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  • Paléologue, Maurice-Georges (French diplomat and writer)

    Maurice-Georges Paléologue, French diplomat and writer who encouraged the Franco-Russian alliance before and during World War I. Paléologue entered the diplomatic service at an early age and went successively to Tangier, Rome, Germany, Korea, and Bulgaria. He became in 1909 deputy director and in

  • paleomagnetism (geology)

    Remanent magnetism, the permanent magnetism in rocks, resulting from the orientation of the Earth’s magnetic field at the time of rock formation in a past geological age. It is the source of information for the paleomagnetic studies of polar wandering and continental drift. Remanent magnetism can

  • paleontology (science)

    Paleontology, scientific study of life of the geologic past that involves the analysis of plant and animal fossils, including those of microscopic size, preserved in rocks. It is concerned with all aspects of the biology of ancient life forms: their shape and structure, evolutionary patterns,

  • Paleontology of New York, The (work by Hall)

    James Hall: His 13-volume The Palaeontology of New York (1847–94) contained the results of his exhaustive studies of the Silurian and Devonian (approximately 360 million to 415 million years old) fossils found in New York.

  • paleopallium (anatomy)

    nervous system: Dominance of the cerebrum: …time, referred to as the paleopallium, is merely an olfactory lobe serving as an association area for olfactory impulses. The olfactory lobes are prominent in animals such as amphibians, but in birds and primates in which the sense of smell is less important the lobes are reduced in extent. In…

  • paleoprimatology (primatology)

    primate: Miocene: …probably the most fruitful for paleoprimatology. During this time, dramatic changes in geomorphology, climate, and vegetation took place. The Miocene was a period of volcanism and mountain building, during which the topography of the modern world was becoming established. Of particular relevance to the story of primate evolution are the…

  • Paleoproterozoic Era (geochronology)

    Precambrian: Worldwide glaciations: …billion years ago during the early Proterozoic. It can be recognized from the rocks and structures that the glaciers and ice sheets left behind in parts of Western Australia, Finland, southern Africa, and North America. The most extensive occurrences are found in North America, in a belt nearly 3,000 km…

  • paleoprotistology (biology)

    protist: Fossil protists and eukaryotic evolution: Nonetheless, the discovery of extinct protists (i.e., of the parts that were capable of becoming fossilized: cell, cyst, or spore walls; internal or external skeletons of appropriate preservable materials; and scales, loricae, tests, or shells) has thrown light on the probable interrelationships of both fossil…

  • Paleoptera (insect)

    insect: Wings and flight: In the Paleoptera the wings are held aloft above the back, as in mayflies, or held extended permanently on each side of the body, as in dragonflies. Throughout the Neoptera there is a wing-flexing mechanism (secondarily lost in butterflies) that enables the wings to be folded back…

  • Paleosiberian (people)

    Paleo-Siberian, any member of those peoples of northeastern Siberia who are believed to be remnants of earlier and more extensive populations pushed into this area by later Neosiberians. The Paleo-Siberians include the Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen (Kamchadal), Nivkh (Gilyak), Yukaghir, and Ket

  • Paleosiberian languages (linguistics)

    Paleo-Siberian languages, languages spoken in Asian Russia (Siberia) that belong to four genetically unrelated groups—Yeniseian, Luorawetlan, Yukaghir, and Nivkh. The Yeniseian group is spoken in the Turukhansk region along the Yenisey River. Its only living members are Ket (formerly called

  • paleosol (soil)

    geologic history of Earth: Formation of the secondary atmosphere: Paleosols also provide valuable clues, as they were in equilibrium with the prevailing atmosphere. From analyses of early Precambrian paleosols it has been determined that the oxygen content of the atmosphere 2.2 billion years ago was one hundredth of the present atmospheric level (PAL).

  • paleostriatum (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Basal ganglia: …(2) the putamen, (3) the globus pallidus, and (4) the amygdala. Phylogenetically, the amygdala is the oldest of the basal ganglia and is often referred to as the archistriatum; the globus pallidus is known as the paleostriatum, and the caudate nucleus and putamen are together known as the neostriatum, or…

  • Paleosuchus (reptile)

    caiman: palpebrosus) known as smooth-fronted caimans.

