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  • Linz, Juan (Spanish-American political scientist)

    Juan Linz, Spanish American political scientist who was especially known for his examination of democratic and authoritarian governments. Linz was born in Germany to Spanish parents. He obtained a law degree from the University of Madrid and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He taught in Spain and

  • Linz, Juan José (Spanish-American political scientist)

    Juan Linz, Spanish American political scientist who was especially known for his examination of democratic and authoritarian governments. Linz was born in Germany to Spanish parents. He obtained a law degree from the University of Madrid and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He taught in Spain and

  • Linz-Donawitz process (metallurgy)

    Austria: Manufacturing: …the basic oxygen process, or LD process, originally named for the cities of Linz and Donawitz (the latter now part of Leoben); it is used under license by steelworks throughout the world. A considerable portion of Austria’s iron and steel industry is involved with construction abroad. Iron and steel firms…

  • Linzi (former town, Zibo, China)

    Linzi, former town, central Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. Since 1955 it has been a part of the city of Zibo, becoming a district of that city in 1969. Linzi district is situated on the west bank of the Zi River, a tributary of the Xiaoqing River, some 19 miles (30 km) east of Zhangdian

  • Lioba (Christian missionary)

    Christianity: Papal mission: From England he recruited Lioba (died 782) and entrusted her with developing Benedictine monasteries for women. Despite her outstanding and unique achievements, the movement ended with her death, and Roman Catholic women reentered mission service only in the 19th century. But the Christian wives of pagan kings, who led…

  • Liocheliidae (scorpion family)

    scorpion: Annotated classification: Family Liochelidae (rock scorpions) 56 species absent from North America; formerly called Ischnuridae. Family Iuridae 21 species found in arid regions of the Americas as well as Turkey and Greece. Female reproductive system includes an ovariuterus, with yolk-poor ova developing within. Hadrurus the largest in the…

  • Liogryllus campestris (insect)

    animal behaviour: Behavioral genetics: …the calling behaviour that male crickets (Gryllus integer) use to attract females has been measured. In any one population, some males chirp away for many hours each night, others call for just a few hours, and still others almost never call. The heritability of calling duration for one Canadian population…

  • LiOH (chemical compound)

    lithium: Chemical properties: Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), commonly obtained by the reaction of lithium carbonate with lime, is used in making lithium salts (soaps) of stearic and other fatty acids; these soaps are widely used as thickeners in lubricating greases. Lithium hydroxide is also used as an additive in…

  • Liolaemus multiformis (lizard)

    lizard: Thermoregulation: For example, Liolaemus multiformis, a small lizard that lives high in the Andes, has the ability to raise its body temperature to 35 °C (95 °F) while air temperatures are at 10 °C (50 °F) or lower.

  • Liombruno (Italian literature)

    Italian literature: Popular literature and romances: …Gherardino, Donna del Vergiù, and Liombruno were written in a popular style combining irony and common sense.

  • Liomys (rodent)

    pocket mouse: Natural history: The five species of spiny pocket mice (genus Liomys) are found in extreme southern Texas, but they live mostly in Mexico southward to Panama in semiarid brushy and rocky habitats. These pocket mice weigh 34 to 50 grams and have a body length of 10 to 14 cm and…

  • Lion (work by Faulkner)

    The Bear, novelette by William Faulkner, early versions of which first appeared as “Lion” in Harper’s Magazine of December 1935 and as “The Bear” in The Saturday Evening Post in 1942 before it was published that same year as one of the seven chapters in the novel Go Down, Moses. Critical

  • Lion (Mithraism)

    Mithraism: Worship, practices, and institutions: Bridegroom; miles, Soldier; leo, Lion; Perses, Persian; heliodromus, Courier of (and to) the Sun; pater, Father. To each rank belonged a particular mask (Raven, Persian, Lion) or dress (Bridegroom). The rising of the Mithraist in grade prefigured the ascent of the soul after death. The series of the…

  • lion (mammal)

    Lion, (Panthera leo), large, powerfully built cat (family Felidae) that is second in size only to the tiger. The proverbial “king of beasts,” the lion has been one of the best-known wild animals since earliest times. Lions are most active at night and live in a variety of habitats but prefer

