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  • Piegnot (typeface)

    Cassandre: …typefaces, Acier Noir (1935) and Piegnot (1937). In 1939 he abandoned poster art and henceforth devoted himself to designing stage sets and to painting.

  • Piegon (people)

    Blackfoot, North American Indian tribe composed of three closely related bands, the Piegan (officially spelled Peigan in Canada), or Piikuni; the Blood, or Kainah (also spelled Kainai, or Akainiwa); and the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper (often referred to as the Northern Blackfoot). The three groups

  • pieing (attack)

    Mabel Normand: …have succumbed to impulse and thrown a custard pie at Ben Turpin, thus creating what soon became a classic film comedy bit.

  • piel que habito, La (film by Almodóvar [2011])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …La piel que habito (2011; The Skin I Live In), a psychological thriller about a plastic surgeon who performs experiments on a woman he holds captive. The campy, socially pointed comedy Los amantes pasajeros (I’m So Excited!), set aboard an airplane preparing for an emergency landing, followed in 2013. Three…

  • Pielinen, Lake (lake, Finland)

    Lake Pielinen, lake located in eastern Finland, near the border with Russia. The lake is approximately 60 mi (100 km) long between the towns of Nurmes and Uimaharju and ranges from 1 to 25 mi (1.5 to 40 km) in width. Its area is 335 sq mi (868 sq km). Lake Pielinen has many islands and is drained

  • Pielisjärvi (lake, Finland)

    Lake Pielinen, lake located in eastern Finland, near the border with Russia. The lake is approximately 60 mi (100 km) long between the towns of Nurmes and Uimaharju and ranges from 1 to 25 mi (1.5 to 40 km) in width. Its area is 335 sq mi (868 sq km). Lake Pielinen has many islands and is drained

  • Pieman River (river, Australia)

    Pieman River, river, northwestern Tasmania, Australia. It is formed near Tullah by the confluence of the Macintosh and Murchison rivers. The 61-mile- (98-kilometre-) long main stream is fed by the Huskisson and Stanley rivers and then flows generally west to its estuary, which also receives the

  • Piemonte (region, Italy)

    Piedmont, regione (region), northwestern Italy, comprising the province (provinces) of Alessandria, Asti, Biella, Cuneo, Novara, Torino, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, and Vercelli. To the south, west, and north Piedmont is surrounded by the vast arc of the Ligurian Apennines and the Maritime, Cottian,

  • piemontite (mineral)

    Piemontite, a silicate mineral that belongs to the epidote (q.v.)

  • Pien Canal (canal, China [206 bc– ad 220])

    canals and inland waterways: Ancient works: …He (Yellow River); and the Pien Canal in Honan. Of later canals the most spectacular was the Grand Canal, the first 600-mile section of which was opened to navigation in 610. This waterway enabled grain to be transported from the lower Yangtze and the Huai to Kaifeng and Luoyang. These…

  • Pien Ch’iao (Chinese physician)

    Bian Qiao, Chinese physician, the first to rely primarily on pulse and physical examination for the diagnosis of disease. Although some facts are known about his life, Bian Qiao is also a somewhat mythical figure. The Herodotus of China, Sima Qian (c. 145–87 bce), wrote a long biography of Bian

  • Pien Chih-lin (Chinese poet and translator)

    Bian Zhilin, Chinese poet and translator especially noted for his highly evocative poetry. Bian left home to attend the university in Beijing in the early 1930s. There he met Western-educated poets Xu Zhimo and Wen Yiduo and became familiar with such poets as T.S. Eliot and the French Symbolists.

  • Pien Ho (canal, China)

    Bian Canal, historic canal running northwest-southeast through Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu provinces of eastern China. The name was given to several different canals that connected the Huang He (Yellow River), north of Zhengzhou in Henan, with the Huai River and then, via the Shanyang Canal, with the

  • Pien Shui (canal, China)

    Bian Canal, historic canal running northwest-southeast through Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu provinces of eastern China. The name was given to several different canals that connected the Huang He (Yellow River), north of Zhengzhou in Henan, with the Huai River and then, via the Shanyang Canal, with the

  • Pien-tsung-lun (treatise by Xie Lingyun)

