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  • platinum–iridium (alloy)

    Platinum–iridium, alloy of platinum containing from 1 to 30 percent iridium, used for jewelry and surgical pins. A readily worked alloy, platinum–iridium is much harder, stiffer, and more resistant to chemicals than pure platinum, which is relatively soft. Platinum–iridium is also very resistant

  • PLATO (computer-based education system)

    PLATO, computer-based education system created in 1960 by Donald L. Bitzer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). In addition to being used successfully as a teaching tool, PLATO also spawned one of the first successful online communities. In many ways, PLATO’s development

  • Plato (Greek philosopher)

    Plato, ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c. 470–399 bce), teacher of Aristotle (384–322 bce), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence. Building on the demonstration by Socrates that those regarded as experts in ethical

  • Plato’s problem (linguistics)

    Noam Chomsky: Plato’s problem: A fundamental insight of philosophical rationalism is that human creativity crucially depends on an innate system of concept generation and combination. According to Chomsky, children display “ordinary” creativity—appropriate and innovative use of complexes of concepts—from virtually their first words. With language, they bring…

  • Platoid languages

    Benue-Congo languages: Platoid: The 50 Platoid languages are spoken in the area of the Jos Plateau southward to the Benue River valley and across the river to the southeast. These languages also are spoken mostly by small groups, though a few groups are larger—e.g., Jju, or Kaje…

  • Platon (Russian Orthodox bishop)

    Russian Orthodox Church: …Tikhon, who then appointed metropolitans Platon and Evlogy as ruling bishops in America and Europe, respectively. Both of these metropolitans continued intermittently to entertain relations with the synod in Karlovci, but neither of them accepted it as a canonical authority.

  • Platonic Academy (ancient academy, Athens, Greece)

    Academy, in ancient Greece, the academy, or college, of philosophy in the northwestern outskirts of Athens where Plato acquired property about 387 bce and used to teach. At the site there had been an olive grove, a park, and a gymnasium sacred to the legendary Attic hero Academus (or Hecademus).

  • Platonic Academy (Italian scholars)

    Platonic Academy, a group of scholars in mid-15th-century Florence who met under the leadership of the outstanding translator and promulgator of Platonic philosophy Marsilio Ficino (q.v.), to study and discuss philosophy and the classics. The influence of their modernized and Christianized

  • Platonic criticism (literature)

    Platonic criticism, literary criticism based on the philosophical writings of Plato, especially his views on art expressed in Phaedrus, Ion, and the Republic. In practice Platonic criticism is part of an extensive approach to literature, involving an examination of the moral, ethical, and

  • platonic love (philosophy)

    Platonic love, a phrase used in two senses, with allusion in both cases to Plato’s account of love in his Symposium. The immediate object of the Symposium—which professes to record the discourses made in eulogy of Eros by a group of eminent speakers at a banquet in honour of the tragic poet

  • Platonic solid (mathematics)

    Platonic solid, any of the five geometric solids whose faces are all identical, regular polygons meeting at the same three-dimensional angles. Also known as the five regular polyhedra, they consist of the tetrahedron (or pyramid), cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron. Pythagoras (c.

  • Platonica, Accademia (Italian scholars)

    Platonic Academy, a group of scholars in mid-15th-century Florence who met under the leadership of the outstanding translator and promulgator of Platonic philosophy Marsilio Ficino (q.v.), to study and discuss philosophy and the classics. The influence of their modernized and Christianized

  • Platonism

    Platonism, any philosophy that derives its ultimate inspiration from Plato. Though there was in antiquity a tradition about Plato’s “unwritten doctrines,” Platonism then and later was based primarily on a reading of the dialogues. But these can be read in many different ways, often very

  • Platonov, Andrey (Russian author)

    Russia: The 20th century: …Master and Margarita (1966–67) and Andrey Platonov’s dark pictures of rural and semiurban Russia, The Foundation Pit (1973) and Chevengur (1972).