  • Lion (constellation and astrological sign)

    Leo, (Latin: “Lion”) in astronomy, zodiacal constellation lying in the northern sky between Cancer and Virgo, at about 10 hours 30 minutes right ascension and 15° north declination. Regulus (Latin for “little king”; also called Alpha Leonis), the brightest star, is of magnitude 1.35. The November

  • Lion (film by Davis [2016])

    Nicole Kidman: Resurgence and subsequent films: …from 2016 included the biopic Lion, about an Indian boy who becomes separated from his family, is adopted by an Australian couple, and later, as an adult, searches for his lost relatives. The drama received critical acclaim, and Kidman earned her fourth Oscar nomination. Kidman was especially busy in 2017.…

  • Lion and the Jewel, The (play by Soyinka)

    Wole Soyinka: …of pompous, Westernized schoolteachers in The Lion and the Jewel (first performed in Ibadan, 1959; published 1963) and mocking the clever preachers of upstart prayer-churches who grow fat on the credulity of their parishioners in The Trials of Brother Jero (performed 1960; published 1963) and Jero’s Metamorphosis (1973). But his…

  • Lion and the Throne, The (work by Bowen)

    Catherine Bowen: …Elizabethan jurist Sir Edward Coke, The Lion and The Throne (1957), won her the National Book Award in 1958. Her many other books include Beloved Friend (1937), about the relationship of Tchaikovsky and Nadezhda von Meck; Yankee from Olympus: Justice Holmes and His Family (1944); John Adams and the American…

  • Lion and the Unicorn, The (work by Orwell)

    George Orwell: From The Road to Wigan Pier to World War II: …of books about England (notably The Lion and the Unicorn, 1941) that combined patriotic sentiment with the advocacy of a libertarian, decentralist socialism very much unlike that practiced by the British Labour Party.

  • Lion City (national capital, Singapore)

    Singapore, city, capital of the Republic of Singapore. It occupies the southern part of Singapore Island. Its strategic position on the strait between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea, complemented by its deepwater harbour, has made it the largest port in Southeast Asia and one of the world’s

  • Lion Country Safari (game preserve, Florida, United States)

    West Palm Beach: To the west is Lion Country Safari, a 500-acre (200-hectare) preserve where African animals roam freely amid surroundings similar to their native habitats. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, in the northern Everglades, is about 15 miles (25 km) southwest of the city. Inc. 1894. Pop. (2000) 82,103; West Palm Beach–Boca…

  • lion dance (Shintō)

    Japanese music: Biwa, vocal, and folk music: Lion dance (shishi mai) ensembles often use a trio consisting of a bamboo flutist, a gong player, and a drummer who plays a taiko and a small odeko barrel drum. Cymbals (chappa) and samisen may appear in other folk pantomimes or dances. The most common…

  • Lion Devouring a Gavial (work by Barye)

    Antoine-Louis Barye: …a second prize for his Lion Devouring a Gavial. He withdrew from exhibiting in the Salon in the 1830s after a celebrated small-scale project was rejected as goldsmithery (i.e., not “high art”), but he returned in 1850, to great acclaim.

  • lion dog (breed of dog)

    Pekingese, breed of toy dog developed in ancient China, where it was held sacred and was kept as a palace dog by members of the imperial family. It was introduced to the West by English forces that looted the Imperial Palace at Peking (Beijing) in 1860. The Pekingese has been known, both in the

  • Lion est mort ce soir, Le (film by Suwa [2017])

    Jean-Pierre Léaud: …est mort ce soir (2017; The Lion Sleeps Tonight).