    Bianzong lun, (Chinese: “Discussions of Essentials”) treatise by Xie Lingyun, an early Chinese Buddhist intellectual and renowned poet, valued chiefly as one of the few sources of information about the author’s eminent teacher, Daosheng 434 ce. According to Daosheng, enlightenment is a sudden and

  • Pienaar, François (South African rugby union football player)

    François Pienaar , South African rugby union football player who led the South African national team, the Springboks, to victory in the 1995 Rugby World Cup, the first major tournament held in postapartheid South Africa. Pienaar was praised by Pres. Nelson Mandela for his leadership of the team and

  • Pienaar, Jacobus François (South African rugby union football player)

    François Pienaar , South African rugby union football player who led the South African national team, the Springboks, to victory in the 1995 Rugby World Cup, the first major tournament held in postapartheid South Africa. Pienaar was praised by Pres. Nelson Mandela for his leadership of the team and

  • Piene, Otto (German artist)

    Otto Piene, German artist (born April 18, 1928, Laasphe [now Bad Laasphe], Ger.—died July 17, 2014, Berlin, Ger.), worked at the junction of art, nature, and technology to create his signature colourful paintings, open-air sculptures, and kinetic art. Piene studied painting and art education in

  • Pieniny National Park (national park, Slovakia)

    Slovakia: Sports and recreation: …these, Tatry (High Tatras) and Pieniny national parks, are situated along the Polish border and are administered in cooperation with Polish authorities; Low Tatras National Park is located in the interior. These areas feature glacial landscapes, alpine flora and fauna, and relict species from the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to…

  • Pieniny National Park (national park, Poland)

    Małopolskie: Geography: …more than 100,000 years; and Pieniny National Park, the site of the spectacular Dunajec River Gorge, cut by the Dunajec River, which spills into the spa town of Szczawnica, a much-frequented health resort. Mineral springs at Krynica and Muszyna are also tourist destinations, and Zakopane, in the Tatra Mountains, is…

  • pieplant (plant)

    Rhubarb, (Rheum rhabarbarum), a hardy perennial of the smartweed family (Polygonaceae), native to Asia and grown for its large edible leafstalks. Rhubarb is commonly grown in cool areas of the temperate zones. The plant’s fleshy, tart, and highly acidic leafstalks are used in pies, often with

  • piepoudre court (law)

    Piepoudre court, lowest and most expeditious of the courts of justice known to the ancient common law of England. It was generally constituted by merchants and dealt with fair trading. The name is derived from the dusty feet of the participants (from French pied poudré, “dusty foot”), for the c

  • piepowder court (law)

    Piepoudre court, lowest and most expeditious of the courts of justice known to the ancient common law of England. It was generally constituted by merchants and dealt with fair trading. The name is derived from the dusty feet of the participants (from French pied poudré, “dusty foot”), for the c

  • pier (sea works)

    harbours and sea works: The piled jetty: Reinforced-concrete piled piers and jetties, soundly constructed, exhibit great durability. Attachment to the piles for bracing and similar purposes tends, however, to be more complicated than in the case of timber. This is a disadvantage that applies also to subsequent maintenance and repairs.

  • pier (architecture)

    Pier, in building construction, vertical loadbearing member such as an intermediate support for adjacent ends of two bridge spans. In foundations for large buildings, piers are usually cylindrical concrete shafts, cast in prepared holes, while in bridges they take the form of caissons, which are

  • pier buttress

    buttress: …of buttresses include pier or tower buttresses, simple masonry piles attached to a wall at regular intervals; hanging buttresses, freestanding piers connected to a wall by corbels; and various types of corner buttresses—diagonal, angle, clasping, and setback—that support intersecting walls.

