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  • Plagiolepis (insect genus)

    honey ant: They include Melophorus, Leptomyrmex, Plagiolepis, Camponotus, Myrmecocystus, and Prenolepis. In some countries honey ants are considered a great delicacy; either the entire replete or only the golden-coloured abdomen may be eaten.

  • Plagiorchida (flatworm order)

    flatworm: Annotated classification: Order Plagiorchida Cercaria typically armed with a stylet; encystment in invertebrates, rarely vertebrates; excretory vessels not open to the exterior. Most representatives require 3 hosts to complete one life cycle. Many hundreds of species. Order Opisthorchiida Cercaria never armed; excretory pores open on margins of tail;…

  • plagiotropism (biology)

    tropism: Plagiotropic movements are oblique to the direction of stimulus. Diatropic movements are at right angles to the direction of stimulus.

  • plague (disease)

    Plague, infectious fever caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas. Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. It was the disease behind the Black Death of the 14th century, when as much as one-third of

  • Plague Dogs, The (novel by Adams)

    Richard Adams: The Plague Dogs (1977; film 1982) explores issues of animal rights through the tale of two dogs that escape from a research facility—possibly carrying the bubonic plague. The novels The Girl in a Swing (1980; film 1988) and Maia (1984) drew attention for their graphic…

  • Plague of Doves, The (novel by Erdrich)

    Louise Erdrich: Her later novels included The Plague of Doves (2008), which centres on a young protagonist trying to understand the long-standing tension between her Native American family and their white neighbours, and Shadow Tag (2010), which chronicles the unraveling of a marriage and the effect it has on the children.…

  • Plague Sower, The (work by Bufalino)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: …first novel, Diceria dell’untore (1981; The Plague-Sower), which he published after a lifelong career in teaching, won the 1981 Campiello Prize for fiction awarded by the industrialists of the Veneto region. He went on to publish several other novels. Il sorriso dell’ignoto marinaio (1976; The Smile of the Unknown Mariner)…

  • Plague, The (novel by Camus)

    The Plague, novel by Algerian-born French writer Albert Camus, published in 1947 as La Peste. The work is an allegorical account of the determined fight against an epidemic in the town of Oran, Alg., by characters who embody human dignity and

  • plaice (fish)

    Plaice, (Pleuronectes platessa), commercially valuable European flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. The plaice, like others of its family, normally has both eyes on the right side of the head. It also has about four to seven bony bumps near its eyes. It reaches a maximum length of about 90

  • Plaid Cymru (political party, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Plaid Cymru, political party that has sought self-government for Wales and worked for the protection and promotion of Welsh language, culture, and traditions. More a social movement than a political party in its early years, Plaid Cymru was founded in 1925 in response to a perceived threat to Welsh

  • Plaid Cymru–The Party of Wales (political party, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Plaid Cymru, political party that has sought self-government for Wales and worked for the protection and promotion of Welsh language, culture, and traditions. More a social movement than a political party in its early years, Plaid Cymru was founded in 1925 in response to a perceived threat to Welsh

  • Plaideurs, Les (play by Racine)

    Jean Racine: Works: The three-act comedy Les Plaideurs (first performed 1668, published 1669; The Litigants) offered Racine the challenge of a new genre and the opportunity to demonstrate his skill in Molière’s privileged domain, as well as the occasion to display his expertise in Greek, of which he had better command…

  • Plaidy, Jean (British author)

    Eleanor Alice Hibbert, (VICTORIA HOLT; JEAN PLAIDY), British novelist (born 1906/1910?, London, England—died Jan. 18, 1993, at sea between Athens, Greece, and Port Said, Egypt), published more than 200 popular romance novels under half a dozen pseudonyms. Although some critics dismissed her work a

  • plain (geology)

    Plain, any relatively level area of the Earth’s surface exhibiting gentle slopes and small local relief. Plains vary widely in size. The smallest occupy only a few hectares, whereas the largest cover hundreds of thousands of square kilometres—as, for example, the Great Plains of North America and

  • plain bearing (construction)

    bearing: …oil) or gas; these are sliding bearings, and the part of the shaft that turns in the bearing is the journal. The surfaces in a bearing may be separated also by balls or rollers; these are known as rolling bearings. In the illustration, the inner race turns with the shaft.

