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  • Pizarnik, Flora Alejandra (Argentine poet)

    Alejandra Pizarnik, Argentine poet whose poems are known for their stifling sense of exile and rootlessness. Pizarnik was born into a family of Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe. She attended the University of Buenos Aires, where she studied philosophy and literature. Later she ventured into

  • Pizarro (work by Sheridan)

    August von Kotzebue: …playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan as Pizarro (1799) and also proved a great success. Kotzebue traveled abroad and spent some time writing for the municipal theatre of Vienna. Upon his return to Russia he was arrested, inexplicably, and exiled to Siberia. The emperor Paul I, just as capriciously as he had…

  • Pizarro, Francisco (Spanish explorer)

    Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conqueror of the Inca empire and founder of the city of Lima. Pizarro was the illegitimate son of Captain Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca González, a young girl of humble birth. He spent much of his early life in the home of his grandparents. According to legend he was for

  • Pizarro, Gonzalo (Spanish explorer)

    Gonzalo Pizarro, Spanish conqueror and explorer and leader of antiroyal forces in Peru. Pizarro is considered by some historians to be the leader of the first genuine struggle by colonists for independence from Spanish domination in America. A half brother of Francisco Pizarro, with whom he fought

  • Pizarro, Guido (Chilean astronomer)

    comet: The modern era: …European astronomers Eric Elst and Guido Pizarro found a new comet, which was designated 133P/Elst-Pizarro. But when the orbit of the comet was determined, it was found to lie in the outer asteroid belt with a semimajor axis of 3.16 AU, an eccentricity of 0.162, and an inclination of only…

  • Pizarro, Hernando (Spanish explorer)

    Western colonialism: The conquests: … and his half-brothers Gonzalo and Hernando—entered the Inca Empire from Panama in 1531 and proceeded with its conquest. Finding the huge realm divided by a recent civil war over the throne, they captured and executed the incumbent usurper, Atahualpa. But the conquest took years to complete; the Pizarros had to…

  • pizza (food)

    Pizza, dish of Italian origin consisting of a flattened disk of bread dough topped with some combination of olive oil, oregano, tomato, olives, mozzarella or other cheese, and many other ingredients, baked quickly—usually, in a commercial setting, using a wood-fired oven heated to a very high

  • pizzicato (music)

    musical sound: Chordophones: …are sounded by plucking (pizzicato) on occasion, which provides a brittle tone of extremely brief duration. The harp is the best known orchestral instrument whose tone depends upon the noise components added by plucking. Other plucked instruments are the guitar, banjo, mandolin, ukelele, zither, lyre, lute, and the harpsichord.…

  • PJ (political party, Argentina)

    Peronist: …Justicialist Nationalist Movement (later the Justicialist Party), the Peronists swept back into power in 1973 when the military permitted the first general elections in 10 years. Perón returned from exile and became president. However, deep dissension between right-wing and left-wing Peronists erupted into terrorism and violence after Perón’s death in…

  • PJD (political party, Morocco)

    Morocco: The reign of Muḥammad VI: The Justice and Development Party (Parti de la Justice et du Développement; PJD), a moderate Islamist party that had campaigned on economic reform and against corruption, won 107 out of 395 seats in parliamentary elections held in November 2011. In accordance with the new constitution, Muḥammad…

  • Pjotr (novel by Klabund)

    Klabund: , Pjotr [1923; Peter the Czar]); and his greatest achievements in prose, the two “novels of fulfillment” Bracke (1918; Brackie, the Fool) and Borgia (1928; The Incredible Borgias). Li-tai-pe (1916) and Lao-tse (1921) are also among his works.

  • PK (psychology)

    Psychokinesis, in parapsychology, the action of mind on matter, in which objects are supposedly caused to move or change as a result of mental concentration upon them. The physical nature of psychokinetic effects contrasts with the cognitive quality of extrasensory perception (ESP), the other major

  • PK (film by Hirani [2014])

    Aamir Khan: …comedies 3 Idiots (2009) and PK (2014), both of which were among the highest-grossing movies in Bollywood history; and the musical Secret Superstar (2017). In 2007 Khan made his directorial debut with Taare zameen par (Like Stars on Earth); he also starred in that critically acclaimed drama.

