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  • Pilea involucrata (plant)

    Pilea: …of the round leaves; and friendship plant, or panamiga (P. involucrata), with quilted bronzy leaves.

  • Pilea microphylla (plant)

    Pilea: Especially popular are the artillery plant, or rockweed (Pilea microphylla), with fine fernlike foliage and anthers that forcefully expel their pollen when mature; aluminum plant, or watermelon pilea (P. cadierei), with silvery markings on glossy dark green leaves; Chinese money plant (P. peperomioides), with long petioles (leaf stalks) attached…

  • Pilea nummulariifolia (plant, Pilea nummulariifolia)

    Pilea: …of several basket plants called creeping charlie, or Swedish ivy, is P. nummulariifolia, with small, round, quilted leaves and a vigorous trailing habit. Giant baby tears, or depressed clearweed (P. depressa), of similar habit, has small, smooth green leaves.

  • Pilea peperomioides (botany)

    Pilea: …on glossy dark green leaves; Chinese money plant (P. peperomioides), with long petioles (leaf stalks) attached to the centre of the undersides of the round leaves; and friendship plant, or panamiga (P. involucrata), with quilted bronzy leaves.

  • pileated gibbon (primate)

    gibbon: The pileated gibbon (H. pileatus), of southeastern Thailand and western Cambodia, has white hands and feet; the male is black and the female buff with a black cap and chest patch. The difference in colour comes about with age; the juveniles are buff and both sexes…

  • pileated woodpecker (bird)

    woodpecker: …of temperate Eurasia, and the pileated woodpecker (D. pileatus), which is some 40–47 cm (15.5–18.25 inches) in size and inhabits mature forests of much of temperate North America.

  • piled jetty (engineering)

    harbours and sea works: The piled jetty: …and most obvious is the piled jetty—its piles can be driven from floating craft and the deck and superstructure added thereto, working wholly above water. In regions in which there is a large tidal range, it may sometimes be both advantageous and necessary to take the opportunity provided by extremely…

  • Pileggi, Nicholas (American author and screenwriter)

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 1990s: GoodFellas, Cape Fear, and Casino: Adapted from Nicholas Pileggi’s nonfiction Wiseguy, this knowing portrait of small-time Brooklyn mobster Henry Hill’s life and crimes (scripted by Pileggi and Scorsese) was as authentic as any Scorsese film since Raging Bull. Ray Liotta played Hill, and Paul Sorvino, Joe Pesci, Lorraine Bracco, and De Niro…

  • pileless carpet (floor covering)

    Kilim, pileless floor covering handwoven in most places where pile rugs are made. The term is applied both generally and specifically, with the former use referring to virtually any ruglike fabric that does not have pile. When used specifically the term refers to a more limited number of

  • piles (disease)

    Hemorrhoid, mass formed by distension of the network of veins under the mucous membrane that lines the anal channel or under the skin lining the external portion of the anus. A form of varicose vein, a hemorrhoid may develop from anal infection or from increase in intra-abdominal pressure, such a

  • Piles, Roger de (French art critic)

    Nicolas Poussin: Legacy: …into a theoretical dispute with Roger de Piles; their respective sides were known as Poussinists and Rubenists, the former upholding the importance of line over colour and the latter the reverse. The Rubenists eventually triumphed, and the result was the art of Antoine Watteau and the Rococo.

  • pileus (sporophore)

    mushroom: …consists of a cap (pileus) and a stalk (stipe). The sporophore emerges from an extensive underground network of threadlike strands (mycelium). An example of an agaric is the honey mushroom (Armillaria mellea). Mushroom mycelia may live hundreds of years or die in a few months, depending on the available…

  • pileus (hat)

    Pileus, close-fitting, brimless hat worn by the ancient Romans and copied from the Greek sailor’s hat called the pilos. In Roman times the head was generally left uncovered, but commoners and freed slaves sometimes wore the felt pileus. The hat was again popular during the Renaissance, especially

  • pileworm (mollusk)

    Shipworm, any of the approximately 65 species of marine bivalve mollusks of the family Teredidae (Teredinidae). Shipworms are common in most oceans and seas and are important because of the destruction they cause in wooden ship hulls, wharves, and other submerged wooden structures. Only a small

  • pileworm (annelid)

    Rag worm, any of a group of mostly marine or shore worms of the class Polychaeta (phylum Annelida). A few species live in fresh water. Other common names include mussel worm, pileworm, and sandworm. Rag worms vary in length from 2.5 to 90 cm (1 inch to 3 feet); they are commonly brown, bright red,

  • pilewort (plant)

    celandine: The lesser celandine, or pilewort (Ranunculus ficaria), is a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It has heart-shaped leaves and typical buttercup flowers. Native to Europe, it has become naturalized in North America.