  • Pier Damiani, San (Italian cardinal)

    Saint Peter Damian, ; feast day February 21), cardinal and Doctor of the Church, an original leader and a forceful figure in the Gregorian Reform movement, whose personal example and many writings exercised great influence on religious life in the 11th and 12th centuries. Little is known for

  • pier terminal (airports)

    airport: Pier and satellite designs: …number of aircraft gates, the pier concept, originally developed in the 1950s, has been found very useful. Frankfurt International Airport in Germany and Schiphol Airport near Amsterdam still use such terminals. In the late 1970s, pier designs at Chicago’s O’Hare and Atlanta’s Hartsfield successfully handled in excess of 45 million…

  • Pieralisi, Virna Lisa (Italian actress)

    Virna Lisi, (Virna Lisa Pieralisi), Italian actress (born Nov. 8, 1936, Ancona, Italy—died Dec. 18, 2014, Rome, Italy), was a blonde bombshell in Hollywood during the 1960s, appearing in such romantic comedies as How to Murder Your Wife (1965), opposite actor Jack Lemmon, and Not with My Wife, You

  • Pierce oscillator (radio instrument)

    George Washington Pierce: He developed the Pierce oscillator, which utilizes quartz crystal to keep radio transmissions precisely on the assigned frequency and to provide similar accuracy for frequency meters.

  • Pierce Penilesse His Supplication to the Divell (work by Nashe)

    Thomas Nashe: Pierce Penilesse His Supplication to the Divell (1592), a satire focused on the seven deadly sins, was Nashe’s first distinctive work. Using a free and extemporaneous prose style, full of colloquialisms, newly coined words, and fantastic idiosyncrasies, Nashe buttonholes the reader with a story in…

  • Pierce v. Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary (law case)

    Pierce v. Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 1, 1925, ruled (9–0) that an Oregon law requiring children to attend public schools was unconstitutional. In its decision, the court upheld the right of parents to make educational

  • Pierce, Barbara (American first lady)

    Barbara Bush, American first lady (1989–93), wife of George H.W. Bush, 41st president of the United States, and mother of George W. Bush, 43rd president of the United States. One of the most popular first ladies, she was noted for her charitable and humanitarian efforts. Barbara Pierce was the

  • Pierce, Billy (American baseball player)

    Billy Pierce, (Walter William Pierce), American baseball player (born April 2, 1927, Detroit, Mich.—died July 31, 2015, Palos Heights, Ill.), was a slender 1.8-m (5-ft 10-in)-tall left-handed pitcher whose fiery fastballs helped him win 211 major league baseball games and strike out 1,999 batters

  • Pierce, Edward (English sculptor)

    Western sculpture: England: …of the 17th century was Edward Pierce, in whose rare busts is to be found something of Bernini’s vigour and intensity. But the general run of English sculpture as represented by Francis Bird, Edward Stanton, and even the internationally renowned woodcarver Grinling Gibbons remained unexceptional. It was not until John…

  • Pierce, Franklin (president of United States)

    Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States (1853–57). He failed to deal effectively with the corroding sectional controversy over slavery in the decade preceding the American Civil War (1861–65). The son of a governor of New Hampshire, Benjamin Pierce, and the former Anna Kendrick,

  • Pierce, George Washington (American inventor)

    George Washington Pierce, American inventor who was a pioneer in radiotelephony and a noted teacher of communication engineering. The second of three sons of a farm family, Pierce grew up on a cattle ranch and fared well enough in the modest rural schools of central Texas to graduate (1893) after

  • Pierce, Jack (American makeup artist)

    The Mummy: …for Karloff by makeup artist Jack Pierce. The Mummy was part of a trio of horror films (with Dracula and Frankenstein [1931]) that made Universal Pictures famous in the 1930s.

  • Pierce, Jane (American first lady)

    Jane Pierce, American first lady (1853–57), the wife of Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States. Jane Appleton was the third of six children born to Jesse Appleton, a Congregational minister and president of Bowdoin College, and Elizabeth Means Appleton. Although the details of her

  • Pierce, John Davis (American educator)

    John Davis Pierce, Michigan’s first superintendent of public instruction and a leader in the establishment of the University of Michigan. Though denied an extensive education as a youth because of his father’s early death and consequent family financial limitations, Pierce decided at age 20 to

  • Pierce, John Robinson (American scientist)

    John Robinson Pierce, American communications engineer, scientist, and father of the communications satellite. Pierce attended the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, receiving his Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1936. That year he began working for Bell Telephone

  • Pierce, Mary (French tennis player)

    Amélie Mauresmo: …the game—she defeated her compatriot Mary Pierce. Her success on that important occasion carried Mauresmo confidently into 2006 as she displayed a new level of match-playing maturity and poise under pressure. She won the first Grand Slam event of the year, the Australian Open, when Justine Henin withdrew from the…

