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  • Litauische Geschichten (work by Sudermann)

    Hermann Sudermann: …girl, and Litauische Geschichten (1917; The Excursion to Tilsit), a collection of stories dealing with the simple villagers of his native region, are notable. Das Bilderbuch meiner Jugend (1922; The Book of My Youth) is a vivid account of his early years in East Prussia.

  • Litchfield (county, Connecticut, United States)

    Litchfield, county, northwestern Connecticut, U.S. It consists of a hilly upland region bordered to the west by New York state and to the north by Massachusetts. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail passes through the western portion of the county. Litchfield has the largest area of any county in

  • Litchfield (Connecticut, United States)

    Litchfield, town (township), Litchfield county, northwestern Connecticut, U.S. It includes the boroughs of Litchfield and Bantam. The lands that became Litchfield were purchased from the Tunxis Indians in 1715–16. The town, named for Lichfield, England, and incorporated in 1719, was settled in

  • Litchfield Female Academy (school, Litchfield, Connecticut, United States)

    Sarah Pierce: institutions for women, Litchfield Female Academy.

  • Litchfield Law School (school, Litchfield, Connecticut, United States)

    Tapping Reeve: In 1784 Reeve founded the Litchfield Law School, which was the first of its kind in the United States. (Previously, legal training could be acquired in the United States only by apprenticeship.) He was the school’s sole teacher until 1798, when he took on an associate. Before it closed in…

  • Litchfield, Paul W. (American industrialist)

    Paul W. Litchfield, American industrialist who was president (1926–40) and chairman of the board (1930–58) of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, a firm that he helped develop into a worldwide operation. Litchfield graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1896 in chemical

  • Litchfield, Paul Weeks (American industrialist)

    Paul W. Litchfield, American industrialist who was president (1926–40) and chairman of the board (1930–58) of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, a firm that he helped develop into a worldwide operation. Litchfield graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1896 in chemical

  • litchi (fruit)

    Lychee, (Litchi chinensis), evergreen tree of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), grown for its edible fruit. Lychee is native to Southeast Asia and has been a favourite fruit of the Cantonese since ancient times. The fruit is usually eaten fresh but can also be canned or dried. The flavour of the

  • Litchie chinensis (fruit)

    Lychee, (Litchi chinensis), evergreen tree of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), grown for its edible fruit. Lychee is native to Southeast Asia and has been a favourite fruit of the Cantonese since ancient times. The fruit is usually eaten fresh but can also be canned or dried. The flavour of the

  • liter (unit of measurement)

    Litre (l), unit of volume in the metric system, equal to one cubic decimetre (0.001 cubic metre). From 1901 to 1964 the litre was defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water at 4 °C (39.2 °F) and standard atmospheric pressure; in 1964 the original, present value was reinstated. One litre is

  • literacy

    Literacy, capacity to communicate using inscribed, printed, or electronic signs or symbols for representing language. Literacy is customarily contrasted with orality (oral tradition), which encompasses a broad set of strategies for communicating through oral and aural media. In real world

  • literacy test (voting discrimination)

    Voting Rights Act: Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, whites-only primaries, and other measures disproportionately disqualified African Americans from voting. The result was that by the early 20th century nearly all African Americans were disfranchised. In the first half of the 20th century, several such measures were declared unconstitutional by…

  • Literal Commentary on Genesis (work by Augustine)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: Later, in the Literal Commentary on Genesis, he introduced a triple classification of visions—corporeal, spiritual (i.e., imaginative), and intellectual—that influenced later mystics for centuries. Although he was influenced by Neoplatonist philosophers such as Plotinus, Augustine did not speak of personal union with God in this life. His teaching,…

  • literal contract (law history)

    Roman law: Delict and contract: The literal contract was a type of fictitious loan formed by an entry in the creditor’s account book; it was comparatively unimportant and was obsolete by Justinian’s day. The verbal contract required set words or patterns of words to be spoken. The stipulatio was the most…

  • literal interpretation (biblical criticism)

    biblical literature: Literal interpretation: Literal interpretation is often, but not necessarily, associated with the belief in verbal or plenary inspiration, according to which not only the biblical message but also the individual words in which that message was delivered or written down were divinely chosen. In an…

  • Literárne Listy (Czechoslovak magazine)

    history of publishing: Continental Europe: In Czechoslovakia the Literárne Listy played a prominent part in the freedom movement of 1968 and was later suppressed at Soviet insistence, along with the Reportér and Student, leading to the start of several underground magazines. Sinn und Form (founded 1949), a Marxist critical journal in Berlin, was…

  • literary academy

    academy: Literary academies sprang up throughout Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries; the most famous of these was the Crusca Academy, founded in Florence by A.F. Grazzini in 1582.