  • Pilgrim (typeface)

    Eric Gill: …for machine use and renamed Pilgrim in 1953.

  • Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (essays by Dillard)

    Annie Dillard: In her Pulitzer Prize-winning collection Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (1974), she distilled from keen observations of her own habitat the essential enigmas of religious mysticism. Critics hailed the work as an American original in the spirit of Henry David Thoreau’s Walden. Holy the Firm (1977) and Teaching a Stone to…

  • pilgrim bottle (vessel)

    Pilgrim bottle, vessel with a body varying from an almost full circle, flattened, to a pear shape with a shortish neck, a spreading foot, and, generally, two loops on the shoulders. Through the loops either a chain or a cord was passed for carrying the bottle or for maintaining the stopper in

  • Pilgrim Fathers (United States history)

    Pilgrim Fathers, in American colonial history, settlers of Plymouth, Massachusetts, the first permanent colony in New England (1620). Of the 102 colonists, 35 were members of the English Separatist Church (a radical faction of Puritanism) who had earlier fled to Leiden, the Netherlands, to escape

  • Pilgrim Festivals (Judaism)

    Pilgrim Festivals, in Judaism, the three occasions on which male Israelites were required to go to Jerusalem to offer sacrifice at the Temple and bring offerings of the produce from their fields. In the synagogue liturgy, special Psalms (called collectively Hallel) are read and prayers are recited

  • Pilgrim Holiness Church (American Protestantism)

    Wesleyan Church, U.S. Protestant church, organized in 1968 by the merger of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America and the Pilgrim Holiness Church. The Wesleyan Methodist Church originated in 1843 after members of the Methodist Episcopal Church withdrew from that church to organize a

  • Pilgrim to Compostela (ballad)

    ballad: Medieval romance: …and Solomon, the Spanish “Pilgrim to Compostela” and the French and Catalonian ballads on the penance of Mary Magdalene reshape canonical stories radically.

  • Pilgrim’s Book (work by Anthony of Novgorod)

    Anthony Of Novgorod: …importance derives mainly from his Pilgrim’s Book, written during a visit to Constantinople about 1200. The book is unique for information on late 12th-century Constantinople and as the most comprehensive source on its archaeology and religious culture before the French and Venetian pillage (1204) during the Fourth Crusade.

  • Pilgrim’s Progress, The (novel by Bunyan)

    The Pilgrim’s Progress, religious allegory by the English writer John Bunyan, published in two parts in 1678 and 1684. The work is a symbolic vision of the good man’s pilgrimage through life. At one time second only to the Bible in popularity, The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most famous Christian

  • Pilgrim, Billy (fictional character)

    Billy Pilgrim, fictional character, protagonist of Slaughterhouse-Five (1969), a novel by Kurt

  • Pilgrimage (novel by Richardson)

    Pilgrimage, sequence novel by Dorothy M. Richardson, comprising 13 chapter-novels, 11 of which were published separately: Pointed Roofs (1915), Backwater (1916), Honeycomb (1917), The Tunnel (1919), Interim (1919), Deadlock (1921), Revolving Lights (1923), The Trap (1925), Oberland (1927), Dawn’s

  • pilgrimage (religion)

    Pilgrimage, a journey undertaken for a religious motive. Although some pilgrims have wandered continuously with no fixed destination, pilgrims more commonly seek a specific place that has been sanctified by association with a divinity or other holy personage. The institution of pilgrimage is

  • pilgrimage (Christianity)

    Crusades: The effects of religion: … was another popular religious practice, pilgrimage to a holy shrine. Eleventh-century Europe abounded in local shrines housing relics of saints, but three great centres of pilgrimage stood out above the others: Rome, with the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul; Santiago de Compostela, in northwestern Spain; and

  • Pilgrimage Church of Mary, Queen of Peace (church, Neviges, Germany)

    Gottfried Böhm: …this vein, Böhm built the Pilgrimage Church of Mary, Queen of Peace (1963–72), at Neviges, a striking jewel-like structure of reinforced concrete that engages with its surroundings as the natural destination of a sloping path. He also designed the Bensberg town hall (1962–71), a modern concrete building with an angular…