  • lion farm (zoo)

    zoo: Design and architecture: …modern zoo parks, sometimes called safari parks or lion farms, the animals are confined in very large paddocks through which visitors drive in their cars. While this practice is based on that observed in African nature reserves, it can prove dangerous when the density of traffic is high and when…

  • lion fish (fish)

    Lionfish, (Pterois), any of several species of showy Indo-Pacific fishes of the scorpion fish family, Scorpaenidae (order Scorpaeniformes). Lionfish are noted for their venomous fin spines, which are capable of producing painful, though rarely fatal, puncture wounds. The fishes have enlarged

  • Lion Flag

    national flag consisting of a yellow field (background) bearing vertical stripes of green and orange at the hoist and, at the fly end, a crimson rectangle with a sword-wielding lion and four bo leaves. The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 1 to 2.According to legend, Prince Vijaya, founder of

  • Lion Gate (Mycenae, Greece)

    Western architecture: Fortification: …Tiryns and the strategically placed Lion Gate at Mycenae were constructed in this period. The latter consists of two colossal doorjambs that support a monolithic lintel. The wall above the gate is constructed to form a relieving triangle over the lintel, and this space is blocked with the famous relief…

  • Lion Heart (racehorse)

    Smarty Jones: …catch up to the pacemaker, Lion Heart, and ultimately pulled ahead and won by two and three-quarters lengths.

  • lion in the well problem (game)

    number game: The lion in the well: …on for the 64 squares? This is typical of many problems dealing with the time required to cover a certain distance at a constant rate while at the same time progress is hindered by a constant retrograde motion. There is a lion in a well…

  • Lion in Winter, The (film by Harvey [1968])

    The Lion in Winter, British dramatic film, released in 1968, that is noted for its brilliant, biting dialogue and the stellar performances of Katharine Hepburn and Peter O’Toole as Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II, respectively. Based on a Broadway play, the witty film drama recounts the troubled

  • Lion King II: Simba’s Pride, The (film by Rooney and LaDuca [1998])

    Ladysmith Black Mambazo: …the Beloved Country (1995), and The Lion King II (1998). Ladysmith Black Mambazo performed in Steppenwolf Theater Company of Chicago’s staging of The Song of Jacob Zulu, a play about the apartheid era in South Africa. The production premiered in Chicago in 1992, opened on Broadway in 1993, and was…

  • Lion King, The (film by Favreau [2019])

    Beyoncé: …the 2019 remake of Disney’s The Lion King, Beyoncé voiced the character of Nala and performed several songs on the soundtrack, including “Spirit,” an original song she cowrote, and a rendition of “Can You Feel the Love Tonight.” She also concurrently released an album inspired by the movie, The Lion…

  • Lion King, The (musical)

    Julie Taymor: …for her Broadway production of The Lion King, derived from the Disney animated film of the same name.

  • Lion King, The (film by Allers and Minkoff [1994])

    Michael Eisner: …and the Beast (1991) and The Lion King (1994). He also expanded the company into fields such as television, publishing, home video, and cruise ship travel. Disney’s profits rebounded spectacularly, and Eisner himself became a symbol of the Disney brand. Eisner also oversaw Disney’s 1991 partnership with the computer-animation studio…

  • Lion King: The Gift, The (album by Beyoncé)

    Beyoncé: …album inspired by the movie, The Lion King: The Gift.

  • Lion Mound (Turkey)

    Milid, ancient city near the upper Euphrates River in east-central Turkey, 4 miles (6.5 km) northeast of the town of Malatya. The site was first inhabited in the 4th millennium bc and later became an important city of the Hittites until the dissolution of their empire early in the 12th century bc.

  • Lion Mountain (historical site, Sri Lanka)

    Sigiriya, site in central Sri Lanka consisting of the ruins of an ancient stronghold that was built in the late 5th century ce on a remarkable monolithic rock pillar. The rock, which is so steep that its top overhangs the sides, rises to an elevation of 1,144 feet (349 metres) above sea level and

  • Lion of Barbados (West Indian cricketer)

    Desmond Haynes, West Indian cricketer considered one of the greatest opening batsmen in the history of the game. Haynes played in 116 Test matches and 238 one-day internationals, scoring more than 16,000 runs in both formats combined. Haynes had a brilliant record in both the Test (international

  • Lion of Belfort (sculpture by Bartholdi)

    Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi: …among monumental projects is the Lion of Belfort (completed 1880), which is carved out of the red sandstone of a hill that towers over the city of Belfort in eastern France. Once a macabre collective tomb for the National Guard of Colmar (1872), this is the best known of Bartholdi’s…

  • Lion of Buddha (Chinese art)