  • Platonov, Sergey Fyodorovich (Russian historian)

    Sergey Fyodorovich Platonov, leading Russian historian of the early 20th century. Having graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1882, Platonov held various academic posts at that institution and elsewhere. After 1920 he was a member of the U.S.S.R.’s Academy of Sciences. Most of

  • platoon (military unit)

    Platoon, principal subdivision of a military company, battery, or troop. Usually commanded by a lieutenant, it consists of from 25 to 50 men organized into two or more sections, or squads, led by noncommissioned officers. In the 17th century the term referred to a small body of musketeers who fired

  • Platoon (film by Stone [1986])

    Platoon, American war film, released in 1986, that was written and directed by Oliver Stone and was regarded by many critics as one of the best of the movies about the Vietnam War. Platoon won the Academy Award for best picture and the Golden Globe Award for best drama. The film presents the war

  • platoon football (sports)

    gridiron football: Knute Rockne and the influence of coaches: …controversy over one-platoon or two-platoon football (11 men playing both ways, or separate squads for offense and defense) arose in part out of concern that coaches not gain more control over the game. The colleges returned to one-platoon football in 1953, but in 1965 open substitution and two platoons…

  • Platorchestia platensis (crustacean)

    sand flea: The common sand flea (Platorchestia platensis, formerly known as Orchestia agilis), which is found on the coast of Europe and on the eastern Atlantic coasts of the Americas from Greenland to Uruguay, is about 1 cm (0.4 inch) in length and is mostly dark brown or…

  • Platt Amendment (United States [1901])

    Platt Amendment, rider appended to the U.S. Army appropriations bill of March 1901, stipulating the conditions for withdrawal of U.S. troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War and molding fundamental Cuban-U.S. relations until 1934. Formulated by the secretary of war, Elihu Root, the

  • Platt, Edward (American actor)

    Rebel Without a Cause: …supporting cast included Dennis Hopper, Edward Platt, and Jim Backus, who received praise for his memorable role as Dean’s henpecked father. All three lead actors met untimely deaths. Dean died in a car crash at age 24; Mineo was stabbed to death at 37; and Wood drowned amid mysterious circumstances…

  • Platt, Louise (American actress)

    Stagecoach: …fellow passenger Lucy Mallory (Louise Platt), who is pregnant and hopes to reunite with her husband in Lordsburg, where he serves as an army officer; and Doc Boone (Thomas Mitchell), a charismatic drunkard. The nervous passengers are reassured that they will have a U.S. cavalry escort through Apache territory,…

  • Platt, Martha (American social worker)

    Martha Platt Falconer, American social worker who helped transform U.S. institutions for delinquent or displaced and homeless young women from fundamentally a system of incarceration to one based on rehabilitation. On the death of her mother in 1877, Martha Platt lived with an older sister in

  • Platt, Orville Hitchcock (United States senator)

    Orville Hitchcock Platt, U.S. senator from Connecticut (1879–1905) who introduced the Platt Amendment, which became the basis for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Cuba following the Spanish-American War of 1898. Platt began the practice of law in Meriden, Connecticut, in 1850 and was active in

  • Platt, Thomas Collier (United States senator)

    Thomas Collier Platt, U.S. representative and senator from New York, who unwillingly furthered the rise to the U.S. presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (whom he called “a perfect bull in a china shop”). Educated at Owego Academy and at Yale (1849–50), Platt entered banking and lumbering, served in the

  • Platt, William (British military officer)

    World War II: East Africa: …frontier directly into Ethiopia, General William Platt and the Indian divisions invaded Eritrea on January 19, 1941 (the Italians had already abandoned Kassala); and, almost simultaneously, British troops from Kenya, under General Alan Cunningham, advanced into Italian Somaliland.

  • Plattdeutsch

    German language: …either the High German or Low German dialectal groups. The main difference between High and Low German is in the sound system, especially in the consonants. High German, the language of the southern highlands of Germany, is the official written language.