  • Pilgrimage of Grace (English history)

    Pilgrimage of Grace, (1536), a rising in the northern counties of England, the only overt immediate discontent shown against the Reformation legislation of King Henry VIII. Part of the resentment was caused by attempts, especially under Henry’s minister Thomas Cromwell, to increase government

  • Pilgrimage of Henry James, The (work by Brooks)

    Van Wyck Brooks: In The Pilgrimage of Henry James (1925), Brooks took a stand against expatriation, arguing that James’s later writing was convoluted and inferior because of his too-long separation from his native land. Brooks suffered a mental breakdown from 1927 to 1931. The Life of Emerson (1932), largely…

  • Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca (work by Burton)

    Sir Richard Burton: Exploration in Arabia: His Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca (1855–56) was not only a great adventure narrative but also a classic commentary on Muslim life and manners, especially on the annual pilgrimage. Instead of returning to London to enjoy his sudden fame, however, he organized a new expedition in…

  • Pilgrime von Mekka, Die (opera by Gluck)

    Christoph Willibald Gluck: The middle years: In La Rencontre imprévue, first performed in Vienna on Jan. 7, 1764, no vaudeville elements remain at all, with the result that the work is a perfect example of opéra comique. Gluck gave the scores of Le Cadi dupé and La Rencontre imprévue particular charm by…

  • Pilgrims (United States history)

    Pilgrim Fathers, in American colonial history, settlers of Plymouth, Massachusetts, the first permanent colony in New England (1620). Of the 102 colonists, 35 were members of the English Separatist Church (a radical faction of Puritanism) who had earlier fled to Leiden, the Netherlands, to escape

  • Pilgrims (American baseball team)

    Boston Red Sox, American professional baseball team based in Boston. One of the most-storied franchises in American sports, the Red Sox have won nine World Series titles and 14 American League (AL) pennants. Founded in 1901, the franchise (then unofficially known as the Boston Americans) was one of

  • Pilgrims of Emmaus, The (painting by Veronese)

    Paolo Veronese: The early years: …latter—depicted in such paintings as The Pilgrims of Emmaus and Feast in the House of Levi—allowed him to compose large groups of figures in increasingly complex Renaissance architectural settings that attest to his knowledge of the works of the 16th-century Venetian architects Michele Sanmicheli, Andrea Palladio, and Jacopo Sansovino.

  • Pilgrims of Mecca, The (opera by Gluck)

    Christoph Willibald Gluck: The middle years: In La Rencontre imprévue, first performed in Vienna on Jan. 7, 1764, no vaudeville elements remain at all, with the result that the work is a perfect example of opéra comique. Gluck gave the scores of Le Cadi dupé and La Rencontre imprévue particular charm by…

  • Pilgrims of Mecca, The (opera by Gluck)

    Christoph Willibald Gluck: The middle years: In La Rencontre imprévue, first performed in Vienna on Jan. 7, 1764, no vaudeville elements remain at all, with the result that the work is a perfect example of opéra comique. Gluck gave the scores of Le Cadi dupé and La Rencontre imprévue particular charm by…

  • Pilgrims’ Way (ancient route, England, United Kingdom)

    Pilgrims’ Way, the North Downs trackway in southern England. It is a famous prehistoric route between the English Channel and the chalk heartland of Britain in Wessex and survives as minor roads or as bridle paths in many areas. Both a ridgeway and a lower terrace way beneath the chalk escarpment

  • pili nut (nut)

    Pili nut, the nut of any tree of the genus Canarium (family Burseraceae), particularly the edible nut of the Philippine tree Canarium ovatum. In the South Pacific the pili nut is a major source of fat and protein in the diet. The densely foliated tropical tree grows to 20 metres (65 feet) in

  • Pilibhit (India)

    Pilibhit, city, northern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located about 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Bareilly, on a tributary of the Ramganga River (itself a tributary of the Ganges [Ganga] River). Pilibhit is a rail junction and is linked with Bareilly by road. Sugar processing is the

  • Pilimsit, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    Sudirman Range: …15,476 feet (4,717 metres) at Mount Pilimsit (Ngga Pilimsit; formerly Mount Idenburg). The mountains extend for 200 miles (320 km) west from the Jayawijaya Mountains.