    Lion of Fo, in Chinese art, stylized figure of a snarling lion. Its original significance was as a guardian presence in a Buddhist temple. Lions of Fo are often created in pairs, with the male playing with a ball and the female with a cub. They occur in many types of Chinese pottery and in Western

  • Lion of Flanders, The (work by Conscience)

    Hendrik Conscience: …De leeuw van Vlaanderen (1838; The Lion of Flanders), the passionate epic of the revolt of the Flemish towns against France and the victory of the Flemish militia at the Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302), he not only created the Flemish novel but wrote an outstanding historical novel in…

  • Lion of Fo (Chinese art)

    Lion of Fo, in Chinese art, stylized figure of a snarling lion. Its original significance was as a guardian presence in a Buddhist temple. Lions of Fo are often created in pairs, with the male playing with a ball and the female with a cub. They occur in many types of Chinese pottery and in Western

  • Lion of Janina (Ottoman leader)

    Ali Paşa Tepelenë, Albanian brigand who, by murder and intrigue, became pasha, or provincial governor, of Janina from 1788. He extended his capricious rule within the Ottoman Empire over much of Albania and Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, and the Morea. His father, Veli, bey of Tepelenë, died a poor

  • Lion of Lucerne (monument, Lucerne, Switzerland)

    Lucerne: …landmarks are Bertel Thorvaldsen’s “Lion of Lucerne” monument (1819–21), in memory of the Swiss guards slain while defending the Tuileries in Paris in 1792; the Glacier Garden, a relic of the Ice Age excavated in 1872–75; and the comprehensive Swiss Transport Museum (1959). On the left bank are the…

  • Lion of Nicaragua (president of Nicaragua)

    Emiliano Chamorro Vargas, prominent diplomat and politician, president of Nicaragua (1917–21). Born to a distinguished Nicaraguan family, Chamorro early became an opponent of the regime of José Santos Zelaya. From 1893 on, Chamorro organized and was active in many of the revolts against this

  • Lion of Soweto (South African singer)

    Simon Nkabinde, (“Mahlathini”), South African Zulu singer who was an accomplished proponent of the deep-voiced “groaning” style of black South African singing and the lead vocalist for the Zulu music group Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens from 1964 to the late 1970s and again after the group

  • Lion of the Andes (Venezuelan soldier and dictator)

    Cipriano Castro, Venezuelan soldier and dictator, called the Lion of the Andes, who was the first man from the mountains to rule a nation that until the 20th century had been dominated by plainsmen and city dwellers from Caracas. He ruled for nine remarkably corrupt years (1899–1908), embezzling

  • Lion of the Punjab (Sikh maharaja)

    Ranjit Singh, founder and maharaja (1801–39) of the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab. Ranjit Singh was the first Indian in a millennium to turn the tide of invasion back into the homelands of the traditional conquerors of India, the Pashtuns (Afghans), and he thus became known as the Lion of the Punjab.

  • Lion of the West, The (play by Paulding)

    James Kirke Paulding: His popular play, The Lion of the West (first performed 1831; first published 1954), introduced frontier humour to the stage by depicting a character resembling Davy Crockett and helped during the 1830s to contribute to the growing legend of Crockett. His Life of Washington (1835) illustrates Paulding’s Americanism.…

  • Lion Rock (historical site, Sri Lanka)

    Sigiriya, site in central Sri Lanka consisting of the ruins of an ancient stronghold that was built in the late 5th century ce on a remarkable monolithic rock pillar. The rock, which is so steep that its top overhangs the sides, rises to an elevation of 1,144 feet (349 metres) above sea level and

  • Lion Sleeps Tonight, The (film by Suwa [2017])

    Jean-Pierre Léaud: …est mort ce soir (2017; The Lion Sleeps Tonight).

  • lion tamarin (primate)

    marmoset: Lion tamarins (genus Leontopithecus) are named for their thick manes, and all four species are endangered, three of them critically; one (L. caissara) was first discovered in 1990. Lion tamarins are larger than “true” marmosets and have long, slender hands and fingers, which they use…

  • lion’s ear (plant)

    Lamiaceae: …of the African genus Leonotis, klip dagga, or lion’s ear (L. nepetifolia), is naturalized throughout the tropics; it has red-orange globe clusters of profuse flowers at the top of the 1- to 2-metre plants. See also Coleus; Mentha; Monarda.

