Wuthering Heights in three volumes (of which Agnes Grey was the third) in December 1847. The reception to these…

  • Poems by Emily Dickinson (work by Higginson and Todd)

    Mabel Loomis Todd: A volume of Poems by Emily Dickinson appeared in 1890 and was followed by a second volume in 1891. By herself Todd prepared a third volume, published in 1896. She also published two volumes of Letters of Emily Dickinson in 1894.

  • Poems by Two Brothers (work by Tennyson brothers)

    Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Early life and work: …with Frederick and Charles in Poems by Two Brothers (1826; dated 1827). His contributions (more than half the volume) are mostly in fashionable styles of the day.

  • Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery (work by Clare)

    John Clare: In 1820 his first book, Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, was published and created a stir. Clare visited London, where he enjoyed a brief season of celebrity in fashionable circles. He made some lasting friends, among them Charles Lamb, and admirers raised an annuity for him. That same…

  • Poems From Prison (work by Knight)

    Etheridge Knight: …his first volume of verse, Poems from Prison (1968). His poetry combined the energy and bravado of African American “toasts” (long narrative poems that were recited in a mixture of street slang, specialized argot, and obscenities) with a concern for freedom from oppression.

  • Poems in Prose (work by Turgenev)

    Ivan Turgenev: Self-exile and fame: His last major work, Poems in Prose, is remarkable chiefly for its wistfulness and for its famous eulogy to the Russian language.

  • Poems in Scots (poems by Soutar)

    William Soutar: In Poems in Scots (1935) he developed the ballad style toward the objective expression of individual lyricism. During his last 10 years his principal output in Scots consisted of “whigmaleeries,” humorous poems full of comic exaggeration, interweaving the fantastic and the familiar. He was fond of…

  • Poems of Childhood (work by Field)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): …expressed itself in the idyllic Poems of Childhood (1896), by Eugene Field, and the rural dialect Rhymes of Childhood (1891), by James Whitcomb Riley. These poems can hardly speak to the children of the second half of the 20th century. But it is not clear that the same is true…

  • Poems of Leopardi, The (work by Leopardi)

    Italian literature: Opposing movements: The Poems of Leopardi), first published in 1831. Some were patriotic and were once very popular; but the most memorable came from deeper lyrical inspiration. Among them were “L’infinito,” a meditation on infinity; “A Silvia,” on the memory of a girl who died when he…

  • Poems of Octavio Paz, The (poetry by Paz)

    Octavio Paz: The Poems of Octavio Paz (2012) was a career-spanning collection of his poems in English translation.

  • Poems of Passion (work by Wilcox)

    Ella Wheeler Wilcox: …another publisher in 1883 as Poems of Passion, a titillating title that was as racy as any of the contents. The sale of 60,000 copies in two years firmly established Wheeler’s reputation.

  • Poems of the East and West (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Napoleonic period (1805–16): Poems of the East and West). Goethe was fleeing from the upheavals of his own time. But in 1816 he was cruelly reminded that he could not flee present reality entirely. His wife died in June, probably of epilepsy. He abandoned a third visit to…

  • Poems of the Past and the Present (work by Hardy)

    Thomas Hardy: Poetry: Poems of the Past and the Present (1901) contained nearly twice as many poems as its predecessor, most of them newly written. Some of the poems are explicitly or implicitly grouped by subject or theme. There are, for example, 11 “War Poems” prompted by the…

  • Poems on Interesting Events in the Reign of King Edward III (work by Minot)

    Laurence Minot: …Joseph Ritson in 1795 as Poems on Interesting Events in the Reign of King Edward III. Minot’s poems were evidently written contemporaneously with the events they describe; the first celebrates the English triumph over the Scots at Halidon Hill (1333) and the last the capture of the French fiefdom Guines…

  • Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (work by Harper)

    Frances E.W. Harper: …frequently from her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (1854), which was quite successful and was several times enlarged and reissued. It addressed the subjects of motherhood, separation, and death and contained the antislavery poem “Bury Me in a Free Land.” Generally written in conventional rhymed quatrains, her poetry was…

  • Poems on Several Occasions (work by Cotton)

    English literature: The court wits: The posthumous Poems on Several Occasions (1689) includes deft poetry of friendship and love written with the familiar, colloquial ease of the Cavalier tradition and carefully observed, idiosyncratically executed descriptions of nature. He also added a second part to his friend Izaak Walton’s The Compleat Angler in…