  • Piling Blood (poetry by Purdy)

    Canadian literature: Poetry and poetics: …to the Soviet Union (Piling Blood, 1984; The Collected Poems of Al Purdy, 1986). The landscape of southwestern Saskatchewan figures centrally in the poetry of Lorna Crozier (Angels of Flesh, Angels of Silence, 1988; What the Living Won’t Let Go, 1999). Also from Saskatchewan, Karen Solie (Short Haul Engine,…

  • Pilinszky, János (Hungarian author)

    Hungarian literature: Writing after 1945: …delightful children’s verses, and by János Pilinszky, an Existentialist Catholic whose most memorable poems deal with the experience of what he called the “universe of camps” produced by World War II. Also noteworthy were the urbane László Kálnoky and István Vas. Ferenc Juhász and László Nagy were two poets of…

  • Piliocolobus (primate)

    colobus: …colour: black-and-white colobus (genus Colobus), red colobus (genus Piliocolobus), and olive colobus (genus Procolobus).

  • Pílion, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Pelion, mountain on the Magnesia peninsula of southeastern Thessaly (Modern Greek: Thessalía), Greece, rising to 5,417 feet (1,651 metres) at its highest point. Pelion peak (5,075 feet), just northeast of Vólos, has a wooded western flank overlooking a gulf whose ancient ports were Iolcos and

  • Pílion, Óros (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Pelion, mountain on the Magnesia peninsula of southeastern Thessaly (Modern Greek: Thessalía), Greece, rising to 5,417 feet (1,651 metres) at its highest point. Pelion peak (5,075 feet), just northeast of Vólos, has a wooded western flank overlooking a gulf whose ancient ports were Iolcos and

  • Pilipino language

    Pilipino language, standardized form of Tagalog, and one of the two official languages of the Philippines (the other being English). It is a member of the Austronesian language phylum. Tagalog is the mother tongue for nearly 25 percent of the population and is spoken as a first or second language

  • Pilkington Brothers (British company)

    construction: Glass as a building material: In 1952 the Pilkington Brothers in England developed the float glass process, in which a continuous 3.4-metre- (11-foot-) wide ribbon of glass floated over molten tin and both sides were fire finished, avoiding all polishing and grinding; this became the standard method of production. Pilkington also pioneered the…

  • Pilkington Garimara, Doris (Australian Aboriginal writer)

    Doris Pilkington Garimara, (Nugi Garimara), Australian Aboriginal writer (born 1937?, Balfour Downs Station, W.Aus., Australia—died April 10, 2014, Perth, Australia), chronicled in her book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence (1996) the harrowing nine-week, 1,600-km (1,000-mi) trek across Western

  • Pilkington pottery (factory, Manchester, United Kingdom)

    pottery: Pottery factories: …with William Burton of the Pilkington pottery in Manchester, which made experimental decorative ware of all kinds.

  • Pilkington, Francis (British composer)

    Francis Pilkington, English composer of lute songs (ayres) and madrigals. Pilkington studied music extensively in his youth and received a bachelor of music degree from Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1595. He became a lay clerk at Chester Cathedral in 1602 and a minor canon 10 years later. After

  • Pilkington, Sir Alastair (British industrialist)

    Sir Alastair Pilkington, (SIR LIONEL ALEXANDER BETHUNE PILKINGTON), British industrialist and inventor of the float glass process (b. Jan. 7, 1920--d. May 5,

  • Pilkington, Sir Lionel Alexander Bethune (British industrialist)

    Sir Alastair Pilkington, (SIR LIONEL ALEXANDER BETHUNE PILKINGTON), British industrialist and inventor of the float glass process (b. Jan. 7, 1920--d. May 5,

  • pill (pharmacology)

    pharmaceutical industry: Tablets: …are traditionally referred to as pills. Prior to the widespread use of the machine-compressed tablet, pills were very popular products that usually were prepared by a pharmacist. To make a pill, powdered drug and excipients were mixed together with water or other liquid and a gumlike binding agent such as…

  • pill beetle (insect)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Byrrhidae (pill beetles) Small, oval; found under debris, in sand, at grass roots; about 350 species; widely distributed; example Byrrhus. Family Callirhipidae 9–27 mm in length; found in warm regions worldwide. Family Chelonariidae About 50 species in

  • pill bug (crustacean)

    Pill bug, any of the terrestrial crustaceans of the families Armadillididae and Armadillidae (order Isopoda). When disturbed, the pill bug rolls itself up into a tiny ball. Like the related sow bug (q.v.), it is sometimes called the wood louse. For mollusks also known as pill bugs, see chiton. The

