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  • Pm (chemical element)

    Promethium (Pm), chemical element, the only rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table not found in nature on Earth. Conclusive chemical proof of the existence of promethium, the last of the rare-earth elements to be discovered, was obtained in 1945 (but not announced until

  • PM (telecommunications)

    modulation: Phase modulation.: The phase of a carrier wave is varied in response to the vibrations of the sound source in phase modulation (PM). This form of modulation is often considered a variation of FM. The two processes are closely related because phase cannot be changed…

  • PM (logic)

    formal logic: Axiomatization of PC: …Bertrand Russell, is often called PM:

  • PM Magazine (American television program)

    Matt Lauer: …and hosted the nationally syndicated PM Magazine, a news and entertainment program, from 1980 to 1986. In 1989 he relocated to New York, where he briefly hosted several television shows and later became the cohost of the talk show 9 Broadway Plaza.

  • PMAC (political organization, Ethiopia)

    Ethiopia: Economy: The communist Derg regime, which ruled from 1974 to 1991, nationalized all means of production, including land, housing, farms, and industry. Faced with uncertainties on their land rights, the smallholding subsistence farmers who form the backbone of Ethiopian agriculture became reluctant to risk producing surplus foods for…

  • PMC

    Private military company (PMC), independent corporation that offers military services to national governments, international organizations, and substate actors. Private military companies (PMCs) constitute an important and deeply controversial element of the privatized military industry. PMCs

  • PMC Colleges (university, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Widener University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S. It comprises schools of arts and sciences; law; education, innovation, and continuing studies; hospitality management; human service professions; engineering; nursing; and business

  • PMC material

    aerospace industry: Working of materials: Polymer-matrix composites are valued in the aerospace industry for their stiffness, lightness, and heat resistance (see materials science: Polymer-matrix composites). They are fabricated materials in which carbon or hydrocarbon fibres (and sometimes metallic strands, filaments, or particles) are bonded together by polymer resins in either…

  • PMDB (political party, Brazil)

    Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement, centrist Brazilian Christian Democratic political party. The Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB) was founded in 1980 by members of the Brazilian Democratic Movement, which had been created in the mid-1960s as the official opposition to the

  • PMDD (pathology)

    premenstrual syndrome: …syndrome may be diagnosed with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). While premenstrual dysphoric disorder is closely related to major depressive disorder, the symptoms of severe depression are cyclical in nature, fluctuating with cycles of ovulation and menstruation. A distinguishing factor in the diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder is that depression eventually…

  • PMDI (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polyurethanes: …and a polymeric isocyanate (PMDI). These isocyanates have the following structures:

  • PMF

    Private military company (PMC), independent corporation that offers military services to national governments, international organizations, and substate actors. Private military companies (PMCs) constitute an important and deeply controversial element of the privatized military industry. PMCs

  • PML-J (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Zia ul-Haq: …Pakistan Muslim League—often designated as Muslim League (J) to distinguish it from other factions attempting to access the party’s legacy. Soon afterward Benazir Bhutto, the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and head of the PPP, returned from a two-year exile abroad and was greeted by a tumultuous gathering of supporters…

  • PML-N (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The second administration of Nawaz Sharif: The PML-N of Nawaz Sharif was the big winner, taking all the provinces either outright or through coalitions with provincial parties. Although only one-third of the eligible electorate had voted, no party in the history of Pakistan had done better in an election (taking two-thirds of…

  • PML-Q (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Electoral losses and resignation: …Musharraf and his rule; his PML-Q party finished a distant third behind the PPP (now led by Asif Ali Zardari, Bhutto’s widower), which captured about one-third of the parliamentary seats up for election, and Sharif’s party, the PML-N, with about one-fourth of the seats. In March the PPP and PML-N…

  • PMMA (chemical compound)

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a synthetic resin produced from the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. A transparent and rigid plastic, PMMA is often used as a substitute for glass in products such as shatterproof windows, skylights, illuminated signs, and aircraft canopies. It is sold under