  • Poems on Several Occasions, by Michael Bruce (poetry by Bruce)

    Michael Bruce: Logan edited in 1770 Poems on Several Occasions, by Michael Bruce, in which “Ode to the Cuckoo” appeared. In the preface he stated that “to make up a miscellany, some poems written by different authors are inserted.” In a collection of his own poems in 1781, Logan printed an…

  • Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (book by Wheatley)

    African American literature: Antebellum literature: …enslaved in Boston, dedicated her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773), the first African American book, to proving that “Negros, black as Cain,” were not inherently inferior to whites in matters of the spirit and thus could “join th’ angelic train” as spiritual equals to whites. Composing poems…

  • Poems the Size of Photographs (poetry by Murray)

    Les Murray: …National Gallery of Australia, and Poems the Size of Photographs, a collection of short-form verse. His 2010 collection, Taller When Prone, celebrates ordinary Australians, often with a healthy dose of humour. The poems in Waiting for the Past (2015) hearken back to Murray’s rural upbringing and ponder the peculiarities of…

  • Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (work by Burns)

    Robert Burns: Development as a poet: It was entitled Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect and appeared on July 31, 1786. Its success was immediate and overwhelming. Simple country folk and sophisticated Edinburgh critics alike hailed it, and the upshot was that Burns set out for Edinburgh on November 27, 1786, to be lionized,…

  • Poems, Chiefly Lyrical (poems by Tennyson)

    Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, collection of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, published in 1830. Many of the poems contain experimental elements such as irregular metres and words employed for their musical or evocative powers rather than for their strict meanings. The collection includes the introspective

  • Poems: North & South: A Cold Spring (poetry by Bishop)

    North & South, collection of poetry by Elizabeth Bishop, published in 1955. The book, which was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1956, was a revision of an earlier collection, North & South (1946), to which 17 poems were added. Both collections capture the divided nature of Bishop’s allegiances: born in

  • Poenari fortress (fortress, Argeş, Romania)

    Argeș: The 15th-century fortress of Poenari was constructed, overlooking the Argeș River valley, by Vlad III (Vlad Țepeș, or Vlad the Impaler), a prince known for executing his enemies by impalement, who may have been the prototype for Count Dracula in Bram Stoker’s novel (1897). The fortress has a stairway…

  • Poenaru, D. N. (physicist)

    radioactivity: Heavy-ion radioactivity: Sandulescu, D.N. Poenaru, and W. Greiner described calculations indicating the possibility of a new type of decay of heavy nuclei intermediate between alpha decay and spontaneous fission. The first observation of heavy-ion radioactivity was that of a 30-MeV, carbon-14 emission from radium-223 by H.J. Rose and…

  • Poeobiida (polychaete order)

    annelid: Annotated classification: Order Poeobiida Body saclike without external segmentation; anterior end with circle of tentacles; 2 internal septa only polychaete characteristics; pelagic; single genus, Poeobius. Class Oligochaeta Primarily freshwater or terrestrial with setae arising directly from body wall; name of group refers to the few

  • Poeobius (polychaete genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: …polychaete characteristics; pelagic; single genus, Poeobius. Class Oligochaeta Primarily freshwater or terrestrial with setae arising directly from body wall; name of group refers to the few setae per segment; head and body appendages generally lacking; hermaphroditic, with testes located anteriorly to ovaries; gonoduct system complex; seminal receptacle used to store…

  • Poephila gouldiae (bird)

    grass finch: …the most colourful is the Gouldian finch (Chloebia, formerly Poephila, gouldiae) whose plumage is purple, gold, green, blue, and black; its face may be red, orange, or black. The star finch (Neochmia ruficauda) is greenish brown above and yellow below, with white-dotted red head, greenish gray breast, and white-barred red…

  • Poephila guttata (bird)

    animal social behaviour: The proximate mechanisms of social behaviour: The song of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) illustrates the hormonal influences on song development and singing behaviour. After the birds hatch, male and female brains develop differently. Injecting females with estrogen early in development causes them to develop malelike brains, but they will not sing male song unless…

  • Poerio, Alessandro (Italian liberal)

    Alessandro Poerio, Italian liberal during the Risorgimento, brother of Carlo Poerio. The son of Baron Giuseppe Poerio, a Neapolitan lawyer well known for his own liberal sympathies, Alessandro was taken into exile by his father on the Bourbon restoration in Naples in 1815. He returned to Naples in