  • literary agent (publishing)

    history of publishing: The first literary agents: A new factor at this time, which was to change the financial climate for fiction publishers in particular, was the advent of the literary agent. The first agent began business in 1875, and between 1900 and 1914 many more appeared. Reasonable though it…

  • Literary Arabic language

    Arabic language: Literary Arabic, usually called Classical Arabic, is essentially the form of the language found in the Qurʾān, with some modifications necessary for its use in modern times; it is uniform throughout the Arab world. Colloquial Arabic includes numerous spoken dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible. The chief dialect…

  • Literary Club, The (British intellectual group)

    Edward Gibbon: Life: …he was elected to the Club, the brilliant circle that the painter Sir Joshua Reynolds had formed round the writer and lexicographer Dr. Samuel Johnson. Although Johnson’s biographer, James Boswell, openly detested Gibbon, and it may be inferred that Johnson disliked him, Gibbon took an active part in the Club…

  • Literary Copyright Act (United Kingdom [1842])

    Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope: …responsible for passage of the Literary Copyright Act of 1842, which, in part, provided that books be protected by copyright for the life of the author plus seven years. He was a trustee of the British Museum and in 1856 proposed the foundation of a National Portrait Gallery; its creation…

  • literary criticism

    Literary criticism, the reasoned consideration of literary works and issues. It applies, as a term, to any argumentation about literature, whether or not specific works are analyzed. Plato’s cautions against the risky consequences of poetic inspiration in general in his Republic are thus often

  • Literary Digest (American magazine)

    history of publishing: Reader’s Digest magazine: …the United States were the Literary Digest (1890–1938), started by two former Lutheran ministers, Isaac K. Funk and Adam W. Wagnalls; the Review of Reviews (1890–1937), founded by Albert Shaw to condense material about world affairs; and Frank Munsey’s Scrap Book (1906–12), “a granary for the gleanings of literature.” The…

  • literary genre (literature)

    Genre, (French: “kind” or “sort”) a distinctive type or category of literary composition, such as the epic, tragedy, comedy, novel, and short story. Despite critics’ attempts to systematize the art of literature, such categories must retain a degree of flexibility, for they can break down on closer

  • Literary Guild (American business)

    book club: …Book-of-the-Month Club (1926) and the Literary Guild (1927) were the first such enterprises, the former distributing more than 200,000,000 new copies of fiction and nonfiction in its first 40 years, especially to areas where there were few bookstores. Book clubs—and similar marketing ventures patterned after them—usually use a technique called…

  • Literary History of Canada (work by Frye)

    Canadian literature: Modern period, 1900–60: …the first edition of the Literary History of Canada (1965), called the “garrison mentality”—were being broken and cast off.

  • Literary History of the American Revolution (work by Tyler)

    Moses Coit Tyler: …the next year the monumental Literary History of the American Revolution, 2 vol. (1897). A trailblazing intellectual history of the period between 1763 and 1783, it concentrated on essayists, pamphleteers, and satirists, thus broadening the scope of historical research. In part influenced by the German school of cultural history, the…

  • Literary History of the Arabs (work by Nicholson)

    Reynold Alleyne Nicholson: His Literary History of the Arabs (1907) remains a standard work on that subject in English; while his many text editions and translations of Ṣūfī writings, culminating in his eight-volume Mathnawi of Jalalu’ddin Rumi (1925–40), eminently advanced the study of Muslim mystics. He combined exact scholarship…

  • Literary Influence of Academies, The (essay by Arnold)

    Matthew Arnold: Arnold as critic: …in the second essay, “The Literary Influence of Academies,” in which he dwells upon “the note of provinciality” in English literature, caused by remoteness from a “centre” of correct knowledge and correct taste. To realize how much Arnold widened the horizons of criticism requires only a glance at the titles…