  • Paleothyris (fossil reptile genus)

    reptile: Fossil distribution: …earliest known reptiles, Hylonomus and Paleothyris, date from Late Carboniferous deposits of North America. These reptiles were small lizardlike animals that apparently lived in forested habitats. They are the Eureptilia (true reptiles), and their presence during this suggests that they were distinct from a more primitive group, the anapsids (or…

  • Paleotropical kingdom (floral region)

    biogeographic region: Paleotropical kingdom: This kingdom extends from Africa, excluding strips along the northern and southern edges, through the Arabian peninsula, India, and Southeast Asia eastward into the Pacific (Figure 1). Plant families that extend over much of the region include the families Pandanaceae (screw pine) and…

  • Paleotropical realm (floral region)

    biogeographic region: Paleotropical kingdom: This kingdom extends from Africa, excluding strips along the northern and southern edges, through the Arabian peninsula, India, and Southeast Asia eastward into the Pacific (Figure 1). Plant families that extend over much of the region include the families Pandanaceae (screw pine) and…

  • Paleotropical realm (faunal region)

    biogeographic region: Paleotropical realm: The Paleotropical, or Afro-Tethyan, realm (Figure 2) is clearly divided into two regions, which are sometimes regarded as separate realms: the Afrotropical, which includes continental Africa south of the Sahara and southwestern Arabia, and the Oriental, which includes tropical southern and southeastern Asia,…

  • paleovalley (geological feature)

    valley: Paleovalleys: The southwestern desert of Egypt is one of the most arid places on Earth. The region lacks surficial traces of active fluvial processes and is dominated by eolian activity. In this region, a research team headed by John F. McCauley of the U.S. Geological…

  • Paleozoic Era (geochronology)

    Paleozoic Era, major interval of geologic time that began 541 million years ago with the Cambrian explosion, an extraordinary diversification of marine animals, and ended about 252 million years ago with the end-Permian extinction, the greatest extinction event in Earth history. The major divisions

  • Paleozoic Erathem (geology and stratigraphy)

    North America: Paleozoic orogenic belts: Erosional remnants of ancient mountain ranges occur along the eastern, northern, and southern margins of the continent. The mountains were formed mainly between 400 and 300 million years ago, when North America collided with other continents to form the ancient supercontinent of…

  • Paleozoic subzone (geological feature, Asia)

    Pamirs: Geology: The Paleozoic subzone of the northern Pamirs is a huge uplift with a complex internal structure. It is separated from the Trans-Alai subzone by the Karakul fracture, through which flows the Kyzylsu-Surkhob-Vakhsh river system. The Trans-Alai subzone is highly complex. Its western part is a fan-shaped…

  • Palermo (Italy)

    Palermo, city, capital of the island regione of Sicily in Italy. It lies on Sicily’s northwestern coast at the head of the Bay of Palermo, facing east. Inland the city is enclosed by a fertile plain known as the Conca d’Oro (Golden Shell), which is planted with citrus groves and backed by

  • Palermo Stone (Egyptian archaeology)

    Palermo Stone, one of the basic sources of information about the chronology and cultural history of ancient Egypt during the first five dynasties (c. 2925–c. 2325 bce). Named for the Sicilian city where it has been preserved since 1877, the black basalt stone is one of six existing fragments from a

  • Palermo, Cathedral of (cathedral, Palermo, Italy)

    Palermo: Palermo’s cathedral was founded in 1185 and contains additions from the 14th, 15th, and subsequent centuries. It houses the tombs of Roger II and the Holy Roman emperors Henry VI and Frederick II. From the same period date the Norman-Byzantine churches of San Cataldo (11th…

  • Palermo, Martín (Argentine football player)

    Boca Juniors: …including Juan Román Riquelme and Martín Palermo (who is the club’s all-time leading goal scorer).

  • Palermo, Protocol of (Argentina [1852])

    Justo José de Urquiza: …April 1852 he issued the Protocol of Palermo, which authorized him to regulate relations between the provinces. As provisional dictator of Argentina, in August 1852 he summoned to Santa Fe a constitutional congress that in 1853 sanctioned a new constitution modeled on that of the United States. All provinces accepted…

  • Pales (Roman gods)

    Parilia: …of the god and goddess Pales, the protectors of flocks and herds.