  • pk (unit of measurement)

    Peck, unit of capacity in the U.S. Customary and the British Imperial Systems of measurement. In the United States the peck is used only for dry measure and is equal to 8 dry quarts, or 537.6 cubic inches (8.810 litres). In Great Britain the peck may be used for either liquid or dry measure and is

  • Pk antigen (biochemistry)

    P blood group system: …as the P, P1, and Pk antigens on the surfaces of red blood cells. These antigens are also expressed on the surfaces of cells lining the urinary tract, where they have been identified as adhesion sites for Escherichia coli bacteria, which cause urinary tract infections.

  • PKB (political party, Indonesia)

    National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic political party in Indonesia. The PKB was formed in 1998 by Abdurrahman Wahid—a Muslim cleric and head of the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul-ʿUlama), the country’s largest Muslim organization— and his supporters. Its opposition to an Islamic government,

  • PKI (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: The rise of nationalism: …1920 and adopted the name Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia; PKI) in 1924.

  • PKK (Kurdish militant organization)

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), militant Kurdish nationalist organization founded by Abdullah (“Apo”) Öcalan in the late 1970s. Although the group initially espoused demands for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state, its stated aims were later tempered to calls for greater Kurdish

  • PKU (genetic metabolic disease)

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), hereditary inability of the body to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is normally converted in the human body to tyrosine, another amino acid, by a specific organic catalyst, or enzyme, called phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is not active in

  • PKWN (Polish history)

    20th-century international relations: The final Allied agreements: …that he would reorganize the Lublin Committee and permit free elections among “non-Fascist elements” within a month after peace. But Stalin reserved the right to decide who was “Fascist” and rejected international supervision of the elections. Roosevelt proposed a Declaration on Liberated Europe, by which the Big Three promised to…

  • Pkwr (Parthian prince)

    Pacorus, Parthian prince, son of King Orodes II (reigned c. 55/54–37/36 bc); he apparently never ascended the throne. In the summer of 51 bc Pacorus was sent to invade Syria with an army commanded by Osaces, an older warrior. Osaces, however, was killed in battle, and early the next year Orodes,

  • Pkwr II (king of Parthia)

    Pacorus II, king of Parthia (reigned ad 78–c. 115/116). Little is known of his reign, which seems to have been filled with rebellions and the rule of counterkings (Artabanus IV, Osroes, and Vologases II). In 110 Pacorus sold the Parthian client kingdom of Osroëne to Abgar VII, son of Izates, ruler

  • PKZip (software)

    PKZip, data compression computer software, used for all types of digital files. In the 1980s the American software company System Enhancement Associates Inc. (SEA) established a popular software application called ARC, which allowed users to compress computer files to save storage space or to send

  • PL (political party, Colombia)

    Colombia: Colombia in the 21st century: …Party with 15, and the Colombian Liberal Party and the Social Party of National Unity with 14 each. The Colombian Liberal Party finished first with 35 seats in the 172-seat House, ahead of DC, which won 32 seats, Radical Change with 30 seats, the Social Party of National Unity with…

  • PL Kyōdan (Japanese religion)

    PL Kyōdan, religious group or church (Japanese: kyōdan) founded in Japan in 1946 by Miki Tokuchika. The movement, unique for the use of English words in its name, is based on the earlier Hito-no-michi sect. It is not affiliated, however, with any of the major religious traditions of Japan. In the l

  • PLA (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Degradable polyesters: These include polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly-2-hydroxy butyrate (PHB), and polycaprolactone (PCL), as well as their copolymers:

  • PLA (Chinese army)

    People’s Liberation Army, Unified organization of China’s land, sea, and air forces. It is one of the largest military forces in the world. The People’s Liberation Army traces its roots to the 1927 Nanchang Uprising of the communists against the Nationalists. Initially called the Red Army, it grew

  • PLA (Yugoslavian army)

    Partisan: …recruits to designate themselves the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), with elite Proletarian Brigades selected for their fighting abilities, ideological commitment, and all-Yugoslav character. In November 1942 Tito demonstrated the strength of his movement by convening the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, which eventually became a provisional government.