  • pill, the

    Oral contraceptive, any of a class of synthetic steroid hormones that suppress the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in the female body. FSH and LH normally stimulate the release of estrogen from the ovaries,

  • Pillai Lokacharya (Hindu leader)

    Tenkalai: Pillai Lokacharya is commonly regarded as the founder of the Tenkalai sect, and Manavala, or Varavara Muni (1370–1443), is regarded as its most important leader. The sect’s main centre is at Nanganur, near Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu state), and the Tenkalai are referred to as the…

  • Pillai, Thakazhi Sivasankara (Indian writer)

    Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Indian writer whose works of over half a century—numbering some 40 novels and more than 600 short stories written in the Malayalam language—portrayed the impact of events on society in his home state of Kerala, reflecting his concern for its poor, lower-caste members

  • Pillai, Vetanayakam (Tamil author)

    South Asian arts: Tamil: …1879, the Piratāpamutaliyār Carittiram, by Vetanayakam Pillai, who was inspired by English and French novels. In important respects Pillai’s work is typical of all early modern Tamil fiction: his subject matter is Tamil life as he observed it, the language is scholastic, and the inspiration comes from foreign sources. Not…

  • pillar (architecture)

    Pillar, in architecture and building construction, any isolated, vertical structural member such as a pier, column, or post. It may be constructed of a single piece of stone or wood or built up of units, such as bricks. It may be any shape in cross section. A pillar commonly has a load-bearing or

  • pillar and scroll shelf clock

    Pillar and scroll shelf clock, wooden shelf clock mass-produced in the United States from the second decade of the 19th century onward. The rectangular case is topped by a scroll broken in the centre by an ornament such as an urn; on either side of the case is a vertical pillar topped by the same

  • Pillar and the Ground of Truth, The (work by Florensky)

    Pavel Alexandrovich Florensky: …essay on theodicy entitled “The Pillar and the Ground of Truth,” in which he argued that only through nonrational, intuitive experience could a person become consubstantial with all of creation and thus encounter God’s reality and understand God’s truth. According to Florensky, rationalistic analysis separates man from creation because it…

  • Pillar carpet

    rug and carpet: China: Peculiar to China are pillar carpets, designed so that when they are wrapped around a pillar the edges will fit together to form a continuous design, usually a coiling dragon. Saddle rugs and a number of small mats and seat covers were also made, along with some very large…

  • pillar edicts (Buddhism)

    Rock edicts, narrative histories and announcements carved into cliff rock, onto pillars, and in caves throughout India by King Ashoka (reigned c. 265–238 bce), the most powerful emperor of the Mauryan dynasty and a highly influential promulgator of Indian Buddhism. Ashoka’s first years as king were

  • Pillar Mosque (mosque, Dhar, India)

    Dhar: Dhar’s Lāṭ Masjid, or Pillar Mosque (1405), was built out of the remains of Jain temples. Its name was derived from a toppled iron pillar (13th century) bearing a later inscription recording the visit of the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1598. Dhar houses the Kamal Maula mausoleum and a…

  • Pillar of Fire (work by Tudor)

    Antony Tudor: …later retitled The Lilac Garden), Pillar of Fire (1942), Romeo and Juliet (1943), Undertow (1945), Nimbus (1950), Knight Errant (1968), The Leaves Are Fading (1975), and Tiller in the Fields (1978) explored such themes as grief, jealousy, rejection, and frustration. Although limiting himself to classical techniques, he sought to convey…

  • Pillar of Fire (American religion)

    Pillar of Fire, a white Holiness church of Methodist antecedence that was organized (1901) in Denver, Colo., U.S., as the Pentecostal Union by Alma Bridwell White, who married a Methodist minister. Her evangelistic fervour brought opposition from Methodist officials, which led to her withdrawal

  • Pillar of Salt (work by Memmi)

    Tunisia: …in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt:

  • Pillar of Zion (king of Ethiopia)

    Amda Seyon I, (Amharic: “Pillar of Zion”) ruler of Ethiopia from 1314 to 1344, best known in the chronicles as a heroic fighter against the Muslims. He is sometimes considered to have been the founder of the Ethiopian state. The earliest Ethiopian chronicle tends to support this hypothesis, for it

  • pillared clay (mineral)

    clay mineral: Interactions with inorganic and organic compounds: The resulting complexes, often called pillared clays, exhibit attractive properties as catalysts—namely, large surface area, high porosity, regulated pore size, and high solid acidity.