  • Pierce, Paul (American basketball player)

    Boston Celtics: …that already included perennial All-Star Paul Pierce. They advanced to the NBA finals, where they defeated the rival Lakers for a ninth time and won the 17th title in franchise history. The two franchises again won their respective conference championships and faced off for the NBA title in the 2009–10…

  • Pierce, Sarah (American educator)

    Sarah Pierce, American educator, noted for the school that she developed from a small group of pupils studying in her home into one of the first major U.S. institutions for women, Litchfield Female Academy. The school Pierce opened in her home in 1792 was so successful that in 1798 a group of

  • Pierce, William Luther (American political activist and author)

    The Turner Diaries: William Luther Pierce (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), published in 1978. An apocalyptic tale of genocide against racial minorities set in a near-future America, The Turner Diaries has been referred to as “the bible of the racist right,” a “handbook for white victory,” and “a…

  • Pierce-Arrow (American car)

    automobile: The age of the classic cars: Cadillac, Packard, and Pierce-Arrow of the United States; the Horch, Maybach, and Mercedes-Benz of Germany; the Belgian Minerva; and the Italian Isotta-Fraschini. These were costly machines, priced roughly from $7,500 to $40,000, fast (145 to 210 km, or 90 to 130 miles, per hour), as comfortable as the…

  • Pierced Rock (island, Quebec, Canada)

    Percé: …at low tide, is famed Rocher-Percé (“Pierced Rock”)—a rocky island 290 feet (88 metres) high that is pierced by a 60-foot- (18-metre-) high arch; it and another nearby tourist attraction, Bonaventure Island, are bird sanctuaries. Pop. (2006) 3,419; (2011) 3,312.

  • pierced work (art)

    Pierced work, in metalwork, perforations created for decorative or functional effect or both; the French term for such work is ajouré. Both hand-operated and mechanical tools such as saws, drills, chisels, and punches are used. The principal present-day exponents of this ancient technique are

  • Piercing Cry, A (novel by Banti)

    Anna Banti: …published Un grido lacerante (A Piercing Cry), in which a woman must determine her real vocation as it relates to her life.

  • Pieridae (insect family)

    butterfly: The butterfly families include: Pieridae, the whites and sulfurs, known for their mass migrations; Papilionidae, the swallowtails and parnassians; Lycaenidae, including the blues, coppers, hairstreaks, and gossamer-winged

  • Pierinae (insect)

    White butterfly, (subfamily Pierinae), any of a group of butterflies in the family Pieridae (order Lepidoptera) that are named for their white wings with black marginal markings. The family Pieridae also includes the orange-tip and sulfur butterflies and consists of approximately 1,100 species. The

  • Pieris (plant)

    Pieris, (genus Pieris), genus of about seven species of evergreen shrubs and small trees of the heath family (Ericaceae). Members of the genus are native to eastern Asia, eastern North America, and Cuba. Several species, including mountain fetterbush, or mountain andromeda (Pieris floribunda), and

  • pieris (plant)

    Pieris, (genus Pieris), genus of about seven species of evergreen shrubs and small trees of the heath family (Ericaceae). Members of the genus are native to eastern Asia, eastern North America, and Cuba. Several species, including mountain fetterbush, or mountain andromeda (Pieris floribunda), and

  • Pieris brassicae (butterfly)

    cabbage white: The large cabbage white (P. brassicae) is found throughout Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It features large black spots with a black band on the tip of its white wings and lays its eggs in characteristic clusters. Both species are considered to be major economic pests and can locally…

  • Pieris floribunda (plant)

    pieris: Several species, including mountain fetterbush, or mountain andromeda (Pieris floribunda), and Japanese pieris, or Japanese andromeda (P. japonica), are cultivated as ornamentals and have several horticultural varieties.

  • Pieris rapae (insect)

    white butterfly: …in North America is the European cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae), whose larva is an important economic pest of cabbage and related plants. It was introduced into North America about 1860.