  • PLA Day (Chinese holiday)

    China: Security: …which is celebrated annually as PLA Day. The PLA is one of the world’s largest military forces, with in excess of two million members. Military service is compulsory for all men who attain the age of 18; women may register for duty in the medical, veterinary, and other technical services.…

  • Plaatje, Solomon Tshekiso (South African writer)

    Solomon Tshekiso Plaatje, linguist, journalist, politician, statesman, and writer whose mind and activities ranged widely both in literary and in African affairs. His native tongue was Tswana, the chief language of Botswana, but he also learned English, Afrikaans, High Dutch, German, French, Sotho,

  • place (business)

    marketing: Place: Place, or where the product is made available, is the third element of the marketing mix and is most commonly referred to as distribution. When a product moves along its path from producer to consumer, it is said to be following a channel of…

  • place (geography)

    Native American religions: Diversity and common themes: In the Native American experience, place is important, and religious practices are often localized. The importance of place is revealed in the beliefs of the Menominee, who use local geography to explain the origin of their people, and the Iroquois, whose longhouses are understood as microcosms of the universe. Moreover,…

  • Place (poetry by Graham)

    Jorie Graham: In 2012 Graham published Place, which won the Forward Poetry Prize for best collection. The Taken-Down God: Selected Poems 1997–2008 (2013) and From the New World: Poems 1976–2014 (2015) are additional surveys of her work.

  • place cell (neuroscience)

    Edvard I. Moser: …determine whether the activity of place cells in CA1 originated in the hippocampus or in another part of the brain. Their observations led them to investigate a region called the entorhinal cortex, which connected with neurons in CA1. The Mosers recorded the activity of cells specifically in the dorsocaudal medial…

  • Place de l’Étoile, La (novel by Modiano)

    Patrick Modiano: Modiano’s first novel, La Place de l’Étoile (1968; “The Star’s Place,” a reference to the yellow star that Jews were forced to wear on their clothing), concerns a Jewish collaborator and is possibly based on Modiano’s father. In 1972 his third novel, Les Boulevards de ceinture (Ring Roads),…

  • Place in the Sun, A (film by Stevens [1951])

    A Place in the Sun, American dramatic film, released in 1951, that was based on a theatrical adaptation of Theodore Dreiser’s 1925 novel An American Tragedy, a searing look at dysfunctional relationships and blind ambition. The film was a popular and critical hit, winning six Academy Awards.

  • place kick (sports)

    gridiron football: The play of the game: …ball in play with a place kick from the 30-, 35-, or 40-yard line (at the intercollegiate, professional, and scholastic levels, respectively) and which goal each team will defend. Following the kickoff, the centre of the team in possession of the ball puts it in play by passing it between…

  • place marketing (economics)

    marketing: Place marketing: Place marketing employs marketing principles and techniques to advance the appeal and viability of a place (town, city, state, region, or nation) to tourists, businesses, investors, and residents. Among the “place sellers” are economic development agencies, tourist promotion agencies, and mayors’ offices. Place…

  • Place of Greater Safety , A (novel by Mantel)

    Hilary Mantel: …the publication of the novel A Place of Greater Safety (1992), a richly detailed chronicle of the French Revolution as seen through the eyes of three of its central participants. She drew on her years in Botswana to write the novel A Change of Climate (1994), about British missionaries in…

  • Place Royale (square, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Marais: …1800 it has been called Place des Vosges. Another wave of building by the rich, eager to be close to a royal project, endowed the Marais with 200 more private palaces.

  • place theory of hearing (physics)

    sound: The ear as spectrum analyzer: This is consistent with the place theory of hearing, which correlates the observed pitch with the position along the basilar membrane of the inner ear that is stimulated by the corresponding frequency.