  • Lion’s Eyeglasses, The (work by Vildrac)

    children's literature: The 20th century: …his now-classic comic animal tale Les Lunettes du lion won immediate success (Eng. trans., The Lion’s Eyeglasses, 1969). On a high literary level, not accessible to all children, was Le Petit Prince (1943, both French and English, The Little Prince) by the famous aviator-author Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. The very vagueness…

  • Lion’s Gate (gate, Jerusalem)

    Jerusalem: Architecture: …gates to the north, the St. Stephen’s (or Lion’s) Gate to the east, the Dung and Zion gates to the south, and the Jaffa Gate to the west. An eighth gate, the Golden Gate, to the east, remains sealed, however, for it is through this portal that Jewish legend states…

  • Lion’s Head (mountain, South Africa)

    Cape Town: The city site: …by the ridges known as Lion’s Head and Lion’s Rump (later called Signal Hill), on the north by Table Bay, on the south by Devil’s Peak, and on the east by marshlands and the sandy Cape Flats beyond. The nearest tillable land was on the lower eastern slopes of Devil’s…

  • lion’s mane jellyfish (marine invertebrate)

    Lion’s mane jellyfish, (Cyanea capillata), marine jellyfish of the class Scyphozoa (phylum Cnidaria) found in the waters of the colder oceans of the Northern Hemisphere. Some populations, however, occur as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. It is the largest known jellyfish in the world. The body of

  • Lion’s Rump (mountain, South Africa)

    Cape Town: The city site: … and Lion’s Rump (later called Signal Hill), on the north by Table Bay, on the south by Devil’s Peak, and on the east by marshlands and the sandy Cape Flats beyond. The nearest tillable land was on the lower eastern slopes of Devil’s Peak and Table Mountain and, farther to…

  • Lion’s Share, The (film by Aristarain [1978])

    Adolfo Aristarain: …La parte del león (1978; The Lion’s Share). This was the first of a series of films that came to be known as Aristarain’s “thriller trilogy,” filmed during Argentina’s military dictatorship. These films earned him the respect of the critics and a growing audience. Among his later films were Un…

  • Lion, Golfe du (gulf, France)

    Gulf of Lion, gulf of the Mediterranean Sea, extending along the coast of southern France from the Spanish border (west) to Toulon (east). The gulf receives the Tech, Têt, Aude, Orb, Hérault, Vidourle, and Petit and Grand Rhône rivers. When cold-air masses flow past the Alps and sweep southward

  • Lion, Gulf of (gulf, France)

    Gulf of Lion, gulf of the Mediterranean Sea, extending along the coast of southern France from the Spanish border (west) to Toulon (east). The gulf receives the Tech, Têt, Aude, Orb, Hérault, Vidourle, and Petit and Grand Rhône rivers. When cold-air masses flow past the Alps and sweep southward

  • Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, The (novel by Lewis)

    C.S. Lewis: …known book, the children’s fantasy The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. He went on to write six additional stories, and together the series came to be known as the Chronicles of Narnia. The series, which describes the conflicts between good and evil that occur in the kingdom of Narnia,…

  • lion-tailed macaque (primate)

    macaque: Species: Liontail macaques, or wanderoos (M. silenus), are black with gray ruffs and tufted tails; an endangered species, they are found only in a small area of southern India. Closely related to liontails are the pigtail macaques (M. nemestrina), which carry their short tails curved over…

  • lion-taming (circus)

    circus: Wild animal acts: …first man to stick his head into a lion’s mouth, who in 1838 took his act to England and so fascinated the young Queen Victoria that she commissioned the artist Sir Edwin Landseer to paint a portrait of the brawny American with his “big cats.” In addition to exhibiting at…

  • Lioness, Chapel of the (cave chamber, Trois Frères, France)

    Trois Frères: …small chamber, known as the Chapel of the Lioness, that contains a large engraving of a lioness on a natural “altar,” with numerous special objects (animal teeth, shells, flint tools) carefully placed in crevices below it and around the walls. These are most plausibly seen as votive objects.