  • Pierius (Christian theologian)

    patristic literature: Late 2nd to early 4th century: were Theognostus (flourished 250–280) and Pierius (flourished 280–300), both heads of the catechetical school and apparently propagators of Origen’s ideas. But there are two others of note, Dionysius of Alexandria (c. 200–c. 265) and Gregory Thaumaturgus (c. 213–c. 270), of whose works some fragments have survived. Dionysius of Alexandria wrote

  • Pierleoni, Giordano (Roman leader)

    Lucius II: …truce, Anacletus’ brother, the patrician Giordano Pierleoni, led the Romans to proclaim a constitutional republic free from papal civil rule. Lucius opposed this bid for Roman independence, led an unsuccessful assault against the rebels, and presumably died from injuries suffered in the conflict.

  • Pierleoni, Pietro (antipope)

    Anacletus (II), antipope from 1130 to 1138 whose claims to the papacy against Pope Innocent II are still supported by some scholars. After study in Paris, he became a monk at Cluny and was made cardinal at Rome in 1116 by Pope Paschal II. In 1118 he accompanied Pope Gelasius II, who fled to France

  • Piermarini, Guiseppe (Italian architect)

    Milan: Cultural life: …by the leading Neoclassical architect Giuseppe Piermarini, is one of the great opera houses of the world. Damaged by bombing during World War II, La Scala was quickly reconstructed and reopened with a concert by Arturo Toscanini in 1946. Extensive renovations also took place in the early 21st century. The…

  • Piero della Francesca (Italian painter)

    Piero della Francesca, painter whose serene, disciplined exploration of perspective had little influence on his contemporaries but came to be recognized in the 20th century as a major contribution to the Italian Renaissance. The fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross (1452–66) and the diptych

  • Piero di Benedetto dei Franceschi (Italian painter)

    Piero della Francesca, painter whose serene, disciplined exploration of perspective had little influence on his contemporaries but came to be recognized in the 20th century as a major contribution to the Italian Renaissance. The fresco cycle The Legend of the True Cross (1452–66) and the diptych

  • Piero di Cosimo (Italian painter)

    Piero di Cosimo, Italian Renaissance painter noted for his eccentric character and his fanciful mythological paintings. Not a member of any specific school of painting, Piero instead borrowed other artists’ techniques to create his own singular style. Piero’s name derives from that of his master,

  • Piero di Lorenzo (Italian painter)

    Piero di Cosimo, Italian Renaissance painter noted for his eccentric character and his fanciful mythological paintings. Not a member of any specific school of painting, Piero instead borrowed other artists’ techniques to create his own singular style. Piero’s name derives from that of his master,

  • Piero il Gottoso (Italian ruler)

    Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, ruler of Florence for five years (1464–69), whose successes in war helped preserve the enormous prestige bequeathed by his father, Cosimo the Elder. Afflicted by gout (a hereditary ailment of the Medici), Piero was so badly crippled that he was often able to use only his

  • Piero the Fatuous (Italian ruler)

    Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent who ruled in Florence for only two years (1492–94) before being expelled. Upon the death of his father, Piero came to power at age 21 without difficulty. He was endowed with beautiful features and proved to be a good soldier, but he was

  • Piero the Gouty (Italian ruler)

    Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, ruler of Florence for five years (1464–69), whose successes in war helped preserve the enormous prestige bequeathed by his father, Cosimo the Elder. Afflicted by gout (a hereditary ailment of the Medici), Piero was so badly crippled that he was often able to use only his

  • Piero the Unfortunate (Italian ruler)

    Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent who ruled in Florence for only two years (1492–94) before being expelled. Upon the death of his father, Piero came to power at age 21 without difficulty. He was endowed with beautiful features and proved to be a good soldier, but he was

  • Piérola, Nicolás de (president of Peru)

    Civilista: In 1879 Nicolás de Piérola, another military man, succeeded in seizing control of the government from the Civilistas, but he was turned out by the Chileans in 1881. Piérola began a revolt in 1894 and then was elected president in 1895, serving until 1899. He made an…

  • Pierozzi, Antonino (archbishop of Florence)

    Saint Antoninus, ; canonized 1523; feast day May 10), archbishop of Florence who is regarded as one of the founders of modern moral theology and Christian social ethics. In Florence Antoninus joined the Dominican order (1405); he became an active leader of the order’s Observant movement, especially

  • Pierpont Morgan Library (library, New York City, New York, United States)

    Belle da Costa Greene: Morgan as the Morgan Library.