  • Place, Etta (American outlaw)

    Butch Cassidy: …and Sundance (with Sundance’s girlfriend, Etta Place) escaped first to New York City and then to South America (1901). (Etta Place returned home in 1907.) From 1902 to 1906 they owned and ran a ranch in Chubut province, Argentina, but thereafter they returned to outlawry. Drifting from country to country,…

  • Place, Francis (British politician)

    Francis Place, British radical reformer, best-known for his successful campaign for the repeal in 1824 of the antiunion Combination Acts. The son of a bailiff, Place was drawn into trade club and radical activity after suffering great hardships as a leather-breeches maker. In 1793 he organized an

  • Place, Martha (American criminal)

    electrocution: …Auburn State Prison; in 1899 Martha Place became the first woman to be electrocuted. Kemmler’s highly publicized execution was a grotesque and fiery botch. One New York Times reporter described the incident in detail, noting that it was “awful” and “the witnesses were so horrified by the ghastly sight that…

  • Place, U. T. (British philosopher)

    materialism: Translation central-state theories: The British materialist U.T. Place did so on the ground of normal scientific methodology; and the Australian materialist J.J.C. Smart did so with a metaphysical application of the principle (called “Ockham’s razor”) that entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity. A physicalistic materialist has, of course, an obligation…

  • Place, Victor (French archaeologist)

    Dur Sharrukin: …continued (1858–65) by his successor, Victor Place, and by an American expedition (1928–35) from the University of Chicago. In addition to excellent wall reliefs, ivories, and monumental winged-bull statues uncovered at the site, one of the most-valuable finds was the Assyrian King List, which recorded Assyrian kings from about 1700…

  • place-name

    name: Choice of place-names: Place-names are less personal, less intimate, and a matter of public concern. The usual pattern is that the national Ministry of the Interior (or its equivalent) keeps an official list of place-names, particularly of place-names that form administrative units, together with lists of districts,…

  • place-time value (industry)

    storage: …storage have what are called place-time values, derived from the appropriate appearance of products when and where they are needed. In manufacturing as well, a high value must be placed on the insurance provided by the storing of parts (raw materials, components, machinery) necessary for production so that they are…

  • place-value system (mathematics)

    Archimedes: His works: …effect, is to create a place-value system of notation, with a base of 100,000,000. (That was apparently a completely original idea, since he had no knowledge of the contemporary Babylonian place-value system with base 60.) The work is also of interest because it gives the most detailed surviving description of…

  • placebo

    Placebo, an inert, or dummy, drug. Placebos are sometimes prescribed for maladies with no known scientific treatment or in cases in which an ailment has not yet been diagnosed. They are also used in tests involving responses to new drugs. In a blind test the patient does not know whether he or she

  • placebo effect

    Placebo effect, psychological or psychophysiological improvement attributed to therapy with an inert substance or a simulated (sham) procedure. There is no clear explanation for why some persons experience measurable improvement when given an inert substance for treatment. Research has indicated

  • placenta (human and animal)

    Placenta, in zoology, the vascular (supplied with blood vessels) organ in most mammals that unites the fetus to the uterus of the mother. It mediates the metabolic exchanges of the developing individual through an intimate association of embryonic tissues and of certain uterine tissues, serving

  • placenta (plant)

    Placenta, in botany, the surface of the carpel (highly modified leaf) to which the ovules (potential seeds) are attached. The placenta is usually located in a region corresponding somewhat to the margins of a leaf but is actually submarginal in position. The placentation, or arrangement of ovules

  • placenta accreta (pathology)

    Placenta accreta, abnormal adherence of the placenta to the wall of the uterus, so that it remains in the uterus after the baby has been delivered. Although uncommon, placenta accreta poses serious dangers to the mother. If complicated by coexisting placenta praevia (development of the placenta in

  • placenta circumvallata (pathology)

    pregnancy: Placental anomalies: The former type, called placenta circumvallata, is associated with several maternal and fetal complications; the latter type, called placenta membranacea, may cause problems at delivery—e.g., bleeding, failure of the membrane to separate.

  • placenta membranacea (pathology)

    pregnancy: Placental anomalies: …complications; the latter type, called placenta membranacea, may cause problems at delivery—e.g., bleeding, failure of the membrane to separate.