  • PMP (bioengineered drug)

    pharming: Plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) differ from naturally occurring therapeutic plant compounds because pharmed plants are genetically engineered to express a gene that produces a therapeutic substance. This factor also distinguishes pharmed plants from plants genetically modified for agricultural purposes. PMPs can be extracted and purified from…

  • PMRC (American committee)

    Frank Zappa: …testified against censorship at the Parents’ Music Resource Center hearings in 1985 in Washington, D.C. In the wake of Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution (1989), Zappa was invited to Prague, where he met with the country’s new president, Václav Havel. A longtime admirer of Zappa’s commitment to individual freedom, Havel named him…

  • PMS (medicine)

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a medical condition in which a group of characteristic physical and emotional symptoms are felt by women before the onset of menstruation. The symptoms of PMS are cyclic in nature, generally beginning from 7 to 14 days before menstruation and ending within 24 hours

  • PN (political party, Philippines)

    Sergio Osmeña: …Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

  • PN (political party, Malta)

    Malta: Modern history: …Malta was governed by the Nationalist Party (Partit Nazzjonalista; PN), which pursued a policy of firm alignment with the West. In 1971, however, the Malta Labour Party (Partit Laburista; MLP) came to power, embracing a policy of nonalignment and aggressively asserting Malta’s sovereignty. The MLP formed a special friendship with…

  • PNA (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: …nine opposition parties formed the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) and agreed to run as a single bloc. Fearing the possible strength of the PNA, Bhutto and his colleagues plotted an electoral strategy that included unleashing the FSF to terrorize the opposition. However, PNA members refused to be intimidated and centred…

  • PNA mode (atmospheric science)

    climate: The ocean surface and climate anomalies: …circulation type known as the Pacific–North American (PNA) mode. Such patterns are intrinsic modes of the atmosphere, which may be forced by thermal anomalies in the tropical atmosphere and which in their turn are forced by tropical ocean surface temperature anomalies. As noted earlier, enhanced tropical sea surface temperatures increase…

  • PNC (El Salvadoran police)

    El Salvador: The postconflict era: …new civilian police force (Policía Nacional Civil; PNC), and the establishment of a commission to investigate human rights abuses of the Salvadoran Armed Forces and the FMLN during the war. The FMLN subsequently became a political party. Also in 1992, a century-old territorial dispute between El Salvador and Honduras…

  • PNC (political party, Guyana)

    Guyana: Political process: The People’s National Congress (PNC), which initially identified with the urban Afro-Guyanese populace, essentially established a one-party state under the direction of its first leader, Forbes Burnham, who served as prime minister during 1964–80 and president during 1980–85. The PNC won power in an election marked…

  • PNC (Palestinian organization)

    Jordan: From 1973 to the intifāḍah: …Ḥussein, in 1984, allowed the Palestine National Council (a virtual parliament of the Palestinians) to meet in Amman. In February 1985 he signed an agreement with ʿArafāt pledging cooperation with the PLO and coordination of a joint peace initiative. Ḥussein believed that ʿArafāt would accept a confederation of the West…

  • PNC curve (acoustics)

    noise pollution: Dealing with the effects of noise: …the noise criteria (NC) and preferred noise criteria (PNC) curves, which provide limits on the level of noise introduced into the environment. The NC curves, developed in 1957, aim to provide a comfortable working or living environment by specifying the maximum allowable level of noise in octave bands over the…

  • PNDC (Ghanaian government)

    Ghana: Series of coups: …second military coup established a Provisional National Defense Council as the supreme national government; at local levels, people’s defense committees were to take the campaign for national renewal down to the grass roots.

  • PNDS (political party, Nigeria)

    Niger: Military coup and return to civilian rule: The Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism–Tarayya (Parti Nigérien pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme–Tarayya; PNDS), an established opposition party, won the greatest representation in the National Assembly by a single party with 39 seats; they were followed by the MNSD with 26 seats. No one…

  • pneuma (music)

    sequence: …text, or both) to the jubilus, the florid ending of the last syllable of the Alleluia. The melodic tropes were normally broken into phrases that were repeated in performance (as aa, bb, cc,…) by alternating choirs. Texts set to these and to Alleluia melodies were originally prose and thus were…

  • pneuma (medicine)

    pneumatism: …a subtle vapour called the pneuma; it was, in essence, an attempt to explain respiration.