  • Poerio, Carlo (Italian revolutionary)

    Carlo Poerio, Italian revolutionary, distinguished for his services to liberalism during the Risorgimento. The son of the Neapolitan lawyer and liberal Baron Giuseppe Poerio and the brother of the poet and soldier Alessandro Poerio, Carlo shared in the exiles of his family from Naples by the

  • Poesia (literary journal)

    Italian literature: Literary trends before World War I: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, editor of Poesia, a fashionable cosmopolitan review. Both Crepuscolari and Futuristi were part of a complex European tradition of disillusionment and revolt, the former inheriting the sophisticated pessimism of French and Flemish Decadents, the latter a fundamental episode in the history of the western European avant-garde as…

  • poesia marginal (poetry)

    Brazilian literature: Poetry: The term poesia marginal (“marginal poetry”) embraces noncommercial networks of poetry and represents diverse practices that are marginal in their unconventional production and distribution, in their “uncultured” forms, and in their opposition to the repressive military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985. During this period,…

  • Poesía no eres tú (work by Castellanos)

    Rosario Castellanos: , The Selected Poems, by Magda Bogin), a polemical allusion to a well-known verse by Spanish Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, in which he tells his beloved that she is poetry.

  • Poesía sin fin (film by Jodorowsky [2016])

    Alejandro Jodorowsky: Later films, comic books, and psychomagic: …movie, Poesía sin fin (2016; Endless Poetry), was also autobiographical, chronicling Jodorowsky as a young man.

  • poesía social (literature)

    Spanish literature: Poetry: Leaders of postwar poesía social (social poetry) are sometimes referred to as a “Basque triumvirate”: Gabriel Celaya, a prewar Surrealist who became a leading spokesman for the opposition to Franco; Blas de Otero, an existentialist writing in the vein of Antonio Machado’s Campos de Castilla; and Ángela Figuera,…

  • Poesía, 1915-56 (poetry by Palés Matos)

    Luis Palés Matos: The collection Poesía, 1915–56 (1957) reveals his more personal side as a lyric poet and as a melancholy man, ill at ease in the modern world.

  • Poesías (work by Lista)

    Alberto Lista: His Poesías (1822, 1837; “Poems”) show faint influences of the Romantic movement. Among his best-known works are El imperio de la estupidez (1798; “The Empire of Stupidity”), a critical work in the manner of Alexander Pope’s Dunciad; Ensayos literarios y críticos (1844; “Literary and Critical Essays”);…

  • Poesías eróticas y amatorias (work by Villegas)

    Esteban Manuel de Villegas: …an early book of poems, Poesías eróticas y amatorias (1617–18).

  • Poesías líricas (work by Gómez de Avellaneda)

    Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda: …1841 into a volume entitled Poesías líricas (“Lyrical Poems”). Combining the classical style of Manuel José Quintana with her own romantic vision, tinged with a pessimism born of much personal suffering, these poems rank among the most poignant in all Spanish literature. Her plays, distinctive for their poetic diction and…

  • Poesie campestri (work by Pindemonte)

    Ippolito Pindemonte: … (1779), and one of lyrics, Poesie campestri (1788; “Rural Poetry”). Both showed a sensitivity to nature and the influence of the contemporary English poets Thomas Gray and Edward Young. A stay in Paris inspired the poem “La Francia” (1789) and a prose satire on political conditions in Europe, Abaritte (1790).…

  • Poesie di Ossian (work by Cesarotti)

    Melchiorre Cesarotti: …of the Ossian poems (Poesie di Ossian, 1763–72; modern ed., 1924) revived interest in nature poetry. Two important essays also encouraged would-be Romantic writers: Saggio sulla filosofia del gusto (1785; “Essay on the Philosophy of Taste”) and Saggio sulla filosofia delle lingue (1785; “Essay on the Philosophy of Languages”),…

  • Poésies, premières poésies, poésies philosophiques (work by Ackermann)

    Louise-Victorine Ackermann: …real reputation rests on the Poésies, premières poésies, poésies philosophiques (1874; “Poetry, First Poetry, Philosophical Poetry”), a volume of sombre and powerful verse, expressing her revolt against human suffering.