  • placenta praevia (pathology)

    Placenta praevia, implantation of the placenta at a point so low in the uterus that the placenta is close to the opening into the cervix or covers the opening, either partially or completely. The placenta is the temporary organ that develops during pregnancy to nourish the fetus and to carry away

  • placentae (plant)

    Placenta, in botany, the surface of the carpel (highly modified leaf) to which the ovules (potential seeds) are attached. The placenta is usually located in a region corresponding somewhat to the margins of a leaf but is actually submarginal in position. The placentation, or arrangement of ovules

  • placentae abruptio (pathology)

    Placentae abruptio, premature separation of the placenta from its normal implantation site in the uterus. The placenta is the temporary organ that develops during pregnancy to nourish the fetus and carry away its wastes. Placentae abruptio occurs in the latter half of pregnancy and may be partial

  • placental barrier (anatomy)

    drug: Reproductive system drugs: The so-called placental barrier and the blood-testis barrier impede certain chemicals, although both allow most fat-soluble chemicals to cross. Drugs that are more water-soluble and that possess higher molecular weights tend not to cross either the placental or the blood-testis barrier. In addition, if a drug binds…

  • placental infarction (pathology)

    Placental infarction, formation of yellowish white or bloodstained deposits of fibrin (a fibrous protein) on the surface or in the substance of the placenta, the temporary organ that develops during pregnancy to nourish the fetus and to carry away its wastes. Formation of placental infarcts is

  • placental mammal (animal)

    Placental mammal, (infraclass Eutheria), any member of the mammalian group characterized by the presence of a placenta, which facilitates exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood of the mother and that of the fetus. The placentals include all living mammals except marsupials and

  • Placentalia (animal)

    Placental mammal, (infraclass Eutheria), any member of the mammalian group characterized by the presence of a placenta, which facilitates exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood of the mother and that of the fetus. The placentals include all living mammals except marsupials and

  • placentas (plant)

    Placenta, in botany, the surface of the carpel (highly modified leaf) to which the ovules (potential seeds) are attached. The placenta is usually located in a region corresponding somewhat to the margins of a leaf but is actually submarginal in position. The placentation, or arrangement of ovules

  • placentation (human and animal)

    prenatal development: Placentation: The irregular strands of invasive syncytial trophoblast constitute a first stage in the formation of true villi, which form part of the placenta and are briefly described below. Primitive connective tissue soon lines the interior of the blastocyst wall, and this complex of trophoblast…

  • placentation (plant)

    placenta: The placentation, or arrangement of ovules within the ovary, is frequently of taxonomic value. Placentation is usually submarginal in a simple pistil (female sex organ). In a compound pistil, two or more carpels are used in various ways, placentation being parietal, with carpels united by their…

  • Placentia (Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Placentia, town, southeastern Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It lies along the Avalon Peninsula and the east shore of Placentia Bay, 67 miles (108 km) southwest of St. John’s. Basque fishermen arrived in the 16th century and probably named the site for Plasencia, Spain. In 1662

  • Placentia (Italy)

    Piacenza, city, Emilia-Romagna regione of northern Italy, on the south bank of the Po River just below the mouth of the Trebbia, southeast of Milan. It was founded as the Roman colony of Placentia in 218 bc. After being besieged unsuccessfully by the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal in 207 bc and

  • placer deposit (geology)

    Placer deposit, natural concentration of heavy minerals caused by the effect of gravity on moving particles. When heavy, stable minerals are freed from their matrix by weathering processes, they are slowly washed downslope into streams that quickly winnow the lighter matrix. Thus the heavy minerals

  • placer mining

    Placer mining, ancient method of using water to excavate, transport, concentrate, and recover heavy minerals from alluvial or placer deposits. Examples of deposits mined by means of this technique are the gold-bearing sands and gravel that settle out from rapidly moving streams and rivers at points

  • placeres prohibidos, Los (work by Cernuda)

    Luis Cernuda: Later collections of poems, notably Los placeres prohibidos (1931; “Forbidden Pleasures”), were influenced by Surrealism and indicate an increasing bitterness toward life—influenced by facing his homosexual orientation. All of his poems were collected in La realidad y el deseo (“Reality and Desire”), which was frequently expanded and reissued.