  • Palés Matos, Luis (Puerto Rican poet)

    Luis Palés Matos, Puerto Rican lyric poet who enriched the vocabulary of Spanish poetry with words, themes, and rhythms of African and Afro-American folklore and dance. Palés Matos wrote his first poetry, which was collected in Azaleas (1915), in imitation of the fashionable modernist trends, but

  • Palesse (region, Eastern Europe)

    Pripet Marshes, vast waterlogged region of eastern Europe, among the largest wetlands of the European continent. The Pripet Marshes occupy southern Belarus and northern Ukraine. They lie in the thickly forested basin of the Pripet River (a major tributary of the Dnieper) and are bounded on the

  • Palestine

    Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River). The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes

  • Palestine Liberation Front (Palestinian organization)

    Palestine: Years of mounting violence: …October 1985 members of the Palestine Liberation Front, a small faction within the PLO headed by Abū ʿAbbās, hijacked an Italian cruise ship, the Achille Lauro, and murdered one of its passengers. Following an Israeli bombing attack on PLO headquarters near Tunis several days before the hijacking, Arafat moved some…

  • Palestine Liberation Organization (Palestinian political organization)

    Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), umbrella political organization claiming to represent the world’s Palestinians—those Arabs, and their descendants, who lived in mandated Palestine before the creation there of the State of Israel in 1948. It was formed in 1964 to centralize the leadership of

  • Palestine Liberation Organization, flag of

    de facto national flag consisting of three equal horizontal stripes from top to bottom of black, white, and green and a red triangle with its base along the hoist. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.The modern designation of “Palestine” (consisting of present-day Israel, the West Bank, and

  • Palestine mandate (League of Nations resolution)

    Israel: Zionism: …League of Nations, which placed Palestine under British mandate. This achievement reflected a heady mixture of religious and imperial motivations that Britain would find difficult to reconcile in the troubled years ahead.

  • Palestine National Charter (charter, PLO)

    Palestine: The Palestine Liberation Organization: In its 1968 charter (the Palestine National Charter, or Covenant) the PLO delineated its basic principles and goals, the most important of which were the right to an independent state, the total liberation of Palestine, and the destruction of the State of Israel.

  • Palestine National Council (Palestinian organization)

    Jordan: From 1973 to the intifāḍah: …Ḥussein, in 1984, allowed the Palestine National Council (a virtual parliament of the Palestinians) to meet in Amman. In February 1985 he signed an agreement with ʿArafāt pledging cooperation with the PLO and coordination of a joint peace initiative. Ḥussein believed that ʿArafāt would accept a confederation of the West…

  • Palestine National Covenant (charter, PLO)

    Palestine: The Palestine Liberation Organization: In its 1968 charter (the Palestine National Charter, or Covenant) the PLO delineated its basic principles and goals, the most important of which were the right to an independent state, the total liberation of Palestine, and the destruction of the State of Israel.

  • Palestine Plateau (plateau, Palestine)

    horst and graben: … Mountains of France and the Palestine Plateau are typical horsts.

  • Palestine Post (Israeli newspaper)

    The Jerusalem Post, Israeli English-language daily newspaper established in 1932 as the Palestine Post. It adopted its current name in 1950 and is the largest English-language daily in the country. A morning paper appearing daily except Saturday, The Post has traditionally stressed foreign news,

  • Palestine Symphony (orchestra)

    Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Israeli symphony orchestra based in Tel Aviv–Yafo, founded in 1936 by Bronislaw Huberman as the Palestine Orchestra. Huberman assembled a professional symphony orchestra of high calibre, consisting of Europe’s most talented Jewish symphonic players. Arturo Toscanini

  • Palestine War (Arab-Israeli Wars)

    Haifa: …to the combatants in the Palestine war of 1948–49. The Arabs and the Haganah, the Jewish defense forces, fought for control of the city, and on April 22, 1948, the Arabs surrendered. Of more than 50,000 Arabs living in Haifa before the war, only about 3,000 subsequently chose to remain…

  • Palestine, history of

    Palestine: History: The Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age) in Palestine was first fully examined by the British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod in her excavations of caves on the slopes of Mount Carmel in 1929–34. The finds showed that at that…

  • Palestine, Partition of (1948)