  • plain chachalaca (bird)

    curassow: Typical is the plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula), a 50-centimetre species, ranging from the Texas border to Nicaragua. Weighing about 0.5 kg (1 pound), it is brownish with a long green-glossed, white-tipped tail. At dawn and sundown, flocks call together from the treetops with regular, almost metronomic beat.

  • Plain Dealer, The (American newspaper)

    Sherrod Brown: …wed (2004) Connie Schultz, a Plain Dealer columnist who won a Pulitzer Prize in 2005; the couple had two children.

  • plain drawing (Chinese painting)

    Baimiao, (Chinese: “plain drawing”) in Chinese painting, brush technique that produces a finely controlled, supple ink outline drawing without any colour or wash (diluted ink or paint applied in broad sweeps) embellishment. It is commonly used for figure painting, in which precise description is

  • plain hand (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: Formal minuscule, 10th to 14th century: …period as the less distinctive plain hands in which the majority of the manuscripts are written, at least in the 11th and 12th centuries.

  • plain knit (textiles)

    Plain stitch, basic knitting stitch in which each loop is drawn through other loops to the right side of the fabric. The loops form vertical rows, or wales, on the fabric face, giving it a sheen, and crosswise rows, or courses, on the back. Plain-stitch knitting is a filling knit construction and

  • Plain Language from Truthful James (poem by Harte)

    Bret Harte: …(1870), better known as “The Heathen Chinee,” although it attracted national attention in a manner unintended by Harte, who claimed that its satirical story—about two men, Bill Nye and Ah Sin, trying to cheat each other at cards—showed a form of racial equality. Instead, the poem was taken up…

  • Plain Man’s Path-way to Heaven, The (work by Dent)

    English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose: …editions, such as Arthur Dent’s Plain Man’s Pathway to Heaven (25 editions by 1640) and Lewis Bayly’s Practice of Piety (1611; some 50 editions followed), two copies of which formed the meagre dowry of preacher and author John Bunyan’s first wife. Puritans preferred sermons in the plain style too, eschewing…

  • plain nightjar (bird)

    migration: In intertropical regions: The plain nightjar (Caprimulgus inornatus), on the other hand, nests in a dry belt from Mali in the west to the Red Sea and Kenya in the east during the rains and then migrates southward to Cameroon and the northern Congo region during the dry season.

  • plain punare (mammal)

    American spiny rat: At one extreme is the plain punare (Thrichomys apereoides), with dull brown upperparts and grayish white underparts. At the other extreme is the painted tree rat (Callistomys pictus), whose whitish body has a wide, glossy black stripe on the neck and head and a saddle pattern extending from the shoulders…

  • plain roller (farm implement)

    roller: The plain roller is often used to compact grassland damaged by winter heaving. Corrugated rollers, single or tandem, crush clods and firm the soil after plowing. A type usually called a roller-packer or land presser has heavy, wedge-shaped wheels about 3 feet (1 m) in diameter…

  • plain sedimentation (chemistry)

    water supply system: Sedimentation: This is called plain sedimentation. Long-term water storage (for more than one month) in reservoirs reduces the amount of suspended sediment and bacteria. Nevertheless, additional clarification is usually needed. In a treatment plant, sedimentation (settling) tanks are built to provide a few hours of storage or detention time…

  • plain stitch (textiles)

    Plain stitch, basic knitting stitch in which each loop is drawn through other loops to the right side of the fabric. The loops form vertical rows, or wales, on the fabric face, giving it a sheen, and crosswise rows, or courses, on the back. Plain-stitch knitting is a filling knit construction and

  • Plain Tales from the Hills (work by Kipling)

    Rudyard Kipling: Life: … in 1886, the short-story collection Plain Tales from the Hills in 1888, and between 1887 and 1889 he brought out six paper-covered volumes of short stories. Among the latter were Soldiers Three, The Phantom Rickshaw (containing the story “The Man Who Would Be King”), and Wee Willie Winkie (containing “Baa…