  • Places in the Heart (film by Benton [1984])

    Robert Benton: The 1980s: Places in the Heart (1984), however, was more comfortable territory for Benton. The drama was set in his hometown of Waxahachie, Texas, during the Great Depression, and it featured Sally Field as a widow who must provide for her children by working her 40-acre cotton…

  • Placetas (Cuba)

    Placetas, city, central Cuba. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) east-southeast of Santa Clara. Placetas is a commercial and manufacturing centre for the rich agricultural and pastoral hinterland. Tobacco, sugarcane, fruits, and cattle are processed in the city, and gold and asphalt are found in the

  • Placide, Alexander (French entertainer)

    Alexander Placide, French-born U.S. dancer, mime, acrobat, and impresario who produced in the U.S. such diverse and novel entertainment as ballets, pantomime dramas, patriotic pageants, fencing matches, and bird imitations. The son of travelling acrobats, Placide studied dance in Paris, had his

  • Placidia, Aelia Galla (Roman empress)

    Aelia Galla Placidia, Roman empress, the daughter of the emperor Theodosius I (ruled 379–395), sister of the Western emperor Flavius Honorius (ruled 393–423), wife of the Western emperor Constantius III (ruled 421), and mother of the Western emperor Valentinian III (ruled 425–455). Captured in Rome

  • placoderm (fossil fish)

    Placoderm, any member of an extinct group (Placodermi) of primitive jawed fishes known only from fossil remains. Placoderms existed throughout the Devonian Period (about 416 million to 359 million years ago), but only two species persisted into the succeeding Carboniferous Period. During the

  • Placodermi (fossil fish)

    Placoderm, any member of an extinct group (Placodermi) of primitive jawed fishes known only from fossil remains. Placoderms existed throughout the Devonian Period (about 416 million to 359 million years ago), but only two species persisted into the succeeding Carboniferous Period. During the

  • placodont (fossil reptile order)

    sauropterygian: Most paleontologists consider the placodonts of the Middle Triassic Period (246 million to 229 million years ago) to be a subgroup of Sauropterygia. Their bodies were structurally similar to those of nothosaurs but more compact. Placodus was a typical form, having broad, flat tooth plates for crushing the mollusks…

  • Placodontia (fossil reptile order)

    sauropterygian: Most paleontologists consider the placodonts of the Middle Triassic Period (246 million to 229 million years ago) to be a subgroup of Sauropterygia. Their bodies were structurally similar to those of nothosaurs but more compact. Placodus was a typical form, having broad, flat tooth plates for crushing the mollusks…

  • Placodus (fossil reptile)

    sauropterygian: Placodus was a typical form, having broad, flat tooth plates for crushing the mollusks on which it fed. Many placodonts evolved dermal armour, with Henodus having a shell comparable to that of a turtle. However, some paleontologists consider these similarities to some advanced plesiosaurs superficial,…

  • placoid scale (fish anatomy)

    clupeiform: Distinguishing characteristics: The development of denticles (toothlike skin projections) and teeth represents another specialization of evolutionary importance. The most primitive clupeiform fishes have an enormous number of dermal denticles (on the head and in the mouth), which have been replaced in evolutionarily more-advanced forms by teeth, which are larger and…

  • Placophora (mollusk)

    Chiton, any of numerous flattened, bilaterally symmetrical marine mollusks, worldwide in distribution but most abundant in warm regions. The approximately 600 species are usually placed in the class Placophora, Polyplacophora, or Loricata (phylum Mollusca). Chitons are usually oval in shape. On the

  • Placozoa (animal phylum)

    animal: Annotated classification: Phylum Placozoa Flattened, 2 flagellated cell layers; fluid mesenchyme with a few cells and connecting fibres; similar to the larvae of primitive animals, from which they may be derived; digestive method unknown; shape irregular and changing; marine; predators or scavengers; recent; 1 species. Phylum Cnidaria Possess…

  • Placuna (mollusk genus)

    bivalve: Size range and diversity of structure: …example of this is the windowpane shell Placuna. This form has allowed the close attachment of one valve to a hard surface, and although some groups still retain byssal attachment (family Anomiidae), others have forsaken this for cementation, as in the true oysters (family Ostreidae), where the left valve is…

  • Placuna placenta (oyster)

    bivalve: Importance: …shell of the windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta, is called the capiz shell. It is used, primarily in the Philippines, in the manufacture of lampshades, trays, mats, and bowls. In developing countries, many kinds of bivalve shells are used in the manufacture of jewelry and ornaments.