  • Literary Lapses (work by Leacock)

    Stephen Leacock: …with the beguiling fantasies of Literary Lapses (1910) and Nonsense Novels (1911). Leacock’s humour is typically based on a comic perception of social foibles and the incongruity between appearance and reality in human conduct, and his work is characterized by the invention of lively comic situations. Most renowned are his…

  • literary magazine

    history of publishing: Literary and scientific magazines: The critical review developed strongly in the 19th century, often as an adjunct to a book-publishing business. It became a forum for the questions of the day—political, literary, and artistic—to which many great figures contributed. There were also many magazines with…

  • Literary Magazine, The (British journal)

    Samuel Johnson: The Literary Magazine: From 1756 onward Johnson wrote harsh criticism and satire of England’s policy in the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) fought against France (and others) in North America, Europe, and India. This work appeared initially in a new journal he was editing, The Literary…

  • Literary Mongolian (ancient language)

    Mongol language: Known as Classical, or Literary, Mongolian, the written language generally represents the language as it was spoken in the era of Genghis Khan and differs in many respects from the present-day spoken language, although some colloquial features were introduced into Classical Mongolian in the 19th century. Though…

  • Literary Movement of Quebec (Canadian literary movement)

    Canadian literature: The literary movement of 1860: …Mouvement Littéraire de Québec (Literary Movement of Quebec). Often congregating at the bookstore of poet Octave Crémazie, its dozen members shared patriotic, conservative, and strongly Roman Catholic convictions about the survival of French Canada. Their spokesman, Henri-Raymond Casgrain, promoted a messianic view of the spiritual mission of French Canadians…

  • Literary Odyssey of the 1920’s, A (work by Cowley)

    Malcolm Cowley: His Exile’s Return: A Narrative of Ideas (1934; rev. ed. published 1951 under the subtitle A Literary Odyssey of the 1920’s) is an important social and literary history of the expatriate American writers of the 1920s. In it he signaled the importance of their rediscovery of…

  • literary prose (Chinese literature)

    Han Yu: Han advocated the adoption of guwen, the free, simple prose of these early philosophers, a style unencumbered by the mannerisms and elaborate verselike regularity of the pianwen (“parallel prose”) style that was prevalent in Han’s time. His own essays (e.g., “On the Way,” “On Man,” and “On Spirits”) are among…

  • Literary Research Association (Chinese literary organization)

    Chinese literature: May Fourth period: …established the Wenxue Yanjiuhui (“Literary Research Association”), generally referred to as the “realist” or “art-for-life’s-sake” school, which assumed the editorship of the established literary magazine Xiaoshuo yuebao (Short Story Monthly). Perhaps the most important literary magazine of the early 1920s, Xiaoshuo yuebao was used by the Association to promote…

  • Literary Research Society (Chinese literary organization)

    Chinese literature: May Fourth period: …established the Wenxue Yanjiuhui (“Literary Research Association”), generally referred to as the “realist” or “art-for-life’s-sake” school, which assumed the editorship of the established literary magazine Xiaoshuo yuebao (Short Story Monthly). Perhaps the most important literary magazine of the early 1920s, Xiaoshuo yuebao was used by the Association to promote…

  • Literary Reveries (work by Belinsky)

    Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky: …were called “Literaturnye mechtaniya” (“Literary Reveries”), and they established his reputation. In them he expounded F.W.J. Schelling’s Romantic view of national character, applying it to Russian culture.

  • Literary Revolution (Chinese history)

    education: Education in the republic: …of great significance was the Literary Revolution. Its most important aspect was a rebellion against the classical style of writing and the advocacy of a vernacular written language. The classics, textbooks, and other respectable writings had been in the classical written language, which, though using the same written characters, was…

  • literary scout (publishing)

    history of publishing: Literary agents and scouts: …1950s and 1960s is the literary scout. Though a few had been employed earlier, mainly by U.S. publishers, who had their “lookouts” in one or two European cities, the practice is now more widespread. Many European publishers employ residents in London, Paris, and New York City to alert them at…

  • literary sketch (literary genre)

    Literary sketch, short prose narrative, often an entertaining account of some aspect of a culture written by someone within that culture for readers outside of it—for example, anecdotes of a traveler in India published in an English magazine. Informal in style, the sketch is less dramatic but m