  • poet (literature)

    Poetry, literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience or a specific emotional response through language chosen and arranged for its meaning, sound, and rhythm. Poetry is a vast subject, as old as history and older, present wherever religion is present, possibly—under

  • Poet in New York (work by García Lorca)

    Federico García Lorca: Later poetry and plays: …en Nueva York (published 1940; Poet in New York), a series of poems whose dense, at times hallucinatory images, free-verse lines, and thematic preoccupation with urban decay and social injustice mark an audacious departure from Lorca’s previous work. The collection is redolent of Charles Baudelaire, Edgar Allan Poe, T.S. Eliot,…

  • poet laureate (literary title)

    Poet laureate, title first granted in England in the 17th century for poetic excellence. Its holder is a salaried member of the British royal household, but the post has come to be free of specific poetic duties. In the United States, a similar position was created in 1936. The title of the office

  • Poet Lore (American periodical)

    Helen Archibald Clarke and Charlotte Endymion Porter: …Porter launched a new monthly, Poet Lore, “devoted to Shakespeare, Browning, and the Comparative Study of Literature.” The magazine found an immediate and growing audience among the proliferating literary clubs and societies across the nation, most if not all of them sharing the Victorian literary standards and interests of the…

  • Poet of the Slaves (Brazilian poet)

    Antônio de Castro Alves, Romantic poet whose sympathy for the Brazilian abolitionist cause won him the name “poet of the slaves.” While still a student Castro Alves produced a play that brought him to the attention of José de Alencar and Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, Brazilian literary leaders.

  • poet’s jasmine (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Common jasmine, or poet’s jasmine (Jasminum officinale), native to Iran, produces fragrant white flowers that are the source of attar of jasmine used in perfumery. It is widely cultivated for its shining leaves and clusters of flowers that bloom in summer. Winter jasmine (J. nudiflorum),…

  • poet’s narcissus (plant)

    narcissus: jonquilla), and poet’s narcissus (N. poeticus). The bulbs of Narcissus species, which are poisonous, were once used in medicines as an emetic and cathartic. An oil from jonquil flowers is used in perfumes.

  • Poeta en Nueva York (work by García Lorca)

    Federico García Lorca: Later poetry and plays: …en Nueva York (published 1940; Poet in New York), a series of poems whose dense, at times hallucinatory images, free-verse lines, and thematic preoccupation with urban decay and social injustice mark an audacious departure from Lorca’s previous work. The collection is redolent of Charles Baudelaire, Edgar Allan Poe, T.S. Eliot,…

  • Poetaster, The (play by Jonson)

    Ben Jonson: Theatrical career: 1600) and Poetaster (1601). Even in these, however, there is the paradox of contempt for human behaviour hand in hand with a longing for human order.

  • poète maudit (poetic concept)

    Poète maudit, (French: “accursed poet”), in literary criticism, the poet as an outcast of modern society, despised by its rulers who fear his penetrating insights into their spiritual emptiness. The phrase was first applied by Paul Verlaine in Les Poètes maudits (1884), a collection of critical and

  • Poètes maudits, Les (work by Verlaine)

    Stéphane Mallarmé: …the series of articles entitled Les Poètes maudits (“The Accursed Poets”) published by Verlaine in 1883 and the praise lavished on him by J.-K. Huysmans in his novel À rebours (“The Wrong Way”) in 1884 led to his wide recognition as the most eminent French poet of the day. A…

  • Poeti italiani del Novecento (anthology by Mengaldo)

    Italian literature: Poetry after World War II: …standard anthology of 20th-century poetry, Poeti italiani del Novecento (1978; “Italian Poets of the 20th Century”).

  • Poeti italiani del secondo Novecento 1945–1995 (anthology by Cucchi and Giovanardi)

    Italian literature: Poetry after World War II: …of contemporary literature Stefano Giovanardi, Poeti italiani del secondo Novecento, 1945–1995 (1996; “Italian Poets of the Second Half of the 20th Century, 1945–1995”), introduced a useful taxonomy. Cucchi and Giovanardi recognized that, in talking about the new poetry, they had to take into account the older, established poets who continued…

  • poetic diction (literature)

    Poetic diction, grandiose, elevated, and unfamiliar language, supposedly the prerogative of poetry but not of prose. The earliest critical reference to poetic diction is Aristotle’s remark in the Poetics that it should be clear without being “mean.” But subsequent generations of poets were more

  • Poetic Edda (Icelandic literature)

    Codex Regius: …designated by scholars as the Poetic Edda, or Elder Edda (see Edda). It is the oldest such collection, the best-known of all Icelandic books, and an Icelandic national treasure.