  • Platte Purchase (United States [1836])

    Saint Joseph: The Platte Purchase (1836), adding about 2,000,000 acres (800,000 hectares) of Indian land to the state territory, resulted in an influx of settlers. Robidoux laid out the town in 1843 and named it for his patron saint. During the California Gold Rush (1849), St. Joseph boomed…

  • Platte River (river, Nebraska, United States)

    Platte River, river of Nebraska, U.S., formed at the city of North Platte by the confluence of the North Platte and South Platte rivers. The Platte proper is 310 miles (500 km) long, but measured from its source stream, Grizzly Creek in Colorado (via the North Platte River), the system has a length

  • Platter, Thomas (Swiss author)

    Thomas Platter, Swiss writer and humanist known for his autobiography. After years of hardship, spent as a goatherd in the Alps and as a scholar’s assistant in Germany, Platter was initiated at Zürich into Huldrych Zwingli’s teachings and the newly discovered world of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew

  • Platters, the (American music group)

    The Platters, American vocal ensemble, one of the foremost singing groups of the early days of rock and roll and also often associated with the doo-wop style. The principal members were Tony Williams (byname of Samuel Anthony Williams; b. April 5, 1928, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.—d. August 14,

  • Platts, Amelia Isadora (American civil rights activist)

    Amelia Boynton Robinson, (Amelia Isadora Platts), American civil rights activist (born Aug. 18, 1911, Savannah, Ga.—died Aug. 26, 2015, Montgomery, Ala.), on March 7, 1965, was on the front lines of the first Selma March—in which demonstrators intended to walk from Selma, Ala., to Montgomery,

  • Plattsburg Idea (United States history)

    Preparedness Movement: …Wood, who backed the “Plattsburg Idea”—a summer training camp for potential officers at Plattsburg, New York, where business and professional men were drilled in military fundamentals. Both Roosevelt and Wood favoured universal conscription, and they publicly criticized Wilson’s opposition to a large standing army and his advocacy of unarmed…

  • Plattsburgh (New York, United States)

    Plattsburgh, city, seat (1788) of Clinton county, northeastern New York, U.S. It lies on the west shore of Lake Champlain at the mouth of the Saranac River, 60 miles (97 km) south of Montreal, Canada. It was founded by Zephaniah Platt in 1784. During the War of 1812, it was the scene of an

  • Plattsburgh, Battle of (War of 1812)

    Battle of Plattsburgh, also called the Battle of Lake Champlain, (6–11 September 1814), battle during the War of 1812 that resulted in an important American victory on Lake Champlain that saved New York from possible British invasion via the Hudson River valley. In sum, a British army of some

  • Plattsmouth (Nebraska, United States)

    Plattsmouth, city, seat (1855) of Cass county, eastern Nebraska, U.S., near the confluence of the Platte and Missouri rivers, about 20 miles (32 km) south of Omaha. Oto and Omaha Indians were early inhabitants. French explorers visited the area in 1730, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition camped

  • platy (fish)

    Platy, (species Xiphophorus maculatus), popular tropical aquarium fish of the live-bearer family, Poeciliidae (order Atheriniformes). The platy is a compact fish, about 5 cm (2 inches) long and extremely variable in colour. It has been bred in many attractive colour varieties, and, like the related

  • platybasia (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Cephalic disorders: Platybasia, an abnormal shallowness of the base of the skull, is a malformation that may be associated with projection of the vertebral column upward. This condition may also occur in association with bone diseases such as osteomalacia and Paget disease of bone in adulthood. In…

  • Platycephalidae (fish)

    Flathead, any of the flattened marine fishes of the families Platycephalidae, Bembridae, and Hoplichthyidae (order Scorpaeniformes), found in the Indo-Pacific and in tropical regions of the eastern Atlantic. Flatheads are elongated, large-mouthed fish with tapered bodies, two dorsal fins, and rough

  • Platycephaloidei (fish suborder)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: Suborder Platycephaloidei Moderate-sized with head and anterior part of body strongly flattened. Vertebrae about 27. Some forms have no swim bladder. Family Platycephalidae (flatheads) Head and body flattened anteriorly. Size to 130 cm (52 inches) and 15 kg (33 pounds). Marine; usually buried in soft bottom,…

  • Platycephalus fuscus (fish)

    scorpaeniform: Ecology: …fishes, but others, like the dusky flathead (Platycephalus fuscus), the largest and commercially most valuable of the Australian flatheads, have a varied diet of fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and marine worms.