  • Literary Society (Japanese theatrical society)

    Japanese performing arts: Meiji period: In 1906 the Literary Society was established by Tsubouchi Shōyō to train young actors in Western realistic acting, thus beginning the serious study of Western drama. The first modern play (shingeki) to be staged in Japan in the Western realistic manner was Ibsen’s John Gabriel Borkman, directed by…

  • Literary Voices for Islam in the West

    The Muslim population in Europe and North America is growing quickly, but even more significant is the degree of attention being paid to this very articulate minority. More than ever before, Westerners and Easterners are struggling to understand one another and explain themselves through their

  • literati (Chinese and Japanese scholars)

    Literati, scholars in China and Japan whose poetry, calligraphy, and paintings were supposed primarily to reveal their cultivation and express their personal feelings rather than demonstrate professional skill. The concept of literati painters was first formulated in China in the Bei (Northern)

  • literati painting (Japanese painting)

    Nan-ga, (Japanese: “Southern Painting”, ) (“Literati Painting”), style of painting practiced by numerous Japanese painters of the 18th and 19th centuries. Some of the most original and creative painters of the middle and late Edo period belonged to the Nan-ga school. The style is based on

  • literati painting (Chinese painting)

    Wenrenhua, (Chinese: “literati painting”) ideal form of the Chinese scholar-painter who was more interested in personal erudition and expression than in literal representation or an immediately attractive surface beauty. First formulated in the Northern Song period (960–1127)—at which time it was

  • literatura de la corda (Brazilian ballad)

    chanson de geste: …of the Brazilian backlands, called literatura de la corda (“literature on a string”) because, in pamphlet form, they were formerly hung from strings and sold in marketplaces. Frequently in these ballads, through a misunderstanding of a Portuguese homonym, Charlemagne is surrounded by a company of 24 knights—i.e., “Twelve Noble Pairs.”

  • literature

    Literature, a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems,

  • Literature in the Vernacular (work by Dante)

    Dante: Exile, the Convivio, and the De monarchia: 1304–07; Concerning Vernacular Eloquence], a companion piece, presumably written in coordination with Book I, is primarily a practical treatise in the art of poetry based upon an elevated poetic language.) Dante became the great advocate of its use, and in the final sentence of Book I…

  • Literature of Exhaustion, The (essay by Barth)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: In an important essay, “The Literature of Exhaustion” (1967), John Barth declared himself an American disciple of Nabokov and Borges. After dismissing realism as a “used up” tradition, Barth described his own work as “novels which imitate the form of the novel, by an author who imitates the role…

  • literature, African

    African literature, the body of traditional oral and written literatures in Afro-Asiatic and African languages together with works written by Africans in European languages. Traditional written literature, which is limited to a smaller geographic area than is oral literature, is most characteristic

  • literature, Oceanic

    Oceanic literature, the traditional oral and written literatures of the indigenous people of Oceania, in particular of Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Australia. While this article addresses the influence of Western literary forms, it does not address the adoption of purely Western styles;

  • Literature, Temple of (temple, Hanoi, Vietnam)

    Hanoi: The contemporary city: …the 3rd century bce; the Temple of Literature (1070), dedicated to Confucius; the Mot Cot (“One-Pillar”) Pagoda (1049); and the Temple of the Trung Sisters (1142). In addition, the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, built in the 11th century, was designated in 2010 as a UNESCO…

  • literature, Western

    Western literature, history of literatures in the languages of the Indo-European family, along with a small number of other languages whose cultures became closely associated with the West, from ancient times to the present. Diverse as they are, European literatures, like European languages, are

  • Literaturnaya Gazeta (Soviet magazine)

    history of publishing: Continental Europe: The Literaturnaya Gazeta (founded 1929) and the influential Novy Mir (founded 1925; “New World”) often became the centre of controversy in the Soviet Union when writers were condemned for their views or denied the opportunity to publish. This led to a strong underground press. In Czechoslovakia…

  • Literaturnye mechtaniya (work by Belinsky)

    Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky: …were called “Literaturnye mechtaniya” (“Literary Reveries”), and they established his reputation. In them he expounded F.W.J. Schelling’s Romantic view of national character, applying it to Russian culture.