    Palestine: The partition of Palestine and its aftermath: If one chief theme in the post-1948 pattern was embattled Israel and a second the hostility of its Arab neighbours, a third was the plight of the huge number of Arab refugees. The violent birth of Israel led to…

  • Palestinian (people)

    Palestine: The term Palestinian: Henceforth the term Palestinian will be used when referring to the Arabs of the former mandated Palestine, excluding Israel. Although the Arabs of Palestine had been creating and developing a Palestinian identity for about 200 years, the idea that Palestinians form a distinct people…

  • Palestinian Aramaic (language)

    Aramaic language: …which was northeast of Damascus), Palestinian-Christian, and Judeo-Aramaic. West Aramaic is still spoken in a small number of villages in Syria.

  • Palestinian Authority (Palestinian government)

    Palestinian Authority (PA), governing body of the Palestinian autonomous regions of the West Bank and Gaza Strip established in 1994 as part of the Oslo Accords peace agreement between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (see two-state solution). Following years of hostility,

  • Palestinian Election

    On Jan. 25, 2006, in a major political upheaval, the Islamist Hamas won a landslide victory in the Palestinian parliamentary election. Hamas, a fervently religious Islamic resistance movement, supplanted the secular Fatah party, which had held uninterrupted sway in Palestinian politics for nearly

  • Palestinian Legislative Council (Palestinian government)

    Palestinian Authority: Administration: …to the confidence of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC). The PLC consists of 132 members elected to four-year terms. According to the 2005 amendment to the Basic Law, the 2006 election was a mixed majority system and proportional representation system. This resulted in the controversial outcome of Hamas winning 74…

  • Palestinian National Authority (Palestinian government)

    Palestinian Authority (PA), governing body of the Palestinian autonomous regions of the West Bank and Gaza Strip established in 1994 as part of the Oslo Accords peace agreement between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (see two-state solution). Following years of hostility,

  • Palestinian religions (ancient religion)

    Syrian and Palestinian religion, beliefs of Syria and Palestine between 3000 and 300 bce. These religions are usually defined by the languages of those who practiced them: e.g., Amorite, Hurrian, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Moabite. The term Canaanite is often used broadly to cover a number

  • Palestinian Talmud (religious text)

    Jerusalem Talmud, one of two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in Palestine. The other such compilation, produced in Babylon, is called the Babylonian Talmud, or Talmud

  • Palestinian-Christian Aramaic (language)

    Aramaic language: …which was northeast of Damascus), Palestinian-Christian, and Judeo-Aramaic. West Aramaic is still spoken in a small number of villages in Syria.

  • Palestrina (ancient town, Italy)

    Praeneste, ancient city of Latium, located 23 miles east-southeast of Rome on a spur of the Apennines, home of the great temple to Fortuna Primigenia. After the Gallic invasion (390 bc), Praeneste fought many battles with Rome; defeated in the Latin War (340–338), it lost part of its territory and

  • Palestrina (opera by Pfitzner)

    Hans Pfitzner: …vom Liebesgarten (Eberfeld, 1901), and Palestrina (Munich, 1917), the last being his best known work. His works were widely played in Germany but made little impression in other countries.

  • Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Italian Renaissance composer of more than 105 masses and 250 motets, a master of contrapuntal composition. Palestrina lived during the period of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation and was a primary representative of the 16th-century conservative approach to

  • Palethorpe-Todd, Richard Andrew (Irish actor)

    Richard Todd, (Richard Andrew Palethorpe-Todd), Irish actor (born June 11, 1919, Dublin, Ire.—died Dec. 3, 2009, Little Humby, Lincolnshire, Eng.), earned a reputation for his intensity and force playing military men and dashing heroes in such films as Rob Roy, the Highland Rogue (1953), The Dam

  • Palevsky, Max (American computer pioneer)

    Max Palevsky, American computer pioneer (born July 24, 1924, Chicago, Ill.—died May 5, 2010, Beverly Hills, Calif.), cofounded (1968) Intel Corp., the world’s leading manufacturer of semiconductor computer circuits; the company produced (1971) the first microprocessor, which paved the way for

  • Paley, Grace (American author)

    Grace Paley, American short-story writer and poet known for her realistic seriocomic portrayals of working-class New Yorkers and for her political activism. Paley’s first languages were Russian and Yiddish. She attended Hunter College, New York City (1938–39), and then studied with the poet W.H.