  • pillarization (religion)

    Netherlands: Religion: …separation of society into “pillars” (zuilen) identified with the different Dutch religions. Calvinist Protestantism became the officially recognized religion of the country, politically favoured and economically supported by government. But the Reformed preachers were thwarted in their efforts to oppress or drive out other religions, to which a far-reaching…

  • Pillars of Heracles (promontories, Strait of Gibraltar)

    Pillars of Heracles, two promontories at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern pillar is the Rock of Gibraltar at Gibraltar, and the southern pillar has been identified as one of two peaks: Jebel Moussa (Musa), in Morocco, or Mount Hacho (held by Spain), near the city of Ceuta

  • Pillars of Hercules (promontories, Strait of Gibraltar)

    Pillars of Heracles, two promontories at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern pillar is the Rock of Gibraltar at Gibraltar, and the southern pillar has been identified as one of two peaks: Jebel Moussa (Musa), in Morocco, or Mount Hacho (held by Spain), near the city of Ceuta

  • Pillars of Society, The (play by Ibsen)

    The Pillars of Society, drama in four acts by Henrik Ibsen, published in Norwegian as Samfundets støtter in 1877 and performed the following year. The play’s title initially refers to Karsten Bernick, whose good reputation is threatened by the return to town of his brother-in-law, Johan Tönnesen

  • Pillat, Ion (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: Between the wars: …and German lyric poetry on Ion Pillat, and the bitter Symbolist poetry of George Bacovia. After Eminescu, who remained influential throughout the 20th century, it was Tudor Arghezi who brought about a real rejuvenation in Romanian lyric poetry. In his poems language acquires an exceptional expressiveness and harmony, and the…

  • Pillau (Russia)

    Baltiysk, city and port, Kaliningrad oblast (province), northwestern Russia. It lies at the entrance to the tip of the narrow peninsula separating Frisches Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. Originally the German East Prussian town of Pillau (1686–1946), Baltiysk is connected by canal to Kaliningrad and

  • Pillay, K. Thamboosamy (Malaysian leader)

    Batu Caves: K. Thamboosamy Pillay, a leader of the Tamil Hindu community in Malaya (as the region was then called), built a temple within the caves in 1891. It is said that he took inspiration from the similarity in shape of the cave entrance to the tip…

  • Pillement, Jean (French artist)

    tapestry: 17th and 18th centuries: Those designed by Jean Pillement (1728–1808) are especially famous. Coarse and rather dull, the verdures, or “garden tapestries,” which were the first Beauvais tapestries, were made in quantities. Aubusson architectural panels either imitate those of the Gobelins and Beauvais factories, often with more complex elements and the addition…

  • Pillenreuth, Battle of (German history)

    Germany: The princes and the Landstände: …in a pitched battle near Pillenreuth in 1450. The elector John Cicero took up the battle 38 years later, when the cities of the Altmark in west Brandenburg refused to pay an excise tax on beer voted by the assembly of estates. He discomfited the cities in the ensuing “Beer…

  • pilli (Aztec social class)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Social and political organization: …two classes—the pipiltin (plural of pilli), and the professional warriors. Society was divided into three well-defined castes. At the top were the pipiltin, nobles by birth and members of the royal lineage. Below them was the macehual class, the commoners who made up the bulk of the population. At the…

  • Pillinger, Colin (British scientist)

    Colin Trevor Pillinger, British planetary scientist (born May 9, 1943, Kingswood, Bristol, Eng.—died May 7, 2014, Cambridge, Eng.), was the driving force behind the British Mars lander Beagle 2 (named after Charles Darwin’s ship HMS Beagle), which was equipped with a mass spectrometer, a gas

  • Pillinger, Colin Trevor (British scientist)

    Colin Trevor Pillinger, British planetary scientist (born May 9, 1943, Kingswood, Bristol, Eng.—died May 7, 2014, Cambridge, Eng.), was the driving force behind the British Mars lander Beagle 2 (named after Charles Darwin’s ship HMS Beagle), which was equipped with a mass spectrometer, a gas

  • Pillnitz, Declaration of (European history)

    Declaration of Pillnitz, joint declaration issued on August 27, 1791, by Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and King Frederick William II of Prussia, urging European powers to unite to restore the monarchy in France; French King Louis XVI had been reduced to a constitutional monarch during the French

  • pillory (penology)

    Pillory, an instrument of corporal punishment consisting of a wooden post and frame fixed on a platform raised several feet from the ground. The head and hands of the offender were thrust through holes in the frame (as were the feet in the stocks) so as to be held fast and exposed in front of it.