  • litharenite (mineral)

    Lithic arenite, sandstone (i.e., sedimentary rock composed of grains 0.06–2 mm [0.0024–0.08 inch] in diameter) containing over 50 percent rock fragments. Lithic arenites most often are of gray or salt-and-pepper colour because of the inclusion of dark rock fragments, mainly slate, phyllite, or

  • litharge (mineral)

    Litharge, one of two mineral forms of lead(II) oxide (PbO). It is found with the other form, massicot, as dull or greasy, very heavy, soft, red crusts in the oxidized zone of lead deposits, as at Cucamonga Peak and Fort Tejon, Calif., U.S., and near Hailey, Idaho, U.S. For mineralogic properties, s

  • lithargite (mineral)

    Litharge, one of two mineral forms of lead(II) oxide (PbO). It is found with the other form, massicot, as dull or greasy, very heavy, soft, red crusts in the oxidized zone of lead deposits, as at Cucamonga Peak and Fort Tejon, Calif., U.S., and near Hailey, Idaho, U.S. For mineralogic properties, s

  • Lithgow (New South Wales, Australia)

    Lithgow, city, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the western slopes of the Blue Mountains. Founded in 1824 and named for former state auditor-general William Lithgow, it became a municipality in 1889 and a city in 1945; in 1977 it was amalgamated with Blaxland Shire to form

  • Lithgow, John (American actor)

    John Lithgow, American stage and screen character actor known for his extreme versatility, earning acclaim in roles ranging from mild-mannered everymen to cold-blooded killers. Lithgow was born into a theatrical family; his mother was an actress, and his father was a theatre producer. When he was a

  • Lithgow, John Arthur (American actor)

    John Lithgow, American stage and screen character actor known for his extreme versatility, earning acclaim in roles ranging from mild-mannered everymen to cold-blooded killers. Lithgow was born into a theatrical family; his mother was an actress, and his father was a theatre producer. When he was a

  • Lithgow, William (Scottish explorer)

    William Lithgow, Scottish traveler and writer. Lithgow was the son of a merchant and began his travels in his youth. He visited the Orkney and Shetland islands, Germany, Bohemia, and the Low Countries, arriving in Paris in 1609. The following year he went to Rome and began the first of his major

  • lithia mica (mineral)

    Lepidolite, the most common lithium mineral, basic potassium and lithium aluminosilicate; a member of the common mica group. It is economically important as a major source of lithium. Because it is one of the few minerals containing appreciable amounts of rubidium, it is useful in determining

  • Lithia Park (park, Ashland, Oregon, United States)

    Ashland: Lithia Park, a 93-acre (38-hectare) tract of land near the city centre, is a local attraction; spring water (known as Lithia water for its high concentration of lithium salts)—once the focus of a mineral spa—is piped in to the park’s bubblers. Ashland is also the…

  • lithic arenite (mineral)

    Lithic arenite, sandstone (i.e., sedimentary rock composed of grains 0.06–2 mm [0.0024–0.08 inch] in diameter) containing over 50 percent rock fragments. Lithic arenites most often are of gray or salt-and-pepper colour because of the inclusion of dark rock fragments, mainly slate, phyllite, or

  • lithification (geology)

    Lithification, complex process whereby freshly deposited loose grains of sediment are converted into rock. Lithification may occur at the time a sediment is deposited or later. Cementation is one of the main processes involved, particularly for sandstones and conglomerates. In addition, reactions

  • lithiophilite (mineral)

    Lithiophilite, common phosphate mineral [LiMnPO4] similar to triphylite

  • lithium (chemical element)

    Lithium (Li), chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table, the alkali metal group, lightest of the solid elements. The metal itself—which is soft, white, and lustrous—and several of its alloys and compounds are produced on an industrial scale. atomic number 3 atomic weight 6.941 melting

  • lithium (drug)

    Lithium, in pharmacology, drug that is the primary treatment for bipolar disorder. Given primarily in its carbonate form, lithium is highly effective in dissipating a manic episode and in calming the individual, although its action in this regard may take several weeks. When given on a long-term

  • lithium aluminum hydride (chemical compound)

    aldehyde: Oxidation-reduction reactions: …the most commonly used being lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), or hydrogen (H2) in the presence of a transition catalyst such as nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), or rhodium (Rh).