  • plain weave (textile)

    Plain weave, simplest and most common of the three basic textile weaves. It is made by passing each filling yarn over and under each warp yarn, with each row alternating, producing a high number of intersections. Plain-weave fabrics that are not printed or given a surface finish have no right or

  • plain, abyssal (geology)

    Abyssal plain, flat seafloor area at an abyssal depth (3,000 to 6,000 m [10,000 to 20,000 feet]), generally adjacent to a continent. These submarine surfaces vary in depth only from 10 to 100 cm per kilometre of horizontal distance. Irregular in outline but generally elongate along continental

  • Plain, Belva (American novelist)

    Belva Plain, (Belva Offenberg), American novelist (born Oct. 9, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died Oct. 12, 2010, Short Hills, N.J.), was weary of the fiction that used stereotypes to portray Jewish characters, especially as overbearing mothers, and therefore produced a series of works that cast Jewish

  • Plain, the (French history)

    The Plain, in the French Revolution, the centrist deputies in the National Convention (1792–95). They formed the majority of the assembly’s members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Their name derived from their place on the floor of the assembly; above them sat the members of the

  • plain-brown woodcreeper (bird)

    woodcreeper: …others of its genus, the plain-brown woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa), of Honduras to northeastern Argentina, often follows marching ant columns, eating the insects and other creatures routed out by the ants. See also scythebill.

  • Plain-Dealer, The (play by Wycherley)

    William Wycherley: The Plain-Dealer, presented in 1676, satirizes rapacious greed. The satire is crude and brutal, but pointed and effective. In The Country-Wife, acted a year earlier, the criticism of manners and society remains severe, but there is no longer a sense of the author despising his…

  • plain-trick game (card game)

    card game: Classification: …may be subdivided as follows:

  • plainchant (music)

    Plainsong, the Gregorian chant (q.v.) and, by extension, other similar religious chants. The word derives from the 13th-century Latin term cantus planus (“plain song”), referring to the unmeasured rhythm and monophony (single line of melody) of Gregorian chant, as distinguished from the measured

  • Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, A (work by Morley)

    Thomas Morley: His textbook, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (1597), provides knowledge of the theoretical basis of composition of Morley’s own time and that of earlier generations.

  • Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of Saint John (work by Napier)

    John Napier: Theology and inventions: …forms the dedication of his Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of Saint John, a work that, while it professed to be of a strictly scholarly character, was calculated to influence contemporary events. In it he declared:

  • Plaine, la (French history)

    The Plain, in the French Revolution, the centrist deputies in the National Convention (1792–95). They formed the majority of the assembly’s members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Their name derived from their place on the floor of the assembly; above them sat the members of the

  • Plaines d’Abraham (plateau, Quebec, Canada)

    Plains of Abraham, plains in Québec region, southern Quebec province, Canada. The plains lie at the western edge of the old walled city, overlooking the St. Lawrence River. The plateau was the scene of a battle (Sept. 13, 1759) between the French under the Marquis de Montcalm and the British under

  • Plainfield (New Jersey, United States)

    Plainfield, city, Union county, northern New Jersey, U.S., at the base of the Watchung Mountains. Quakers settled in the area in 1685, and the town became known as Milltown—for its large gristmill—in the late 1700s. The name was changed to Plainfield in 1800, and it was incorporated as a township

  • Plains (Georgia, United States)

    Plains, city, Sumter county, southwest-central Georgia, U.S., 10 miles (16 km) west-southwest of Americus. A post office was established there in 1839, and when the railroad was built in 1885 several local settlements, including Magnolia Springs (or Village) and the Plains of Dura (named for the

  • Plains Archaic culture

    Native American: Plains Archaic cultures: The Plains Archaic began by about 6000 bce and persisted until about the beginning of the Common Era. It is marked by a shift from just a few kinds of fluted Paleo-Indian points to a myriad of styles, including stemmed and side-notched…

  • plains bison (mammal)

    bison: …subspecies of American bison, the plains bison (B. bison bison) and the wood bison (B. bison athabascae), though the differences between them are minor. The plains bison formerly inhabited most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains provinces of Canada. It greatly outnumbered the…

  • plains bluegrass (plant)

    bluegrass: fendleriana), and plains bluegrass (P. arida) are important western forage grasses. Annual bluegrass (P. annua), a small, light-green species, is a European introduction that has spread throughout North America; it is considered a pest in lawns.