  • pneumatic (Gnosticism)

    Christianity: Messianic secrets and the mysteries of salvation: …third group of beings called pneumatics. The God of Genesis then sought to prevent gnostics from discovering their past origins, present powers, and future destinies. Gnostics (the pneumatics) contain within themselves divine sparks expelled from the pleroma. Christ was sent from the pleroma to teach gnostics the saving knowledge (gnosis)…

  • pneumatic action (music)

    keyboard instrument: Stop and key mechanisms: Organs may, however, have pneumatic, direct electric, or electropneumatic action, although these actions result in a loss of sensitivity and responsiveness. In very large organs with tracker action, considerable strength may be necessary to depress the keys. Also, where the layout of the building is inconvenient and the departments…

  • pneumatic caisson (construction)

    air lock: …air is compressed, such as pneumatic caissons and underwater tunnels. The air lock also has been used as a design feature of space vehicles; on March 18, 1965, the Soviet cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov passed through an air lock to become the first man to walk in space.

  • pneumatic capsule pipeline (technology)

    pipeline: Capsule pipelines: …gas, the technology is called pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP), and, when water or another liquid is used, it is termed hydraulic capsule pipeline (HCP). Owing to the low density of air, capsules in PCP cannot be suspended by air at ordinary speeds. Instead, the capsules are wheeled vehicles rolling through…

  • pneumatic chemistry (science)

    Antoine Lavoisier: Pneumatic chemistry: The chemistry Lavoisier studied as a student was not a subject particularly noted for conceptual clarity or theoretical rigour. Although chemical writings contained considerable information about the substances chemists studied, little agreement existed upon the precise composition of chemical elements or between explanations…

  • pneumatic conveyor (mechanical device)

    pipeline: Pneumatic pipelines: Pneumatic pipelines, also called pneumo transport, transport solid particles using air as the carrier medium. Because air is free and exists everywhere, and because it does not wet or react chemically with most solids, pneumo transport is preferred to hydro transport for most…

  • pneumatic device (instrument)

    Pneumatic device, any of various tools and instruments that generate and utilize compressed air. Examples include rock drills, pavement breakers, riveters, forging presses, paint sprayers, blast cleaners, and atomizers. Compressed-air power is flexible, economic, and safe. An air device creates no

  • pneumatic pipeline (mechanical device)

    pipeline: Pneumatic pipelines: Pneumatic pipelines, also called pneumo transport, transport solid particles using air as the carrier medium. Because air is free and exists everywhere, and because it does not wet or react chemically with most solids, pneumo transport is preferred to hydro transport for most…

  • pneumatic process (metallurgy)

    William Kelly: …American ironmaster who invented the pneumatic process of steelmaking, in which air is blown through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities. Also patented by Sir Henry Bessemer of Great Britain, this process produced the first inexpensive steel, which became the major construction material in the burgeoning industrial…

  • pneumatic structure (building construction)

    Pneumatic structure, Membrane structure that is stabilized by the pressure of compressed air. Air-supported structures are supported by internal air pressure. A network of cables stiffens the fabric, and the assembly is supported by a rigid ring at the edge. The air pressure within this bubble is

  • pneumatic tire (transportation)

    tire: Pneumatic tires: The pneumatic tire is designed to provide a flexible cover with an impermeable lining to contain and restrain the compressed air. This cover is provided with a rubber tread portion that is designed to withstand the cutting and abrasive wear of road contact…

  • pneumatic transducer (instrument)

    ultrasonics: Transducers: Mechanical devices include gas-driven, or pneumatic, transducers such as whistles as well as liquid-driven transducers such as hydrodynamic oscillators and vibrating blades. These devices, limited to low ultrasonic frequencies, have a number of industrial applications, including drying, ultrasonic cleaning, and injection of fuel oil into burners. Electromechanical transducers…