  • Paley, William (British philosopher and priest)

    William Paley, English Anglican priest, Utilitarian philosopher, and author of influential works on Christianity, ethics, and science, among them the standard exposition in English theology of the teleological argument for the existence of God. Educated at Giggleswick School and Christ’s College,

  • Paley, William S. (American executive)

    William S. Paley, American broadcaster who served as the Columbia Broadcasting System’s president (1928–46), chairman of the board (1946–83), founder chairman (1983–86), acting chairman (1986–87), and chairman (1987–90). For more than half a century he personified the power and influence of CBS.

  • Palghat (India)

    Palakkad, city, central Kerala state, southwestern India. The city lies on the Ponnani River in the Palghat Gap, a break in the Western Ghats range. Palakkad’s location has always given the city strategic and commercial importance. It is a marketplace for grain, tobacco, textiles, and timber. Its

  • Palghat Gap (pass, India)

    Palghat Gap, major break in the Western Ghats mountain range, in southwestern India. Located between the Nilgiri Hills to the north and the Anaimalai Hills to the south, it is about 20 miles (32 km) wide and straddles the Kerala–Tamil Nadu border, serving as a major communication route between

  • Palgrave, Francis Turner (British author)

    Francis Turner Palgrave, English critic and poet, editor of the influential anthology The Golden Treasury. Son of the historian Sir Francis Palgrave (1788–1861), Palgrave was educated at Charterhouse and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was part of the circle of Matthew Arnold and Arthur Hugh

  • Pali (India)

    Pali, city, central Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is located just north of the Bandi River, a tributary of the Luni River. Pali was a trade centre in ancient times. The modern-day city is divided into an ancient and a modern quarter; it has several historic temples. Now chiefly an

  • Pali canon (Buddhist Theravada canon)

    Pali canon, the complete canon, first recorded in Pali, of the Theravada (“Way of the Elders”) branch of Buddhism. The schools of the Mahayana (“Greater Vehicle”) branch also revere it yet hold as scripture additional writings (in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, and other languages) that are not

  • Pāli language

    Pāli language, classical and liturgical language of the Theravāda Buddhist canon, a Middle Indo-Aryan language of north Indian origin. On the whole, Pāli seems closely related to the Old Indo-Aryan Vedic and Sanskrit dialects but is apparently not directly descended from either of these. Pāli’s use

  • Pali language

    Pāli language, classical and liturgical language of the Theravāda Buddhist canon, a Middle Indo-Aryan language of north Indian origin. On the whole, Pāli seems closely related to the Old Indo-Aryan Vedic and Sanskrit dialects but is apparently not directly descended from either of these. Pāli’s use

  • Pali literature

    Pali literature, body of Buddhist texts in the Pali language. The word pali (literally, a “line”) came to be used in the sense of “text”—in contrast to atthakatha (“saying what it means”), or “commentary”—at some time during the early part of the 1st millennium ce. Modern scholarship usually

  • Pali Text Society

    Pali Text Society, organization founded with the intention of editing and publishing the texts of the Theravāda canon and its commentaries, as well as producing English translations of many of those texts for an audience of scholars and interested readers. The Pali Text Society (PTS) was

  • Palice of Honour, The (work by Douglas)

    Gawin Douglas: …poem, Conscience; two moral allegories, The Palice of Honour and King Hart; and the Aeneid. The Palice of Honour (1501), a dream allegory on the theme “where does true honour lie,” extols a sterner rhetorical virtue than the young poet was to exemplify in his own subsequent career. King Hart…

  • Palici (ancient deities)

    Palici, ancient pair of local Sicilian gods who presided over the twin geysers still called Lago dei Palici, near Palagonia. The site became an asylum for escaped slaves, hence its importance as a symbol during the Sicilian slave revolts during the second half of the 2nd century bc. The Palici were

  • Palicur (people)

    Native American music: Circum-Caribbean: …this area include the Arawak, Palikur, Kalina, Waiwai, Patamona, and Wapishana. The little information available on their musics suggests that they differ in significant ways from other South American Indians. In particular, women from the circum-Caribbean area perform in collective rituals alongside men, sing their own repertories of ceremonial songs,…

  • Palikir (national capital, Micronesia)