  • plains buffalo (mammal)

    bison: The American bison (B. bison), commonly known as the buffalo or the plains buffalo, is native to North America, and the European bison (B. bonasus), or wisent, is native to Europe. Both species were drastically reduced in numbers by hunting and now occupy small protected areas…

  • Plains Cree (people)

    Cree: The Plains Cree lived on the northern Great Plains; like other Plains Indians, their traditional economy focused on bison hunting and gathering wild plant foods. After acquiring horses and firearms, they were more militant than the Woodland Cree, raiding and warring against many other Plains tribes.…

  • plains deformation belt (landform)

    Venus: Plains deformation belts: Although plains deformation belts are similar in some ways to mountain belts, they display less pronounced relief and are found primarily in low-lying areas of the planet, such as Lavinia Planitia and Atalanta Planitia. Like mountain belts, they show strong evidence for…

  • plains foxtail (plant)

    foxtail: …are forage grasses, such as plains foxtail (S. macrostachya). Foxtail millet (S. italica; see millet) is the only economically valuable species. Yellow foxtail (S. pumila) and green foxtail (S. viridis), named for the colour of their bristles, are common in cornfields and disturbed areas. Bristly

  • Plains Indian (people)

    Plains Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. This culture area comprises a vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains and from present-day provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada through

  • Plains Indian sign language (communications)

    Plains Indian sign language (PISL), system of fixed hand and finger positions symbolizing ideas, the meanings of which were known to the majority of the Plains peoples. In addition to aiding communication between the deaf, PISL was used for a broad range of interactions—for hunting and other

  • plains kit fox (mammal)

    fox: Classification: velox (swift fox) Sometimes considered as two species, V. velox (swift fox) and V. macrotis (kit fox); large-eared pale foxes of the western North American plains (swift fox) and deserts (kit fox); shy and uncommon; adult length about 40–50 cm without the 20–30-cm tail, weight about…

  • plains love grass (grass)

    love grass: Plains love grass (Eragrostis intermedia), sand love grass (E. trichodes), and weeping love grass (E. curvula) are forage species in southern North America. Weeping love grass, native to South Africa, was introduced elsewhere as an ornamental and later was used to reclaim abandoned or eroded…

  • Plains Nilot (people)

    Maasai, nomadic pastoralists of East Africa. Maasai is essentially a linguistic term, referring to speakers of this Eastern Sudanic language (usually called Maa) of the Nilo-Saharan language family. These include the pastoral Maasai who range along the Great Rift Valley of Kenya and Tanzania, the

  • Plains of Abraham, Battle of the (North America [1759])

    Battle of Quebec, (September 13, 1759), in the French and Indian War, decisive defeat of the French under the marquis de Montcalm by a British force led by Maj. Gen. James Wolfe. Both commanding officers died from wounds sustained during the battle, and within a year French Canada had capitulated

  • Plains of Passage, The (book by Auel)

    Jean Auel: In The Plains of Passage (1990), Ayla and Jondalar face hardships as they travel to rejoin his tribe. It was 12 years before Auel completed the next book, The Shelters of Stone (2002), which tells of Ayla, now formally mated with Jondalar, as she fights to…

  • Plains Village culture

    Native American: Plains Woodland and Plains Village cultures: Archaic peoples dominated the Plains until about the beginning of the Common Era, when ideas and perhaps people from the Eastern Woodland cultures reached the region; some Plains Woodland sites, particularly in eastern Kansas, were clearly part of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere.…

  • plains viscacha (rodent)

    viscacha: The plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus) lives on sparse grasslands, or Pampas, in Argentina, Paraguay, and southeastern Bolivia at altitudes up to nearly 3,000 metres. It resembles a huge guinea pig, with a large, blunt head, a body length of 47 to 66 cm, and a short…

  • plains wanderer (bird)