  • lithium bromide (chemical compound)

    lithium: Chemical properties: …include lithium chloride (LiCl) and lithium bromide (LiBr). They form concentrated brines capable of absorbing aerial moisture over a wide range of temperatures; these brines are commonly employed in large refrigerating and air-conditioning systems. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is used chiefly as a fluxing agent in enamels and glasses.

  • lithium carbonate (chemical compound)

    lithium: Occurrence and production: …The major commercial form is lithium carbonate, Li2CO3, produced from ores or brines by a number of different processes. Addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) produces lithium chloride, which is the compound used to produce lithium metal by electrolysis. Lithium metal is produced by electrolysis of a fused mixture of lithium…

  • lithium cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium batteries: The area of battery technology that has attracted the most research since the early 1990s is a class of batteries with a lithium anode. Because of the high chemical activity of lithium, nonaqueous (organic or inorganic) electrolytes have to be used. Such electrolytes…

  • lithium chloride (chemical compound)

    lithium: Occurrence and production: …of hydrochloric acid (HCl) produces lithium chloride, which is the compound used to produce lithium metal by electrolysis. Lithium metal is produced by electrolysis of a fused mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides. The lower melting point of the mixture (400–420 °C, or 750–790 °F) compared with that of pure…

  • lithium deuteride (chemical compound)

    nuclear weapon: Further refinements: It used solid lithium deuteride rather than liquid deuterium and produced a yield of 15 megatons, 1,000 times as large as the Hiroshima bomb. Here the principal thermonuclear reaction was the fusion of deuterium and tritium. The tritium was produced in the weapon itself by neutron bombardment of…

  • lithium diorganocuprate (chemical compound)

    Gilman reagent: …used organocopper compounds are the lithium diorganocuprates, which are prepared by the reaction between organolithium reagents (RLi) and copper(I) halides (CuX); for example, ArLi gives Ar2CuLi.

  • lithium drifting (physics)

    radiation measurement: Silicon detectors: …detectors, a process known as lithium-ion drifting can be employed. This process produces a compensated material in which electron donors and acceptors are perfectly balanced and that behaves electrically much like a pure semiconductor. By fabricating n- and p-type contacts onto the opposite surface of a lithium-drifted material and applying…

  • lithium fluoride (chemical compound)

    lithium: Chemical properties: Lithium fluoride (LiF) is used chiefly as a fluxing agent in enamels and glasses.

  • lithium gallium hydride (chemical compound)

    hydride: Covalent hydrides: Lithium gallium hydride, LiGaH4, can also be used as a reducing agent. When pure, all these compounds are white crystalline solids, and their thermal and chemical stabilities are such that those of the boron compounds are greater than those of the aluminum compounds, which are…

  • lithium hydride (chemical compound)

    lithium: Chemical properties: Lithium hydride (LiH), a gray crystalline solid produced by the direct combination of its constituent elements at elevated temperatures, is a ready source of hydrogen, instantly liberating that gas upon treatment with water. It also is used to produce lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), which quickly…

  • lithium hydroxide (chemical compound)

    lithium: Chemical properties: Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), commonly obtained by the reaction of lithium carbonate with lime, is used in making lithium salts (soaps) of stearic and other fatty acids; these soaps are widely used as thickeners in lubricating greases. Lithium hydroxide is also used as an additive in…

  • lithium ion

    chemical compound: Binary ionic compounds: For example, Li+ is called lithium in the names of compounds containing this ion. Similarly, Na+ is called sodium, Mg2+ is called magnesium, and so on. A simple anion (obtained from a single atom) is named by taking the root of the parent element’s name and adding the suffix -ide.…

  • lithium niobate (chemical compound)

    niobium processing: Lithium niobate: Single-crystal lithium niobate, a transparent, relatively hard, and dense material that resembles clear glass, is particularly suitable for electro-optical applications. The electro-optical effect, also known as the Pockels effect, is an optical phenomenon in which the refractive index of a medium varies linearly…

  • lithium secondary cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium storage batteries: Rechargeable lithium–metal anode batteries show commercial promise, with theoretical energy densities that range from 600 to 2,000 watt-hours per kilogram. Even after allowance is made for the inactive parts of such cells, the net energy density is still competitive with aqueous systems.…