  • Platyceras (fossil snail genus)

    Platyceras, genus of extinct gastropods (snails) that occurs as fossils in rocks of Silurian to Permian age (about 444 million to 251 million years ago). Its distinctive shape is easily recognized. The caplike shell is high and broad anteriorly. The posterior portion of the shell, at the apex, is

  • Platycerium (plant, genus Platycerium)

    Staghorn fern, (genus Platycerium), member of the genus Platycerium (family Polypodiaceae), which is bizarre in appearance and frequently displayed in conservatories and other collections. Platycerium ( 17 species of Africa, Asia, and South America) is epiphytic—i.e., the plants grow upon other

  • Platycerus (bird)

    Rosella, any of several species of popular caged birds, particularly certain Australian species, classified as parakeets. See

  • Platycodon grandiflorus (plant)

    Balloon flower, (Platycodon grandiflorus), perennial plant of the bellflower family Campanulaceae, native to East Asia and commonly cultivated as a garden ornamental. The balloon flower gets its name from its balloonlike buds that open to form flaring bell-shaped flowers with five lobes. These

  • Platycopida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Podocopa Order Platycopida Ordovician to present; antennae biramous; 4 pairs of postoral limbs; marine. Order Podocopida Ordovician to present; antennae uniramous; 5 pairs of postoral appendages; marine, freshwater, and terrestrial. Class Malacostraca Cambrian

  • Platycotis (insect)

    treehopper: The oak treehoppers, Platycotis vittata and P. quadrivittata, feed on deciduous and evergreen oaks. Treehoppers can be controlled by applying insecticides before eggs are laid and by cutting down surrounding weeds.

  • Platycrinites (fossil echinoderm genus)

    Platycrinites, genus of extinct crinoids, or sea lilies, especially characteristic as fossils of Early Carboniferous marine deposits (359 million to 318 million years ago). Platycrinites, of moderate size, had a columnar stem with a twisted pattern, an unusual

  • Platygloeales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Platygloeales Parasitic on mosses and other plants; pycnium (fruiting body of rusts) forms masses of hyphae inside mosses; example genera include Platygloea and Eocronartium. Order Pucciniales Parasitic on plants; typically have 5 spore stages and 2 alternate hosts; example genera include Puccinia and Uromyces.

  • platyhelminth (invertebrate)

    Flatworm, any of the phylum Platyhelminthes, a group of soft-bodied, usually much flattened invertebrates. A number of flatworm species are free-living, but about 80 percent of all flatworms are parasitic—i.e., living on or in another organism and securing nourishment from it. They are bilaterally

  • Platyhelminthes (invertebrate)

    Flatworm, any of the phylum Platyhelminthes, a group of soft-bodied, usually much flattened invertebrates. A number of flatworm species are free-living, but about 80 percent of all flatworms are parasitic—i.e., living on or in another organism and securing nourishment from it. They are bilaterally

  • platykurtic distribution (statistics)

    kurtosis: In contrast, platykurtic distributions have narrow tails and thus have negative kurtosis, whereas mesokurtic distributions (such as the normal distribution) have a kurtosis of zero.

  • Platymeris rhadamanthus (insect)

    assassin bug: Predatory behaviour: The species Platymeris rhadamanthus “spits” saliva in reaction to certain disturbances. Saliva is ejected toward an attacker and can travel as far as 30 cm (12 inches). It contains lytic substances, capable of externally digesting the bug’s victims.

  • Platyn, John (imperial official at Ravenna)

    Saint Sergius I: …already bribed the imperial exarch John Platyn, who first effected Paschal’s nomination against a minority favouring Theodore but who then approved the higher clergy’s candidate, Sergius, from whom he extorted the gold that Paschal originally promised. Sergius reluctantly paid and was consecrated on December 15, 687; Theodore ceded, but Paschal…

  • Platyneuromus (insect genus)

    dobsonfly: Larvae of Platyneuromus dobsonflies, which occur in Mexico and Central America, are found in habitats similar to those of Corydalus. Adult Platyneuromus also are similar in appearance to Corydalus but are distinguished by the presence of postocular flanges (plates behind the eyes). In areas where the two…

  • Platypodium elegans (tree)

    “Flying” Trees: The canopy trees Platypodium elegans and Tachigalia versicolor (see suicide tree) produce single-winged fruits similar to those of maple trees common in temperate zones. In the case of P. elegans, each fruit is attached to a twig by the tip of its wing and has a dry weight…