    Plains wanderer, (species Pedionomus torquatus), Australian bird resembling a tiny quail. It has a mottled reddish brown body and a collar of black spots against a white throat. The plains wanderer constitutes the family Pedionomidae (order Gruiformes) but is placed by some authorities in the b

  • Plains Wars (United States history)

    Plains Wars, series of conflicts from the early 1850s through the late 1870s between Native Americans and the United States, along with its Indian allies, over control of the Great Plains between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. The initial major confrontation, sometimes known as the

  • Plains Woodland culture

    Native American: Plains Woodland and Plains Village cultures: Archaic peoples dominated the Plains until about the beginning of the Common Era, when ideas and perhaps people from the Eastern Woodland cultures reached the region; some Plains Woodland sites, particularly in eastern Kansas, were clearly part of the…

  • plains zebra (mammal)

    perissodactyl: Zebras: The plains zebra (E. quagga) formerly inhabited a great area of grassland and savanna from the Cape to South Sudan. The southernmost race (E. quagga quagga), which was only partly striped, became extinct in the 19th century. The populations of the other races have been much…

  • plainsong (music)

    Plainsong, the Gregorian chant (q.v.) and, by extension, other similar religious chants. The word derives from the 13th-century Latin term cantus planus (“plain song”), referring to the unmeasured rhythm and monophony (single line of melody) of Gregorian chant, as distinguished from the measured

  • Plainsong (novel by Huston)

    Nancy Huston: …in English, under the title Plainsong, before translating it into French. Her subsequent novels include Virevolte (1994; Slow Emergencies), L’Empreinte de l’ange (1998; The Mark of the Angel), and Dolce agonia (2001; Eng. trans. Dolce Agonia). She won the Prix Femina again, for Lignes de faille (2006), a translation into…

  • Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society (British music organization)

    Anglican chant: …vernacular was promoted by the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society (founded 1888). Francis Burgess in England and C. Winfred Douglas in the United States had great influence in the movement. In 1912 the English poet Robert Bridges pointed out that the chant must be fitted to the words and not…

  • plaint (literature)

    Complaint, in literature, a formerly popular variety of poem that laments or protests unrequited love or tells of personal misfortune, misery, or injustice. Works of this type include Rutebeuf’s La Complainte Rutebeuf (late 13th century) and Pierre de Ronsard’s “Complainte contre fortune”

  • Plainte au loin du faune, La (work by Dukas)

    Paul Dukas: …admirer Claude Debussy, the evocative La Plainte au loin du faune (1920), and a song setting, the charming “Sonnet de Ronsard” (1924). A few weeks before his death, he destroyed several of his musical manuscripts. Dukas collaborated with the Paris publishing firm of Durand in preparing modern editions of some…

  • plaintext (communications)

    cryptology: General considerations: …is referred to as the plaintext. As noted above, the secret information known only to the legitimate users is the key, and the transformation of the plaintext under the control of the key into a cipher (also called ciphertext) is referred to as encryption. The inverse operation, by which a…

  • plaintiff (law)

    Plaintiff, the party who brings a legal action or in whose name it is brought—as opposed to the defendant, the party who is being sued. The term corresponds to petitioner in equity and civil law and to libelant in admiralty. It is generally applied also to the equity petitioner, particularly in

  • Plainview (Texas, United States)

    Plainview, city, seat (1888) of Hale county, northwestern Texas, U.S. It lies on the Llano Estacado, a portion of the High Plains between Amarillo and Lubbock (40 miles [65 km] south). The site was surveyed in 1887 by Z.T. Maxwell and E.L. Lowe, who named it Plainview because of the unbroken view

  • Plaisance (Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Placentia, town, southeastern Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It lies along the Avalon Peninsula and the east shore of Placentia Bay, 67 miles (108 km) southwest of St. John’s. Basque fishermen arrived in the 16th century and probably named the site for Plasencia, Spain. In 1662

  • Plaisancian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Piacenzian Stage, the uppermost division of Pliocene rocks, representing all rocks deposited worldwide during the Piacenzian Age (3.6 million to 2.6 million years ago) of the Neogene Period (the past 23 million years). The Piacenzian Stage is named for the city of Piacenza, which lies midway

  • Plaisians, Guillaume de (French statesman)

    Philip IV: Conflict with the papacy: …ministers Guillaume de Nogaret and Guillaume de Plaisians, Philip pledged to see Boniface judged for the heretical words and criminal and immoral deeds with which he had been charged.