  • Pierpont, Francis H. (American politician)

    West Virginia: Civil War and statehood: The governor, Francis H. Pierpont, secured federal recognition and maintained civil jurisdiction over the region until Congress consented to the admission of West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863. A condition of entry was the gradual emancipation of slaves in the region. The capital was…

  • Pierre (South Dakota, United States)

    Pierre, city, seat (1880) of Hughes county and capital of South Dakota, U.S. It lies on the eastern bank of the Missouri River, in the geographic centre of the state. Arikara and, later, Sioux Indians were early inhabitants of the area, which was visited by the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1804.

  • Pierre (novel by Melville)

    Pierre, novel by Herman Melville, published in 1852. An intensely personal work, it reveals the somber mythology of Melville’s private life framed in terms of a story of an artist alienated from his society. The artist, Pierre Glendinning, is a wealthy young man. When he discovers that he has an

  • Pierre d’Alost (Flemish artist)

    Pieter Bruegel, the Elder: Life: …death), Bruegel was apprenticed to Pieter Coecke van Aelst, a leading Antwerp artist who had located in Brussels. The head of a large workshop, Coecke was a sculptor, architect, and designer of tapestry and stained glass who had traveled in Italy and in Turkey. Although Bruegel’s earliest surviving works show…

  • Pierre de Castelnau (French martyr)

    Peter Of Castelnau, Cistercian martyr, apostolic legate, and inquisitor against the Albigenses, most particularly the Cathari (heretical Christians who held unorthodox views on the nature of good and evil), whose assassination led to the Albigensian Crusade. Peter became an archdeacon in 1199 and i

  • Pierre de Cortone (Italian artist)

    Pietro da Cortona, Italian architect, painter, and decorator, an outstanding exponent of Baroque style. Pietro studied in Rome from about 1612 under the minor Florentine painters Andrea Commodi and Baccio Ciarpi and was influenced by antique sculpture and the work of Raphael. The most important of

  • Pierre de Courtenay (Byzantine emperor)

    Peter, briefly Latin emperor of Constantinople, from 1217 to 1219. The son of Peter of Courtenay (died 1183) and a grandson of the French king Louis VI, he obtained the counties of Auxerre and Tonnerre by his first marriage. He later married Yolande (died 1219), sister of Baldwin I and Henry of

  • Pierre de Dreux (duke or count of Brittany)

    Peter I, duke or count of Brittany from 1213 to 1237, French prince of the Capetian dynasty, founder of a line of French dukes of Brittany who ruled until the mid-14th century. Married by his cousin King Philip II Augustus of France to Alix, heiress to Brittany, Peter did homage for the province

  • Pierre de la Croix (French composer)

    Ars Antiqua: …ancestor of modern notation); and Pierre de la Croix (flourished last half of 13th century), whose works anticipate the Ars Nova style by virtue of their rhythmic fluency.

  • Pierre de Tarentaise (pope)

    Blessed Innocent V, ; feast day June 22), pope during 1276, the first Dominican pontiff. He collaborated with SS. Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas in drafting a rule of studies for the Dominican order. Innocent V became a Dominican (c. 1240) and studied at the University of Paris (1255–59), where

  • Pierre et Jean (work by Maupassant)

    Guy de Maupassant: Mature life and works: …Bel-Ami (1885; “Good Friend”), and Pierre et Jean (1888). Bel-Ami is drawn from the author’s observation of the world of sharp businessmen and cynical journalists in Paris, and it is a scathing satire on a society whose members let nothing stand in the way of their ambition to get rich…

  • Pierre Gianadda Foundation (museum, Martigny, Switzerland)

    Switzerland: Cultural institutions: One example is the Pierre Gianadda Foundation, built over Roman ruins in Martigny. Opened in 1978, it has become renowned for the quality of its exhibitions of international artists, including Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, Henry Moore, and Auguste Rodin. Museums of particular note are the Swiss National Museum, which…

  • Pierre l’Ermite (French ascetic)

    Peter the Hermit, ascetic and monastic founder, considered one of the most important preachers of the First Crusade. He was also, with Walter Sansavoir, one of the leaders of the so-called People’s Crusade, which arrived in the East before the main armies of the First Crusade. Peter reputedly