  • platypus (monotreme)

    Platypus, (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), a small amphibious Australian mammal noted for its odd combination of primitive features and special adaptations, especially the flat, almost comical bill that early observers thought was that of a duck sewn onto the body of a mammal. Adding to its distinctive

  • Platyrinchus (bird)

    Spadebill, any of six species of New World flycatchers (family Tyrannidae, order Passeriformes) whose triangular bill is very broad and flat. The white-throated, or stub-tailed, spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus), scarcely 10 centimetres (4 inches) long, is the most widespread species; it inhabits

  • Platyrinchus mystaceus (bird)

    spadebill: …white-throated, or stub-tailed, spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus), scarcely 10 centimetres (4 inches) long, is the most widespread species; it inhabits forest undergrowth from southern Mexico to Argentina in southern South America.

  • platyrrhine (mammal)

    Amazon River: Animal life: …forest are several species of monkeys. Of note are the howler monkeys, which make the selva resound with their morning and evening choruses. The small, agile squirrel monkey, the most ubiquitous of Amazonia’s monkeys, is used in laboratories, as is the larger spider monkey. Among a host of other primate…

  • Platyrrhini (mammal)

    Amazon River: Animal life: …forest are several species of monkeys. Of note are the howler monkeys, which make the selva resound with their morning and evening choruses. The small, agile squirrel monkey, the most ubiquitous of Amazonia’s monkeys, is used in laboratories, as is the larger spider monkey. Among a host of other primate…

  • Platystemon californicus (plant)

    Creamcups, (Platystemon californicus), annual plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), native to western North America. Creamcups commonly grow with grasses in open areas and flower from March to May. The creamcups plant is a hairy herb that reaches about 30 cm (1 foot) high. It bears 2.5-cm

  • Platystrophia (fossil brachiopod genus)

    Platystrophia, genus of extinct brachiopods (lamp shells) occurring as fossils in marine rocks of the Middle Ordovician epoch to about the middle of the Silurian period (i.e., from about 472 million to 423 million years ago). Each valve of the shell is convex in profile, and the hinge line between

  • Platyura (insect genus)

    glowworm: …Arachnocampa of New Zealand and Platyura of the central Appalachians).

  • Plauer Canal (canal, Germany)

    canals and inland waterways: Germany: …with the opening of the Plauer Canal in 1746, which ran from the Elbe to the Havel. The 25-mile Finow Canal along the Havel to the Liepe, a tributary of the Oder, had been built earlier but fell into decay because of flooding and neglect and was not rebuilt until…

  • Plaut, W. Gunther (German-born Canadian rabbi, religious leader, biblical scholar, and columnist)

    W. Gunther Plaut, (Wolf Günther Plaut), German-born Canadian rabbi, religious leader, biblical scholar, and columnist (born Nov. 1, 1912, Münster, Ger.—died Feb. 8, 2012, Toronto, Ont.), wrote The Torah: A Modern Commentary (1981; revised 2005), a landmark study on the first five books of the

  • Plaut, Wolf Günther (German-born Canadian rabbi, religious leader, biblical scholar, and columnist)

    W. Gunther Plaut, (Wolf Günther Plaut), German-born Canadian rabbi, religious leader, biblical scholar, and columnist (born Nov. 1, 1912, Münster, Ger.—died Feb. 8, 2012, Toronto, Ont.), wrote The Torah: A Modern Commentary (1981; revised 2005), a landmark study on the first five books of the

  • Plautdietsch language (language)

    Belize: Languages: The Mennonites in Belize speak Plautdietsch, an archaic Low Saxon (Germanic) language influenced by the Dutch.