    Palikir, capital of the Federated States of Micronesia. It is located inland on the island of Pohnpei. Nearby is the coastal city of Kolonia, the island’s other large settlement. Pop. (2010)

  • Palikur (people)

    Native American music: Circum-Caribbean: …this area include the Arawak, Palikur, Kalina, Waiwai, Patamona, and Wapishana. The little information available on their musics suggests that they differ in significant ways from other South American Indians. In particular, women from the circum-Caribbean area perform in collective rituals alongside men, sing their own repertories of ceremonial songs,…

  • palila (bird)

    conservation: Secondary extinctions: …a seed-eating species called the palila (Loxioides bailleui), is endangered because it depends almost exclusively on the seeds of one tree, the mamane (Sophora chrysophylla), which is grazed by introduced goats and sheep.

  • palilalia (behavioural disorder)

    Tourette syndrome: …to repeat words heard) and palilalia (spontaneous repetition of one’s own words) are two distinctive symptoms of Tourette syndrome. Coprolalia, the compulsion to utter obscenities, may also be present. Other vocalizations that may occur include grunts, barks, hisses, whistles, and other meaningless sounds. Motor tics may be simple actions that…

  • Palimé (Togo)

    Palimé, town, major commercial centre in the Plateaux region, southwestern Togo, western Africa, situated about 70 miles (110 km) northwest of Lomé, the national capital. The town lies in a mountainous area important for cultivation of coffee, cacao, and oil palms. A large portion of these crops is

  • palimpsest (geology)

    valley: Role of climatic change: …million years), many landscapes are palimpsests—i.e., they are composed of relict elements produced under the influence of past climates and modern elements produced in the present climatic regime. The study of such landscape changes is sometimes called climato-genetic geomorphology. Some researchers in the field, notably Büdel, have maintained that little…

  • palimpsest (manuscript)

    Palimpsest, manuscript in roll or codex form carrying a text erased, or partly erased, underneath an apparent additional text. The underlying text is said to be “in palimpsest,” and, even though the parchment or other surface is much abraded, the older text is recoverable in the laboratory by such

  • Palin, Michael (British comedian)

    Monty Python's Flying Circus: Eric Idle, Terry Jones, Michael Palin, and Terry Gilliam (the latter was the sole American in the otherwise British group of Oxford and Cambridge graduates). The five Englishmen played most of the roles, with Gilliam primarily contributing eccentric animations. Each of the creators went on to careers in film…

  • Palin, Sarah (American politician)

    Sarah Palin, American politician who served as governor of Alaska (2006–09) and was selected by Sen. John McCain to serve as his vice presidential running mate in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. She was the first woman to appear on a Republican presidential ticket. For coverage of the 2008

  • palindrome (literature)

    Palindrome, word, number, sentence, or verse that reads the same backward or forward. The term derives from the Greek palin dromo (“running back again”). Examples of word palindromes include “civic,” “madam,” “radar,” and “deified.” Numerical palindromes include sequences that read the same in

  • palindromic rheumatism (pathology)

    joint disease: Miscellaneous arthritides: Palindromic rheumatism is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by attacks that last one or two days but leave no permanent effects. Nevertheless, palindromic rheumatism rarely remits completely, and approximately one-third of cases result in rheumatoid arthritis. Polymyalgia rheumatica, a relatively frequent condition…

  • Palingénésie philosophique, La (work by Bonnet)

    Charles Bonnet: …evidence of extinct species with La Palingénésie philosophique (1769; “The Philosophical Revival”), in which he theorized that the Earth periodically suffers universal catastrophes, destroying most life, and that the survivors move up a notch on the evolutionary scale. Bonnet was the first to use the term evolution in a biological…

  • palingenesis (philosophy)

    Vincenzo Gioberti: ” He coined the term “palingenesis” to indicate the return of human concepts to the essential centre of being from which they become divorced. This reunion of the ideal and the real provided Gioberti a means of describing the actualization in human life of the life of the spirit, and…

  • Palinuridae (crustacean)

    lobster: Unlike true lobsters, spiny lobsters (Palinuridae), so called because of their very spiny bodies, do not have large claws. People eat the abdomen, which is marketed as lobster tail. The antennae are long. Most species live in tropical waters; Palinurus elephas, however, is found from Great Britain to…