  • pillow basalt (geology)

    spreading centre: …centres include metal-rich sediments and pillow lavas, which are concentrations of igneous rock that resemble large overstuffed pillows about 1 metre (about 3 feet) in cross section and one to several metres long. They commonly form small hills tens of metres high at the spreading centres. In addition, sediments at…

  • Pillow Book (work by Sei Shōnagon)

    Pillow Book, (c. 1000), title of a book of reminiscences and impressions by the 11th-century Japanese court lady Sei Shōnagon. Whether the title was generic and whether Sei Shōnagon herself used it is not known, but other diaries of the Heian period (794–1185) indicate that such journals may have

  • Pillow Book of Sei Shōnagon, The (work by Sei Shōnagon)

    Pillow Book, (c. 1000), title of a book of reminiscences and impressions by the 11th-century Japanese court lady Sei Shōnagon. Whether the title was generic and whether Sei Shōnagon herself used it is not known, but other diaries of the Heian period (794–1185) indicate that such journals may have

  • pillow lace (lacework)

    Bobbin lace, handmade lace important in fashion from the 16th to the early 20th century. Bobbin laces are made by using a “pricking,” a pattern drawn on parchment or card that is attached to a padded support, the pillow or cushion. An even number of threads (from 8 to more than 1,000) are looped

  • pillow lava (geology)

    spreading centre: …centres include metal-rich sediments and pillow lavas, which are concentrations of igneous rock that resemble large overstuffed pillows about 1 metre (about 3 feet) in cross section and one to several metres long. They commonly form small hills tens of metres high at the spreading centres. In addition, sediments at…

  • pillow structure (geology)

    spreading centre: …centres include metal-rich sediments and pillow lavas, which are concentrations of igneous rock that resemble large overstuffed pillows about 1 metre (about 3 feet) in cross section and one to several metres long. They commonly form small hills tens of metres high at the spreading centres. In addition, sediments at…

  • Pillow Talk (film by Gordon [1959])

    Pillow Talk, American romantic comedy film, released in 1959, that features the first on-screen pairing of actors Rock Hudson and Doris Day. Day earned her sole Academy Award nomination for her portrayal of Jan Morrow, a successful, self-reliant urban career woman whose quiet, secure life is turned

  • Pillsbury Company (American company)

    Pillsbury Company, former American flour miller and food products manufacturer that was acquired by its rival, General Mills, in 2001. Both companies were headquarted in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Through its long history in the baking-goods industry, its cookbooks, and its promotional baking

  • Pillsbury Flour Mills Company (American company)

    Pillsbury Company, former American flour miller and food products manufacturer that was acquired by its rival, General Mills, in 2001. Both companies were headquarted in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Through its long history in the baking-goods industry, its cookbooks, and its promotional baking

  • Pillsbury, Charles Alfred (American manufacturer)

    Charles Alfred Pillsbury, U.S. flour miller who built his company into one of the world’s largest milling concerns in the 1880s. After selling his share in a Montreal dry-goods business, Pillsbury went to Minneapolis in 1869 to join his uncle, John S. Pillsbury, who would later become the state’s

  • Pillsbury, Harry Nelson (American chess player)

    Siegbert Tarrasch: …for first with the American Harry Nelson Pillsbury, whom he defeated in a play-off match. After 1907 he participated in more than 20 international matches but never placed in the top three positions. Especially disappointing to him was his loss to Emanuel Lasker in 1908 for the world championship. Despite…

  • Pillsbury, W. B. (psychologist)

    attention: 19th-century roots: In 1906 another prominent psychologist, W.B. Pillsbury, suggested three methods for measuring attention. The first relied upon tests that measured attention through performance of a task judged to require a high degree of attention; the second measured diminished attention through decreased performance; and the third gauged the strength of attention…

  • Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills Company, Ltd. (American company)

    Pillsbury Company, former American flour miller and food products manufacturer that was acquired by its rival, General Mills, in 2001. Both companies were headquarted in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Through its long history in the baking-goods industry, its cookbooks, and its promotional baking

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