  • Plautilla, Fulvia (Roman noble)

    Caracalla: …14 he was married to Fulvia Plautilla, the daughter of the influential and ambitious commander of the imperial guard, Fulvius Plautianus; he is said to have hated Plautianus and played an important role in having him executed on the charge of a conspiracy against the imperial dynasty. He also exiled…

  • Plautius, Aulus (Roman general)

    United Kingdom: The conquest: Under Aulus Plautius an army of four legions was assembled, together with a number of auxiliary regiments consisting of cavalry and infantry raised among warlike tribes subject to the empire. After delay caused by the troops’ unwillingness to cross the ocean, which they then regarded as…

  • Plautus (Roman dramatist)

    Plautus, great Roman comic dramatist, whose works, loosely adapted from Greek plays, established a truly Roman drama in the Latin language. Little is known for certain about the life and personality of Plautus, who ranks with Terence as one of the two great Roman comic dramatists. His work,

  • Plautus alle (bird)

    Dovekie, small, black and white seabird of the North Atlantic. The dovekie belongs to the family Alcidae (order Charadriiformes). It is about 20 centimetres (8 inches) long, with a short bill. Its legs and wings are short, and its feet are webbed. It is a proficient diver, feeding on fish,

  • Plavix (drug)

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Company: …version of its blood-thinning drug Plavix. Three years later Bristol-Myers paid a $2.1 million penalty fine to settle the charges.

  • Plavni Nature Reserve (reserve, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Plant and animal life: …on the Black Sea, the Danube Water Meadows Reserve protects the Danube River’s tidewater biota. Other reserves in Ukraine preserve segments of the forest-steppe woodland, the marshes and forests of the Polissya, and the mountains and rocky coast of Crimea.

  • Plavšić, Biljana (Bosnian Serb politician)

    Biljana Plavšić, Bosnian Serb politician, known as “the Iron Lady,” who served as president of the Bosnian Serb Republic (Republika Srpska) from 1996 to 1998. Her conduct during and after the Bosnian conflict in the 1990s led to her trial and imprisonment for war crimes. Plavšić was born to an

  • Plaxo (American company)

    Sean Parker: …Masonis, and Cameron Ring founded Plaxo, a Web site that hosted a downloadable software application that served as an online address book for users to collect contact information. Parker was fired from Plaxo in 2004 for his erratic engagement with the company. Interested in the possibilities of social networking, he…

  • play

    Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something performed. Most of the problems, and much of the

  • play (behaviour)

    Play, in zoology, behaviour performed in the absence of normal stimuli or behaviour elicited by normal stimuli but not followed to the completion of the ritualized behaviour pattern. Play has been documented only among mammals and birds. Play is common among immature animals, apparently part of

  • Play (work by Beckett)

    Samuel Beckett: Continuity of his philosophical explorations: …subject also of the play Play (first performed 1963), which shows the dying moments of consciousness of three characters, who have been linked in a trivial amorous triangle in life, lingering on into eternity.

  • Play About the Baby, The (play by Albee)

    Edward Albee: …poetic exploration of evolution; and The Play About the Baby (1998), on the mysteries of birth and parenthood.

  • play and pay (card game)

    Domino, simple gambling card game playable by two to eight players. The full deck of 52 cards is dealt out singly, so some hands may contain one more card than others. All players ante an agreed amount to a betting pool. In some circles anyone dealt one card fewer than others must ante an extra

  • Play Dirty (film by De Toth [1969])

    André De Toth: …taut World War II adventure Play Dirty (1969), in which Michael Caine, Nigel Green, Nigel Davenport, and several other British actors battled the Germans in North Africa. De Toth also directed, uncredited, several scenes in the 3-D send-up Terror Night (1987), which starred several veterans of the B-horror movie genre.

  • Play It Again, Sam (film by Ross [1972])

    Herbert Ross: First films: …than its follow-up, the comedy Play It Again, Sam (1972), which became a cult favourite. Woody Allen starred in this adaptation of his own play as an awkward film critic who is coached in his love life by the ghost of Humphrey Bogart. The intricate murder mystery The Last of…

  • Play It as It Lays (novel by Didion)

    Joan Didion: …Didion included the short novels Play It as It Lays (1970), A Book of Common Prayer (1977), Democracy (1984), and The Last Thing He Wanted (1996; film 2020) and the essays Salvador (1983), Miami (1987), and Where I Was From (2003). Essays on U.S. politics, including the presidential election of…

  • Play It As It Lays (film by Perry [1972])

    Frank Perry: Next was Play It As It Lays (1972), an adaptation of a novel by Joan Didion, who cowrote the script with her husband, John Gregory Dunne. The dramedy featured Tuesday Weld as an actress who suffers a nervous breakdown after a series of traumatic incidents, including the…

  • Play Ku (Vietnam)

    Pleiku, city, central Vietnam, located in the central highlands. The city has a hospital, a commercial airfield, and several air bases that are a legacy of its strategic importance during the later stages of the Vietnam War (1965–75). It lies in a mountainous region inhabited mainly by Bahnar and

  • Play of Robin and Marion, The (work by Adam de la Halle)

    Adam De La Halle: Jeu de Robin et de Marion is a dramatization of the pastoral theme of a knight’s wooing of a pretty shepherdess, with dances and peasants’ dialogue. Jeu du pélérin (“Play of the Pilgrim”) mocks his friends for forgetting him.