  • Palinuro de México (novel by Paso)

    Fernando del Paso: Palinuro de México (1977; Palinuro of Mexico) is a freewheeling, humorous novel in which del Paso creates an entire semimagical universe. Noticias del imperio (1987; “News from the Empire”) is a re-creation of Mexican history, narrated in part by a madwoman who has witnessed 60 years of political and…

  • Palinuro of Mexico (novel by Paso)

    Fernando del Paso: Palinuro de México (1977; Palinuro of Mexico) is a freewheeling, humorous novel in which del Paso creates an entire semimagical universe. Noticias del imperio (1987; “News from the Empire”) is a re-creation of Mexican history, narrated in part by a madwoman who has witnessed 60 years of political and…

  • Palinurus elephas (crustacean)

    lobster: …species live in tropical waters; Palinurus elephas, however, is found from Great Britain to the Mediterranean Sea. Two palinurid species are commercially important in the Americas: Palinurus interruptus, the California spiny lobster of the Pacific coast, and P. argus, the West Indian spiny lobster, from Bermuda to Brazil. P. interruptus…

  • Palio, Corsa del (Italian festival)

    The Palio, festival of medieval origin conducted annually in certain Italian cities and featuring bareback horse races. Best known to foreigners is the Palio of Siena. Horse racing in Siena dates from 1232. The Palio was first held in 1482 as a civic celebration. The current course was formally

  • Palio, the (Italian festival)

    The Palio, festival of medieval origin conducted annually in certain Italian cities and featuring bareback horse races. Best known to foreigners is the Palio of Siena. Horse racing in Siena dates from 1232. The Palio was first held in 1482 as a civic celebration. The current course was formally

  • Palisa, Johann (Silesian astronomer)

    Johann Palisa, Silesian astronomer best known for his discovery of 120 asteroids. He also prepared two catalogs containing the positions of almost 4,700 stars. Palisa briefly was an assistant astronomer at the observatories in Vienna and Geneva before being appointed director (1872–80) of the

  • palisade cell (plant tissue)

    angiosperm: Leaves: …divided into two regions: the palisade parenchyma, located beneath the upper epidermis and composed of columnar cells oriented perpendicular to the leaf surface, and spongy parenchyma, located in the lower part of the leaf and composed of irregularly shaped cells. The veins contain primary xylem and phloem and are enclosed…

  • palisade mesophyll (plant tissue)

    angiosperm: Leaves: …divided into two regions: the palisade parenchyma, located beneath the upper epidermis and composed of columnar cells oriented perpendicular to the leaf surface, and spongy parenchyma, located in the lower part of the leaf and composed of irregularly shaped cells. The veins contain primary xylem and phloem and are enclosed…

  • palisade parenchyma (plant tissue)

    angiosperm: Leaves: …divided into two regions: the palisade parenchyma, located beneath the upper epidermis and composed of columnar cells oriented perpendicular to the leaf surface, and spongy parenchyma, located in the lower part of the leaf and composed of irregularly shaped cells. The veins contain primary xylem and phloem and are enclosed…

  • Palisades Park (song by Barris)

    Chuck Barris: …a songwriter, and his “Palisades Park” was a smash hit in 1962 for rock and roll singer Freddy Cannon.

  • Palisades Sill (rock unit, United States)

    Triassic Period: Igneous rocks: The well-known Palisades Sill of the Newark Supergroup was formerly regarded as Triassic in age, but this diabase intrusion, which is 300 metres (1,000 feet) thick, has yielded a potassium-argon age of 193 million years, indicating an Early Jurassic origin.

  • Palisades, The (bluffs, New Jersey and New York, United States)

    The Palisades, basalt bluffs 200–540 feet (60–165 metres) high along the west side of the Hudson River, southeastern New York and northeastern New Jersey, U.S. Rising vertically from near the water’s edge, they are characterized by uplifts, faults, and columnar structure developed by slow cooling

  • Palissy, Bernard (French potter and scientist)

    Bernard Palissy, French Huguenot potter and writer, particularly associated with decorated rustic ware, a type of earthenware covered with coloured lead glazes sometimes mistakenly called faience (tin-glazed earthenware). Palissy began as a painter of glass, but, after journeys in the south and in

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