  • Plaisirs et les jours, Les (work by Proust)

    Marcel Proust: Life and works: …Plaisirs et les jours (Pleasures and Days), a collection of short stories at once precious and profound, most of which had appeared during 1892–93 in the magazines Le Banquet and La Revue Blanche. From 1895 to 1899 he wrote Jean Santeuil, an autobiographical novel that, though unfinished and ill-constructed,…

  • plaited construction

    basketry: Matting or plaited construction: Standards and threads are indistinguishable in matting or plaited construction; they are either parallel and perpendicular to the edge (straight basketry) or oblique (diagonal basketry). Such basketry is closest to textile weaving. The materials used are almost always woven, using the…

  • plaited stitch (knitting)

    textile: Weft knitting: The plaited stitch is made by feeding two threads into the same hook, so that one thread shows on the one side of the fabric and the other on the opposite side. A float stitch is produced by missing interlooping over a series of needles so…

  • plaiting (textiles)

    Braiding, in textiles, machine or hand method of interlacing three or more yarns or bias-cut cloth strips in such a way that they cross one another and are laid together in diagonal formation, forming a narrow strip of flat or tubular fabric. The word plaiting is generally applied when such

  • plaiting

    basketry: Matting or plaited construction: Standards and threads are indistinguishable in matting or plaited construction; they are either parallel and perpendicular to the edge (straight basketry) or oblique (diagonal basketry). Such basketry is closest to textile weaving. The materials used are almost always woven, using the…

  • Pláka (quarter, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: Traditional features: …this lively quarter is the Pláka, on the north slope of the Acropolis. Small, one-story houses, dating from about the time of independence, are clustered together up the hillside in peasant simplicity. There are appropriately tiny squares with tavernas, once celebrated for their folk music, dancing, and simple fare. There…

  • Plakatstil (poster design)

    graphic design: Early developments: …school of poster design called Plakatstil (“Poster Style”) similarly continued the exploration of pure form. Initiated by Lucian Bernhard with his first poster in 1905, Plakatstil was characterized by a simple visual language of sign and shape. Designers reduced images of products to elemental, symbolic shapes that were placed over…

  • Plame, Valerie (United States CIA agent)

    George W. Bush: The Plame affair: The agent, Valerie Plame, was the wife of Joseph C. Wilson, a retired foreign service officer who had traveled to Africa in early 2002 at the request of the CIA to help determine whether Iraq had attempted to purchase enriched uranium from Niger. Wilson reported that there…

  • PLAN (army of SWAPO)

    Namibia: The road to Namibia: …largely of units of SWAPO’s People’s Liberation Army of Namibia [PLAN] under Angolan command). By June South Africa had to negotiate a total withdrawal from Angola to avoid a military disaster, and by the end of December it had negotiated a UN-supervised transition to elections, a new constitution, and independence…

  • Plan 9 from Outer Space (film by Wood [1959])

    Bela Lugosi: …of the Monster (1956), and Plan 9 from Outer Space (filmed 1956, released 1959), all now unintentionally hilarious cult favourites. Lugosi was buried, as he wished, wearing the long black cape that he had worn in Dracula.

  • Plan Colombia (Colombian history)

    Andrés Pastrana Arango: …the United States known as Plan Colombia. Pastrana also fought political corruption and instituted reforms to bolster the faltering economy.

  • Plan de législation criminelle (work by Marat)

    Jean-Paul Marat: Early scientific work: In 1780 he published his Plan de législation criminelle (“Plan for Criminal Legislation”), which showed that he had already assimilated the ideas of such critics of the ancien régime as Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau and was corresponding with the American Revolutionary leader Benjamin Franklin. More serious, perhaps, was Marat’s failure…

  • plan of campaign (Irish history)

    William O'Brien: …most important for his “plan of campaign” (1886), by which Irish tenant farmers would withhold all rent payments from landlords who refused to lower their rents and would pay the money instead into a mutual defense fund on which evicted tenants could draw.