  • Pneumatica (book by Heron of Alexandria)

    Heron of Alexandria: …that remain in Greek are Pneumatica, Automatopoietica, Belopoeica, and Cheirobalistra. The Pneumatica, in two books, describes a menagerie of mechanical devices, or “toys”: singing birds, puppets, coin-operated machines, a fire engine, a water organ, and his most famous invention, the aeolipile, the first steam-powered engine. This last device consists of…

  • pneumatique

    special delivery: …of mailing when sent by pneumatique, a pneumatic-tube conveyance system.

  • pneumatism (medical theory)

    Pneumatism, in medicine, Alexandrian medical school, or sect, based on the theory that life is associated with a subtle vapour called the pneuma; it was, in essence, an attempt to explain respiration. Pneumatism was expounded by the Greek anatomist and physiologist Erasistratus about 300 bc,

  • pneumatocyst (biology)

    Sargassum: …with hollow berrylike floats (pneumatocysts). The numerous fronds are generally small and leaflike with toothed edges. Most species reproduce sexually, but the pelagic species reproduce by fragmentation. The largest members can reach several metres in length.

  • Pneumatomachian (Christianity)

    Pneumatomachian, (“Opponents of the Spirit”), any of the Christian heretics of the 4th century ad who denied the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father in the divine Trinity. See

  • Pneumatomachian heresy (religious history)

    Macedonianism, a 4th-century Christian heresy that denied the full personhood and divinity of the Holy Spirit. According to this heresy, the Holy Spirit was created by the Son and was thus subordinate to the Father and the Son. (In orthodox Trinitarian theology, God is one in essence but three in

  • Pneumatomachist (Christianity)

    Pneumatomachian, (“Opponents of the Spirit”), any of the Christian heretics of the 4th century ad who denied the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father in the divine Trinity. See

  • Pneumatomachoi (Christianity)

    Pneumatomachian, (“Opponents of the Spirit”), any of the Christian heretics of the 4th century ad who denied the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father in the divine Trinity. See

  • Pneumatomachos (Christianity)

    Pneumatomachian, (“Opponents of the Spirit”), any of the Christian heretics of the 4th century ad who denied the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father in the divine Trinity. See

  • pneumatophore (root system)

    mangrove: Respiratory or knee roots (pneumatophores) are characteristic of many species; they project above the mud and have small openings (lenticels) through which air enters, passing through the soft spongy tissue to the roots beneath the mud.

  • pneumatophore (cnidarian zooid)

    cnidarian: Reproduction and life cycles: These include gas-filled floats called pneumatophores, pulsating, locomotory structures called nectophores, and flattened, protective individuals called bracts or phyllozooids.

  • Pneumatophorus diego (fish)

    mackerel: …to this species is the chub mackerel (S. colias; once separated into Atlantic and Pacific species). They are more finely marked than the common mackerel; the chub mackerel that is found in the Pacific Ocean is bright green with vertical stripes. It has an air bladder but is otherwise similar…

  • Pneumatophorus grex (fish)

    mackerel: …to this species is the chub mackerel (S. colias; once separated into Atlantic and Pacific species). They are more finely marked than the common mackerel; the chub mackerel that is found in the Pacific Ocean is bright green with vertical stripes. It has an air bladder but is otherwise similar…

  • Pneumatophorus japonicus (fish)

    mackerel: …to this species is the chub mackerel (S. colias; once separated into Atlantic and Pacific species). They are more finely marked than the common mackerel; the chub mackerel that is found in the Pacific Ocean is bright green with vertical stripes. It has an air bladder but is otherwise similar…

  • pneumo transport (mechanical device)

    pipeline: Pneumatic pipelines: Pneumatic pipelines, also called pneumo transport, transport solid particles using air as the carrier medium. Because air is free and exists everywhere, and because it does not wet or react chemically with most solids, pneumo transport is preferred to hydro transport for most…