  • lithium-6 (chemical isotope)

    radiation measurement: Slow-neutron detectors: In the lithium-6 (6Li) and boron-10 (10B) reactions, the isotopes of interest are present only in limited percentage in the naturally occurring element. To enhance the conversion efficiency of lithium or boron, samples that are enriched in the desired isotope are often used in the fabrication of…

  • lithium-7 (chemical isotope)

    radioactivity: Electron capture: …its inner electrons to give lithium-7:

  • lithium-carbon monofluoride cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium batteries: The lithium–carbon monofluoride system has been among the more successful early commercial lithium miniature batteries. It has been used extensively in cameras and smaller devices, providing about 3.2 volts per cell, high power density, and long shelf life. Good low-temperature performance and constant voltage discharge over…

  • lithium-drifted silicon detector (instrument)

    radiation measurement: Silicon detectors: These relatively thick lithium-drifted silicon detectors are widely used for X-ray spectroscopy and for the measurement of fast-electron energies. Operationally, they are normally cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen to minimize the number of thermally generated carriers that are spontaneously produced in the thick active volume so…

  • lithium-ion battery

    battery: Lithium storage batteries: …came with the development of lithium-ion cells. The difficult problem of preventing lithium dendrite formation on charging was solved in these cells by using specially selected carbon powders as a base in which to insert lithium ions to form a weak compound that functions as a high-voltage, high-energy-density anode. While…

  • lithium-ion drifting (physics)

    radiation measurement: Silicon detectors: …detectors, a process known as lithium-ion drifting can be employed. This process produces a compensated material in which electron donors and acceptors are perfectly balanced and that behaves electrically much like a pure semiconductor. By fabricating n- and p-type contacts onto the opposite surface of a lithium-drifted material and applying…

  • lithium-manganese dioxide cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium batteries: Lithium–manganese dioxide cell systems have slowly gained wider application in small appliances, especially automatic cameras. Batteries of this kind have an operating voltage of 2.8–3.2 volts and offer high energy density and relatively low cost for the capability of the cells.

  • lithium-sulfur dioxide cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium batteries: Lithium–sulfur dioxide batteries have been used extensively in some emergency power units for aircraft and in military cold-weather applications (e.g., radio operation). The cathode consists of a gas under pressure with another chemical as electrolyte salt; this is analogous to the thionyl chloride electrolyte and…

  • lithium-thionyl chloride cell (battery)

    battery: Lithium batteries: Lithium–thionyl chloride batteries provide the highest energy density and power density commercially available. Thionyl chloride, a very corrosive and toxic chemical, serves not only as the electrolyte solvent but also as the cathode material. Formation of a film of lithium chloride salt on the lithium…

  • litho-offset (printing technique)

    Offset printing, in commercial printing, widely used printing technique in which the inked image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred (i.e., offset) to paper or other material. The rubber cylinder gives great flexibility, permitting printing on wood, cloth,

  • lithoautotroph (biology)

    bacteria: Autotrophic metabolism: …photosynthetic bacteria, and most aerobic lithoautotrophic bacteria. The key step in the Calvin cycle is the reaction of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate with carbon dioxide, yielding two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate, a precursor to glucose. This cycle is extremely expensive for the cell in terms of energy, such that the synthesis of one…

  • Lithobates catesbeianus (amphibian)

    Bullfrog, (Lithobates catesbeianus), semi-aquatic frog (family Ranidae), named for its loud call. This largest North American frog, native to the eastern United States and Canada, has been introduced into the western United States and into other countries. The name is also applied to other large

  • Lithobates palustris (amphibian)

    Pickerel frog, (Rana palustris), dark-spotted frog (family Ranidae), found in eastern North America, usually in such areas as meadows, cool streams, and sphagnum bogs. The pickerel frog is about 5 to 7.5 centimetres (2 to 3 inches) long and has lengthwise rows of squarish spots on its golden or

  • Lithobiida (arthropod)

    centipede: The little stone centipedes (order Lithobiomorpha) are short-bodied. They, like the house centipedes, run with the body held straight and are the fastest moving centipedes.

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