  • Plan of Chicago (work by Burnham and Bennett)

    City Beautiful movement: …for Chicago, published as the Plan of Chicago and also known as the Burnham Plan. The plan involved a 60-mile (95-kilometre) radius in which avenues would extend out from a civic centre. It included an extensive rail system, a bi-level boulevard for commercial and regular traffic (what is now Wacker…

  • Plan of the Scientific Operations Necessary for the Reorganization of Society (work by Comte and Saint-Simon)

    political science: 19th-century roots of contemporary political science: …on the publication of the Plan of the Scientific Operations Necessary for the Reorganization of Society (1822), which claimed that politics would become a social physics and discover scientific laws of social progress. Although “Comtean positivism,” with its enthusiasm for the scientific study of society and its emphasis on using…

  • plan position indicator (radar display)

    radar: Displays: …used radar display is the plan position indicator (PPI), which provides a maplike presentation in polar coordinates of range and angle. The display is “dark” except when echo signals are present.

  • Plan XVII (French history)

    World War I: The strategy of the Western Allies, 1914: He sponsored the notorious Plan XVII, with which France went to war in 1914.

  • Planalto Central (region, Brazil)

    Brazilian Highlands, eroded plateau region of central and southeastern Brazil. Comprising more than half of the country’s landmass, the highlands are located mainly in Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Goiás, and Mato Grosso estados (states). Rising to an average elevation of 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) above

  • planar chromatography

    chemical analysis: Chromatography: …that are performed on a plane. In such a case, however, the separations occur in space after a fixed time period rather than in time at a fixed location as was described for column chromatography. The separated components appear as spots on the plane.

  • planar flow casting (material science)

    amorphous solid: Magnetic glasses: …or as wide sheets by planar flow casting. Ferromagnetic glasses are mechanically hard materials, but they are magnetically soft, meaning that they are easily magnetized by small magnetic fields. Also, because of their disordered atomic-scale structure, they have higher electrical resistance than conventional (crystalline) magnetic materials. The three attributes of…

  • planar graph (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Planar graphs: A graph G is said to be planar if it can be represented on a plane in such a fashion that the vertices are all distinct points, the edges are simple curves, and no two edges meet one another except at their terminals.…

  • planar map (mathematics)

    combinatorics: The four-colour map problem: The problem concerns planar maps—that is, subdivisions of the plane into nonoverlapping regions bounded by simple closed curves. In geographical maps it has been observed empirically, in as many special cases as have been tried, that, at most, four colours are needed in order to colour the regions…

  • planar problem (geometry)

    mathematics: Apollonius: …in Euclid’s Elements) were called planar. Thus, one can double the square by planar means (as in Elements, Book II, proposition 14), but one cannot double the cube in such a way, although a solid construction is possible (as given above). Similarly, the bisection of any angle is a planar…

  • Planaria (flatworm genus)

    nervous system: Simple bilateral systems: …a free-living flatworm such as Planaria consists of a brain, longitudinal nerve cords, and peripheral nerve plexuses (interlacing networks of peripheral nerves; from Latin plectere, “to braid”). The brain, located in the anterior portion of the animal, is composed of two cephalic ganglia joined by a broad connection called a…

  • planarian (flatworm)

    Planarian, any of a group of widely distributed, mostly free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria (phylum Platyhelminthes). Planaria is the name of one genus, but the name planarian is used to designate any member of the family Planariidae and related families. Most planarians occur in fresh

  • Planasia (island, Italy)

    Pianosa Island, island of the Toscany Archipelago, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, part of Tuscany regione (region), Italy. Situated 8 miles (13 km) southwest of the island of Elba, Pianosa has an area of 4 square miles (10 square km). It is, as its name (Italian piano, “flat”) indicates, low-lying, with

  • planation surface (geology)

    Planation surface, any low-relief plain cutting across varied rocks and structures. Among the most common landscapes on Earth, planation surfaces include pediments, pediplains, etchplains, and peneplains. There has been much scientific controversy over the origins of such surfaces. Because genetic

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