  • pneumococcal vaccine (biochemistry)

    infectious disease: Pneumococcal vaccine: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most frequent cause of bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and ear infection and is the third most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children. Pneumococcal infection is particularly serious among the elderly and among children with sickle-cell anemia, with congenital…

  • pneumococcus (bacterium)

    Pneumococcus, (Streptococcus pneumoniae), spheroidal bacterium in the family Streptococcaceae that causes human diseases such as pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and meningitis. It is microbiologically characterized as a gram-positive coccus, 0.5 to 1.25 μm (micrometre; 1 μm = 10-6 metre) in

  • pneumoconiosis (pathology)

    Pneumoconiosis, any of many lung diseases caused by the inhalation of a variety of organic or inorganic dusts or chemical irritants, usually over a prolonged period of time. The type and severity of disease depends on the composition of the dust; small quantities of some substances, notably silica

  • Pneumocystidales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Pneumocystidales Parasitic in the alveoli of the lungs of some vertebrates; asexual reproduction by fission; example genus is Pneumocystis. Class Schizosaccharomycetes Primarily saprotrophic; groups of fused ascospores may be present; contains 1 order. Order

  • Pneumocystidomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Pneumocystidomycetes Parasitic or pathogenic in animals; contains 1 order. Order Pneumocystidales Parasitic in the alveoli of the lungs of some vertebrates; asexual reproduction by fission; example genus is Pneumocystis. Class Schizosaccharomycetes

  • Pneumocystis (fungus genus)

    fungus: Evolution and phylogeny of fungi: …of molecular phylogenetic analysis, notably Pneumocystis, the Microsporidia, and Hyaloraphidium. Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in mammals, including humans with weakened immune systems; pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has been a major cause of death in people with

  • Pneumocystis carinii (fungus)

    AIDS: The emergence of AIDS: …rare lung infection known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. Expert review of the cases suggested that the disease likely was acquired through sexual contact and that it appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction caused by exposure to some factor that predisposed the affected…

  • Pneumocystis jirovecii (fungus)

    AIDS: The emergence of AIDS: …rare lung infection known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. Expert review of the cases suggested that the disease likely was acquired through sexual contact and that it appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction caused by exposure to some factor that predisposed the affected…

  • pneumoencephalography (medicine)

    Pneumoencephalography, technique of diagnostic radiology that produces X-ray films of the head after injection of air or gas between the membranes lining the brain and spinal cord to sharpen the outlines of various brain structures. The air or gas is introduced, in small increments, by exchange

  • pneumolysin (bacterial toxin)

    pneumonia: Bacterial pneumonia: …bacteria release a toxin called pneumolysin that damages the blood vessels in the lungs, causing bleeding into the air spaces. Antibiotics may exacerbate lung damage because they are designed to kill the bacteria by breaking them open, which leads to the further release of pneumolysin. Research into the development of…

  • pneumonia (pathology)

    Pneumonia, inflammation and consolidation of the lung tissue as a result of infection, inhalation of foreign particles, or irradiation. Many organisms, including viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia, but the most common causes are bacteria, in particular species of Streptococcus and Mycoplasma.

  • pneumonic plague (pathology)

    plague: Nature of the disease: …has three clinical forms: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic. Bubonic plague is the best-known form in popular lore, and indeed it constitutes about three-fourths of plague cases. It is also the least dangerous form of plague, accounting today for virtually no deaths and in the past killing only half of its…

  • pneumothorax (pathology)

    Pneumothorax, condition in which air accumulates in the pleural space, causing it to expand and thus compress the underlying lung, which may then collapse. (The pleural space is a cavity formed by the two pleural membranes that line the thoracic cavity and cover the lungs.) Different

  • Pneumovirinae (virus subfamily)

    virus: Annotated classification: The second subfamily, Pneumovirinae, causes the serious respiratory syncytial virus disease in human infants. Family Rhabdoviridae Enveloped virions, usually bullet-shaped, about 75 nm in diameter and 180 nm in length, containing a helical nucleocapsid with single-stranded negative-sense RNA and an endogenous RNA polymerase. The lipoprotein envelope contains a…

  • Pneumovirus (virus genus)

    paramyxovirus: Species of Pneumovirus, which are responsible for the serious respiratory syncytial virus disease in human infants, are classified in the subfamily Pneumovirinae.