  • poetic imagery (literature)

    Poetic imagery, the sensory and figurative language used in poetry. The object or experience that a poet is contemplating is usually perceived by that poet in a relationship to some second object or event, person, or thing. The poet may be thought to transfer from this second object certain

  • poetic justice (literature)

    Poetic justice, in literature, an outcome in which vice is punished and virtue rewarded, usually in a manner peculiarly or ironically appropriate. The term was coined by the English literary critic Thomas Rymer in the 17th century, when it was believed that a work of literature should uphold moral

  • Poetic Justice (film by Singleton [1993])

    John Singleton: His next film, Poetic Justice (1993), starred Jackson’s sister, singer Janet Jackson. Singleton’s other films included Higher Learning (1995), a drama investigating a variety of social issues as it follows the lives of three college freshmen (1993); Rosewood (1997), based on a true story of racial violence in…

  • poetic license (literature)

    Poetic license, the right assumed by poets to alter or invert standard syntax or depart from common diction or pronunciation to comply with the metrical or tonal requirements of their writing. As a general rule, poetry has a carefully controlled verbal structure. The metre of the poem, the pattern

  • poetic realism (French cinema)

    Lazare Meerson: …of the development of French poetic realism, a complete break from the expressionism and impressionism popular at the time.

  • Poetic Realism (literature)

    Danish literature: Poetic Realism: New elements of reason and realism appeared after the first quarter of the century in the works of Poul Møller, who wrote the first Danish novel on contemporary life, En dansk students eventyr (1824; “The Adventures of a Danish Student”), as well as…

  • poetic rhythm (poetry)

    Rhythm, in poetry, the patterned recurrence, within a certain range of regularity, of specific language features, usually features of sound. Although difficult to define, rhythm is readily discriminated by the ear and the mind, having as it does a physiological basis. It is universally agreed to

  • poetic theatre (art)

    Joseph Cornell: …(Soap Bubble Set), his first shadow box of the type for which he became best known. Cornell’s shadow boxes—or “memory boxes” or “poetic theatres,” as he called them—took the form of glass-fronted boxes containing found objects and collaged elements arranged in enigmatic, often poetic, juxtaposition. Recurrent themes and motifs included…

  • Poetica (treatise by Aristotle)

    dance: Thus, Aristotle’s statement in the Poetics that dance is rhythmic movement whose purpose is “to represent men’s characters as well as what they do and suffer” refers to the central role that dance played in classical Greek theatre, where the chorus through its movements reenacted the themes of the drama…

  • poetica di Aristotele vulgarizzata, La (work by Castelvetro)

    Lodovico Castelvetro: …the Poetics of Aristotle, called La poetica di Aristotele vulgarizzata (“Aristotle’s Poetics Popularized”), was published in 1570. Though often erroneous in transmitting Aristotle’s ideas, La poetica was extremely influential in the history of drama and of criticism. Castelvetro emphasized realism in drama, clarified the distinction between rhetoric and poetry, and…

  • poetica, La (work by Trissino)

    Gian Giorgio Trissino: His La poetica (1529) used Italian poetry to exemplify his theory.

  • poetical justice (literature)

    Poetic justice, in literature, an outcome in which vice is punished and virtue rewarded, usually in a manner peculiarly or ironically appropriate. The term was coined by the English literary critic Thomas Rymer in the 17th century, when it was believed that a work of literature should uphold moral

  • Poetical Meditations (work by Lamartine)

    Alphonse de Lamartine: Early life and Méditations poétiques: …his first collection of poetry, Méditations poétiques, which became immensely successful because of its new romantic tone and sincerity of feeling. It brought to French poetry a new music; the themes were at the same time intimate and religious. If the vocabulary remained that of the somewhat faded rhetoric of…

  • Poetical Register (work by Jacob)

    William Congreve: Legacy: …was praised in Giles Jacob’s Poetical Register (1719), where he is described as being “so far from being puff’d up with Vanity…that he abounds with Humility and good Nature. He does not shew so much the Poet as the Gentleman.” The last phrase will serve as a comment on the…

  • Poetical Sketches (work by Blake)

    William Blake: Blake as a poet: …volume of 70 pages titled Poetical Sketches, with the attribution on the title page reading simply, “By W.B.” It contained an “advertisement” by Reverend Mathew that stated, “Conscious of the irregularities and defects to be found in almost every page, his friends have still believed that they possessed a poetic…

  • Poetical Works (work by Bridges)

    prosody: Quantitative metres: …on prosody, remarked in his Poetical Works (1912) that the difficulty of adapting English syllables to the Greek rules is “very great, and even deterrent.” Longfellow’s hexameter is in reality a syllable-stress line of five dactyls and a final trochee; syllabic quantity plays no part in determining the metre.