  • Pierre le Vénérable (French abbot)

    Peter the Venerable, outstanding French abbot of Cluny whose spiritual, intellectual, and financial reforms restored Cluny to its high place among the religious establishments of Europe. Peter joined Bernard of Clairvaux in supporting Pope Innocent II, thereby weakening the position of the

  • Pierre Lombard (French bishop)

    Peter Lombard, bishop of Paris whose Four Books of Sentences (Sententiarum libri IV) was the standard theological text of the Middle Ages. After early schooling at Bologna, he went to France to study at Reims and then at Paris. From 1136 to 1150 he taught theology in the school of Notre Dame,

  • Pierre Mauclerc (duke or count of Brittany)

    Peter I, duke or count of Brittany from 1213 to 1237, French prince of the Capetian dynasty, founder of a line of French dukes of Brittany who ruled until the mid-14th century. Married by his cousin King Philip II Augustus of France to Alix, heiress to Brittany, Peter did homage for the province

  • Pierre Oriol (French philosopher)

    Petrus Aureoli, French churchman, philosopher, and critical thinker, called Doctor facundus (“eloquent teacher”), who was important as a forerunner to William of Ockham. Petrus may have become a Franciscan at Gourdon before 1300; he was in Paris (1304) to study, possibly under John Duns Scotus. H

  • Pierre Saint-Martin System (caves, France-Spain)

    cave: Geographic distribution of karst terrain: The Pierre Saint-Martin System, for example, is 1,342 metres deep and drains a large area of the mountain range. Southern France, notably the Grande Causse, has some of the most spectacular karst in Europe, with deep gorges, numerous caves, and much sculptured limestone. In the Alps…

  • Pierre Shale (geology)

    Pierre Shale, division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in the United States (the Cretaceous Period lasted from about 146 million to 65.5 million years ago). Named for exposures studied near old Fort Pierre, S.D., the Pierre Shale occurs in South Dakota, Montana, Colorado, Minnesota, New Mexico, Wyoming,

  • Pierre, Fort (historical fort, South Dakota, United States)

    Pierre: Fort Pierre, across the river, was the fur-trade capital of the Northwest from 1832 to 1855; a monument there marks the place where Louis-Joseph and François Vérendrye buried a lead plate in 1743 (found in 1913) claiming the region for France. Other attractions in Pierre…

  • Pierre, Jean-Baptiste-Marie (French educator)

    Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin: …of the academy, the all-powerful Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre, in his desire to restore historical painting to the first rank, humiliated the old artist by reducing his pension and gradually divesting him of his duties at the academy. Furthermore, Chardin’s sight was failing. He tried his hand at drawing with pastels. It…

  • Pierre-Paul-Émile Roux (French bacteriologist)

    Émile Roux, French bacteriologist noted for his work on diphtheria and tetanus and for his collaboration with Louis Pasteur in the development of vaccines. Roux began his medical studies at the University of Clermont-Ferrand. In 1878 he was accepted into Pasteur’s laboratory at the University of

  • Pierre-Simon, comte de Laplace (French scientist and mathematician)

    Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, French mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who was best known for his investigations into the stability of the solar system. Laplace successfully accounted for all the observed deviations of the planets from their theoretical orbits by applying Sir Isaac

  • Pierre; or, The Ambiguities (novel by Melville)

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    château: …of fortified château is the Château de Pierrefonds (1390–1400). Eight monumental towers, machicolations (i.e., openings from which missiles could be hurled or shot at attackers below), and battlemented walls surround a courtyard the walls of which are 20 feet (7 metres) thick. The château sits on a rocky cliff overlooking…

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    Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the most colourful Englishwoman of her time and a brilliant and versatile writer. Her literary genius, like her personality, had many facets. She is principally remembered as a prolific letter writer in almost every epistolary style; she was also a distinguished minor

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    Pedrolino, stock character of the Italian commedia dell’arte, a simpleminded and honest servant, usually a young and personable valet. One of the comic servants, or zanni, Pedrolino functioned in the commedia as an unsuccessful lover and a victim of the pranks of his fellow comedians. His costume c

  • Pierrot Goes Wild (film by Godard [1965])

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