  • PNF (political party, Italy)

    fasces: Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party of Italy was named for the fasces, which the members adopted in 1919 as their emblem. The Winged Liberty dime, minted in the United States from 1916 to 1945, depicts the fasces on its reverse side.

  • PNF (logic)

    formal logic: Logical manipulations in LPC: …is said to be in prenex normal form (PNF). Wffs that are in PNF are often more convenient to work with than those that are not. For every wff of LPC, however, there is an equivalent wff in PNF (often simply called its PNF). One effective method for finding the…

  • PNI (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: The rise of nationalism: …Indonesian Nationalist Association, later the Indonesian Nationalist Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia; PNI), was formed under the chairmanship of Sukarno. The PNI was based on the idea of noncooperation with the government of the East Indies and was thus distinguished from those groups, such as Sarekat Islam, that were prepared to…

  • Pnin (novel by Nabokov)

    Pnin, novel written in English by Vladimir Nabokov, published in 1957. It is an episodic story about Timofey Pnin, an older exiled Russian professor who teaches his native language at the fictional Waindell College in upstate New York. While not considered one of Nabokov’s major works, the novel is

  • PNM (political party, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Eric Williams: …(1962–81), who founded (1956) the People’s National Movement (PNM) and led his country to independence.

  • Pnom Penh (national capital, Cambodia)

    Phnom Penh, capital and chief city of Cambodia. It lies at the confluence of the Basăk (Bassac), Sab, and Mekong river systems, in the south-central part of the country. Phnom Penh was founded in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as the capital of the Khmer nation but was abandoned several times before

  • PNP (political party, Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Turks and Caicos Islands: History: …on November 9; the territory’s Progressive National Party (PNP) won eight of the 15 directly elected seats in the House of Assembly, and the rival People’s Democratic Movement (PDM) won seven. The PNP’s leader, Rufus Ewing, became premier. After the December 2016 election, power shifted as the PDM won 10…

  • PNP (political party, Jamaica)

    Jamaica: Political process: …Labour Party (JLP) and the People’s National Party (PNP), and between them they have dominated legislative elections since the country’s independence, to the virtual exclusion of any third party. The adversarial nature of Jamaican politics conceals broad agreement on constitutionalism, public education, and social welfare. The PNP, founded in 1938…

  • PNP (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Government: …of commonwealth status, and the New Progressive Party, which favours U.S. statehood. Together these two parties have commanded virtually all the vote in elections since the late 20th century. The Puerto Rican Independence Party, which won one-fifth of the vote in 1952, is supported by about 5 percent of the…

  • PNR (political party, Mexico)

    Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Mexican political party that dominated the country’s political institutions from its founding in 1929 until the end of the 20th century. Virtually all important figures in Mexican national and local politics belonged to the party, because the nomination of

  • PNR (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: In 1961 the left-wing Nationalist Republican Party (Partij Nationalistische Republiek; PNR) was established. Among the South Asian population the Action Group (Aktie Groep) became active. A split occurred in the NPS-VHP coalition after the 1967 elections, which led to a coalition of the Action Group and the NPS, but…

  • PNU (political party, Kenya)

    Mwai Kibaki: …formed a new coalition, the Party of National Unity (PNU), which, surprisingly, included KANU. Several candidates stood in the presidential election, which was one of the closest in Kenya’s history and boasted a record-high voter turnout. After a delay in the release of the final election results, Kibaki was declared…

  • Pnueli, Amir (Israeli computer scientist)

    Amir Pnueli, Israeli computer scientist and winner of the 1996 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for “seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and system verification.” Pnueli received a bachelor’s degree in

  • PNV (political organization, Basque region)