  • Plaek Khittasangkha (premier of Thailand)

    Luang Phibunsongkhram, field marshal and premier of Thailand in 1938–44 and 1948–57, who was associated with the rise of authoritarian military governments in Thailand. He was educated at the royal military academy, and in 1914 he entered the Siamese artillery corps. In 1924–27 he took advanced

  • PLAF (Vietnamese military organization)

    Vietnam War: The Diem regime and the Viet Cong: …of the Viet Cong’s so-called People’s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF). At the base of the PLAF were village guerrilla units, made up of part-time combatants who lived at home and worked at their regular occupations during the day. Their function was to persuade or intimidate their neighbours into supporting the…

  • Plaff, Dan (American athletic coach)

    Donovan Bailey: …there that he met coach Dan Pfaff, who invited Bailey to train with him. Pfaff subsequently overhauled his technique and helped him polish his style. As a result, Bailey improved his starts and his ability to sustain his speed throughout the race. By the end of 1994, he was ranked…

  • Plafond (card game)

    Plafond, (French: Ceiling), French card game popular in Europe in the 1920s, a predecessor of Contract Bridge. Trick values and scoring were as in Auction Bridge except that, as in Contract Bridge, only tricks bid and made counted toward game; overtricks scored 50 points each in the honour score,

  • plagal cadence (music)

    cadence: In the plagal cadence the subdominant (IV) triad leads to the tonic (I). This cadence usually is an extension to an authentic cadence, and its most characteristic and formulaic usage in the West is with the final amen (IV–I) at the end of a hymn in Christian…

  • plagal mode (music)

    mode: The eight modes: …the pentachord, thus generating a “plagal” mode:

  • Plager, Barclay (Canadian ice-hockey player and coach)

    St. Louis Blues: …Bowman and featuring hard-nosed defenseman Barclay Plager, the Blues advanced to the Stanley Cup finals in their first season but were defeated by the Montreal Canadiens in four contests that were each decided by just one goal. The Blues won the NHL West Division—composed of the six expansion franchises—in each…

  • Plages d’Agnès, Les (film by Varda [2008])

    Agnès Varda: …life; Les Plages d’Agnès (2008; The Beaches of Agnès), an account of her life; and the Academy Award-nominated Visages villages (2017; Faces Places), in which Varda and artist JR travel throughout France, photographing various people they encounter.

  • plagiarism

    Plagiarism, the act of taking the writings of another person and passing them off as one’s own. The fraudulence is closely related to forgery and piracy—practices generally in violation of copyright laws. If only thoughts are duplicated, expressed in different words, there is no breach of

  • Plagiary, Sir Fretful (fictional character)

    Sir Fretful Plagiary, fictional character, the epitome of the vain, talentless playwright, in Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s play The Critic (first performed 1779). The character is based on the English dramatist Richard Cumberland, who had expressed his contempt for Sheridan’s The School for Scandal

  • Plagiochila (plant genus)

    leafy liverwort: Plagiochila, a very species-rich genus, is found throughout the world.

  • plagioclase (mineral)

    Plagioclase, any member of the series of abundant feldspar minerals usually occurring as light-coloured, glassy, transparent to translucent, brittle crystals. Plagioclase is a mixture of albite (Ab), or sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi3O8), and anorthite (An), or calcium aluminosilicate (CaAl2Si2O8);

  • plagiogranite (geology)

    oceanic crust: …this layer includes pods of plagiogranite, a differentiated rock richer in silica than gabbro. The lower gabbro layer has a stratified structure and evidently represents the floor or sides of the magma chamber. This layered structure is called cumulate, meaning that the layers (which measure up to several metres thick)…

  • Plagiogyria (fern genus)

    fern: Annotated classification: …coarse tubercles; 1 genus (Plagiogyria) with about 15 species, distributed in tropical regions. Family Cibotiaceae Rhizomes massive, creeping to erect and often trunklike (up to 6 metres [almost 20 feet]), with soft yellow hairs toward the tip; leaves large (up to 4 metres [13 feet]), two or three times…

  • Plagiogyriaceae (plant family)

    Plagiogyriaceae, a small family of ferns in the division Pteridophyta (the lower vascular plants). The single genus, Plagiogyria (15 species), is confined to tropical and warm temperate regions from North America to South America and Asia to New Guinea. The species superficially resemble some

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