  • Play On (album by Underwood)

    Carrie Underwood: With the album Play On (2009), Underwood continued to demonstrate her wide appeal. In 2010 she won the Grammy Award for best country collaboration for “I Told You So,” a cover version of a Randy Travis song that had originally appeared on Carnival Ride and that she rerecorded…

  • Play School Movement (educational movement)

    Play School Movement, educational movement founded in the early 20th century by progressive American educator Caroline Pratt and based on the belief that children create and test their knowledge of the world through play. Approaching education as a multisensory endeavour, Pratt opened the Play

  • play therapy (psychiatry)

    child psychiatry: …to more-specialized methods such as play therapy. In the latter, play activities are used as the primary basis for communication between the child and the psychotherapist. Play activities enable children to express their feelings, thoughts, wishes, and fears more freely and easily than they can through purely verbal communication.

  • Play, Pierre-Guillaume Frédéric Le (French sociologist)

    Frédéric Le Play, French mining engineer and sociologist who developed techniques for systematic research on the family. Le Play was engineer in chief and a professor of metallurgy at the École des Mines from 1840 and the inspector of the school from 1848. He devoted his spare time to sociological

  • playa (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • Playalinda Beach (Florida, United States)

    Cape Canaveral: Playalinda Beach and other southern areas can be reached by road from Titusville but are occasionally closed for space launch activity. The park has many shell middens and mounds left by the Timucua people who once inhabited the region, including Turtle Mound (35 feet [11…

  • Playboy (American magazine)

    Playboy, American magazine aimed at men, the first to present female nudity and sexually oriented material in a relatively sophisticated format. For the magazine’s first issue in 1953, its founder, Hugh Hefner, used a previously unpublished nude calendar photograph of Marilyn Monroe, who also

  • Playboy of the Western World, The (play by Synge)

    The Playboy of the Western World, comedy in three acts by J.M. Synge, published and produced in 1907. It is a masterpiece of the Irish literary renaissance. This most famous of Synge’s works fused the patois of ordinary Irish villagers with Synge’s sophisticated rhetoric. It enraged Irish playgoers

  • player piano (musical instrument)

    Player piano, a piano that mechanically plays music recorded by means, usually, of perforations on a paper roll or digital memory on a computer disc. In its original form as the Pianola, patented in 1897 by an American engineer, E.S. Votey, the player piano was a cabinet called a “piano player”

  • Player Piano (novel by Vonnegut)

    Player Piano, first novel by Kurt Vonnegut, published in 1952 and reissued in 1954 as Utopia 14. This anti-utopian novel employs the standard science-fiction formula of a futuristic world run by machines and of one man’s futile rebellion against that

  • Player, Gary (South African golfer)

    Gary Player, South African who was one of the world’s best professional golfers in the post-World War II era. He was the third man (after Gene Sarazen and Ben Hogan, both of the United States) to win the four major tournaments composing the modern golf Grand Slam. In 1955 Player entered competition

  • Player, Gary Jim (South African golfer)

    Gary Player, South African who was one of the world’s best professional golfers in the post-World War II era. He was the third man (after Gene Sarazen and Ben Hogan, both of the United States) to win the four major tournaments composing the modern golf Grand Slam. In 1955 Player entered competition

  • Player, The (American television series [2015])

    Wesley Snipes: …in the television thriller series The Player. Snipes appeared as a gang leader in Spike Lee’s controversial Chi-Raq (2015), about gang violence in Chicago. His subsequent credits included Armed Response (2017) and Dolemite Is My Name (2019), a biopic starring Eddie Murphy as a blaxploitation star.

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