  • Poetical Works of Behá-ed-Dín Zoheir of Egypt, The (work by Bahāʾ ad-Dīn Zuhayr)

    Bahāʾ al-Dīn Zuhayr: Palmer, The Poetical Works of Behá-ed-Dín Zoheir of Egypt, 2 vol. (1876–77). Among his poems are qasida (odes) of praise to members of the Ayyūbid dynasty or to officials; other poems include those devoted to love found and lost and to friendship.

  • Poetical Works of George M. Horton, The Colored Bard of North Carolina, The (work by Horton)

    George Moses Horton: …of fears of punishment, The Poetical Works of George M. Horton, The Colored Bard of North Carolina (1845) addresses the issue of slavery in a subtle manner. His last and largest volume of verse is Naked Genius (1865).

  • Poeticheskiye vozzreniya slavyan na prirody (work by Afanasev)

    Aleksandr Nikolayevich Afanasev: …vozzreniya slavyan na prirodu (The Slav’s Poetical Views of Nature) in three volumes, which provided the first synthesis of the theories of the Mythological school, a 19th-century Romantic literary movement that drew its inspiration from folklore. The Mythological school was grounded in the aesthetic philosophy of F.W. von Schelling…

  • Poetics (treatise by Aristotle)

    dance: Thus, Aristotle’s statement in the Poetics that dance is rhythmic movement whose purpose is “to represent men’s characters as well as what they do and suffer” refers to the central role that dance played in classical Greek theatre, where the chorus through its movements reenacted the themes of the drama…

  • poetischer Realismus (literature)

    Danish literature: Poetic Realism: New elements of reason and realism appeared after the first quarter of the century in the works of Poul Møller, who wrote the first Danish novel on contemporary life, En dansk students eventyr (1824; “The Adventures of a Danish Student”), as well as…

  • Poetiske skrifter (work by Oehlenschläger)

    Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger: His Poetiske skrifter (1805; “Poetic Writings”) contains two long cycles of lyric poems and Aladdin, a poetic drama on the writer’s own life, with the lamp of the story symbolizing intuitive poetic genius. Oehlenschläger was by now recognized as an important Romantic poet and an able…

  • Poetry (American magazine)

    Poetry, U.S. poetry magazine founded in Chicago in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who became its longtime editor. It became the principal organ for modern poetry of the English-speaking world and survived through World War II. Because its inception coincided with the Chicago literary renaissance, it is

  • poetry (literature)

    Poetry, literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience or a specific emotional response through language chosen and arranged for its meaning, sound, and rhythm. Poetry is a vast subject, as old as history and older, present wherever religion is present, possibly—under

  • Poetry (poem by Moore)

    Marianne Moore: …“The Labors of Hercules,” and “Poetry.” The last named is the source of her often-quoted admonition that poets should present imaginary gardens with real toads in them.

  • Poetry and Music as they Affect the Mind (work by Beattie)

    aesthetics: Major concerns of 18th-century aesthetics: …is James Beattie’s Essay on Poetry and Music as They Affect the Mind (1776), in which the author rejects the view of music as a representational (imitative) art form and argues that expression is the true source of musical excellence. Another example is provided by Denis Diderot in his didactic…

  • Poetry and Truth (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Last years (1817–32): …fourth section of his autobiography Poetry and Truth, completing the story of his life up to his departure for Weimar in 1775; he compiled an account of his time in Rome in 1787–88, Zweiter Römischer Aufenthalt (1829; “Second Sojourn in Rome”); and above all he wrote part two of Faust,…

  • Poetry for Supper (work by Thomas)

    R.S. Thomas: …Thomas’s later volumes, starting with Poetry for Supper (1958), the subjects of his poetry remained the same, yet his questions became more specific, his irony more bitter, and his compassion deeper. In such later works as The Way of It (1977), Frequencies (1978), Between Here and Now (1981), and Later…

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