    Basque Nationalist Party, Basque political party that supports greater autonomy for the Basque Country (including Navarra) within Spain. The Basque Nationalist Party (commonly known by the combined Basque and Spanish acronym, EAJ-PNV) was established in 1895 in Bilbao by journalist Sabino de Arana

  • Pnyx (hill, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: Other notable buildings: …and the middle hill, the Pnyx (Tightly Crowded Together), the meeting place of the Ecclesia, the assembly of 18,000 citizens who heard the great Athenian orators. (In fact, attendance of more than 5,000 persons was rare at any gathering, but the Pnyx would still have been crowded.)

  • po (Daoism)

    Po, in Chinese Daoism, the seven earthly human souls as distinguished from the three heavenly hun souls. The distinction is based on the Chinese concept of yin-yang, the inescapable dual nature of all things. When the souls of a person are joined in harmonious union, health and life flourish;

  • Po (chemical element)

    Polonium (Po), a radioactive, silvery-gray or black metallic element of the oxygen group (Group 16 [VIa] in the periodic table). The first element to be discovered by radiochemical analysis, polonium was discovered in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie, who were investigating the radioactivity of a

  • po (Maori religion)

    creation myth: Creation by world parents: The Maori make the same point when they state that the world parents emerge out of po. Po for the Maori means the basic matter and the method by which creation comes about. There is thus some form of reality before the appearance of the world parents.

  • Po (ancient site, China)

    China: The Shang dynasty: …Erligang period, was found at Yanshi, about 3 miles (5 km) east of the Erlitou III palace foundations. These walls and palaces have been variously identified by modern scholars—the identification now favoured is of Zhengzhou as Bo, the capital of the Shang dynasty during the reign of Tang, the dynasty’s…

  • PO (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Poland in the 21st century: …was defeated by the centre-right Civic Platform party, which under the premiership of Donald Tusk formed a coalition government with the PSL.

  • Po (people)

    Bai, people of northwestern Yunnan province, southwest China. Minjia is the Chinese (Pinyin) name for them; they call themselves Bai or Bo in their own language, which has been classified within the Yi group of Tibeto-Burman languages. Until recently the language was not written. It contains many

  • Po Chü-i (Chinese poet)

    Bai Juyi, Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty (618–907) who used his elegantly simple verse to protest the social evils of his day, including corruption and militarism. Bai Juyi began composing poetry at age five. Because of his father’s death in 794 and straitened family circumstances, Bai did not

  • Po Hai (gulf, China)

    Bo Hai, shallow northwestern arm of the Yellow Sea, off the northern coast of China. It is enclosed by the Liaodong Peninsula (northeast) and the Shandong Peninsula (south). The Gulf of Liaodong to the northeast and Laizhou Bay to the south are generally considered part of the Bo Hai. Within these

  • Po River (river, Italy)

    Po River, longest river in Italy, rising in the Monte Viso group of the Cottian Alps on Italy’s western frontier and emptying into the Adriatic Sea in the east after a course of 405 miles (652 km). Its drainage basin covers 27,062 square miles (70,091 square km), forming Italy’s widest and most f

  • Po Valley (region, Italy)

    Italy: Lombard Italy: …to the north of the Po River, the area with the majority of Lombard place-names and Germanic-style archaeological finds (mostly from cemetery sites). But even there Lombards must have been a minority, and they must have been even more so farther south. There were probably few concentrations of Germanic settlers…

  • po’ boy (food)

    Hoagie, a submarine sandwich filled with Italian meats, cheeses, and other toppings. The name likely comes from the Philadelphia area where, during World War I, Italian immigrants who worked at the Hog Island shipyard began making sandwiches; they were originally called “hoggies” before the name

  • Pó, Fernão do (Portuguese explorer)

    Cameroon: Early history: In 1472 the Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó was the first European to view the Cameroon coast, although Hanno, a Carthaginian, may have sailed there 2,000 years earlier. Pó was followed by traders, many of whom were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Cameroon became a significant source of slaves,…

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