  • Lioness: Hidden Treasures (album by Winehouse)

    Amy Winehouse: …followed later that year by Lioness: Hidden Treasures, a collection that included previously unreleased original songs, covers, and demos. The 2015 film Amy chronicled her career through the use of documentary footage and interviews with her colleagues and intimates. It won an Academy Award for best documentary.

  • lionfish (fish)

    Lionfish, (Pterois), any of several species of showy Indo-Pacific fishes of the scorpion fish family, Scorpaenidae (order Scorpaeniformes). Lionfish are noted for their venomous fin spines, which are capable of producing painful, though rarely fatal, puncture wounds. The fishes have enlarged

  • Lionheart (film by Schaffner [1987])

    Franklin J. Schaffner: Lionheart (1987), an offbeat Crusades adventure with Eric Stolz and Gabriel Byrne, was given only a limited release, and moviegoers largely ignored Welcome Home (1989), a drama about a soldier (Kris Kristofferson) who is mistakenly thought to have been killed during the Vietnam War. Schaffner…

  • Lionheart (album by Bush)

    Kate Bush: …early success with another album, Lionheart (1978), after which she embarked on a European tour. The performance schedule exhausted Bush, however, and she subsequently focused primarily on recording.

  • Lionne, Hugues de (French statesman)

    Hugues de Lionne, French secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1663 to 1671 who laid the diplomatic groundwork that enabled King Louis XIV to initiate wars of conquest against the Spanish (War of Devolution, 1667–68) and the Dutch (1672–78). Born into the lower nobility, Lionne was the nephew

  • Lions and Shadows (work by Isherwood)

    Christopher Isherwood: In 1938 Isherwood published Lions and Shadows, an amusing and sensitive account of his early life and friendships while a student at the University of Cambridge.

  • Lions Clubs, International Association of (international organization)

    International Association of Lions Clubs, civilian service organization established by a Chicago insurance broker, Melvin Jones, in Dallas, Texas, in 1917 to foster a spirit of “generous consideration” among peoples of the world and to promote good government, good citizenship, and an active

  • Lions, Court of the (patio, Granada, Spain)

    court: …centuries, has six, including the Court of the Lions and Court of the Myrtles, the most celebrated of all Muslim patios. In Tudor and Elizabethan England of the 16th century, the principal mansions frequently had a forecourt, with wings of the house projecting forward on either side. The larger houses…

  • Lions, Jacques-Louis (French mathematician)

    Jacques-Louis Lions, French mathematician (born May 2, 1928, Grasse, France—died May 17, 2001, Paris, France), as a leading figure in the field of applied mathematics, was remarkably proficient at developing and systematizing methods for analyzing nonlinear partial differential equations and t

  • Lions, Pierre-Louis (French mathematician)

    Pierre-Louis Lions, French mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1994 for his work on partial differential equations. Lions earned a doctorate from the University of Paris VI in 1979. He was a professor at the University of Paris IX from 1981 to 2003, and in 1992 he joined the faculty

  • liontail macaque (primate)

    macaque: Species: Liontail macaques, or wanderoos (M. silenus), are black with gray ruffs and tufted tails; an endangered species, they are found only in a small area of southern India. Closely related to liontails are the pigtail macaques (M. nemestrina), which carry their short tails curved over…

  • Liopleurodon (fossil reptile genus)

    pliosaur: One notable pliosaur is Liopleurodon, a genus found in Middle Jurassic deposits in England and northern France. Liopleurodon is significant in that several fossils of variable quality that range in length from 5 to 25 metres (16 to 85 feet) have been placed in this genus, leading many authorities…

  • Lios Mor (Ireland)

    Lismore, market town, County Waterford, Ireland. It lies in the Blackwater valley, at the southern foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains. A monastery was founded in Lismore by St. Cartagh about 633. In the 9th and 10th centuries it was plundered by the Norsemen. The baronial castle, erected by Prince

  • Lios na gCearrbhach (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Lisburn, town, Lisburn and Castlereagh City district, eastern Northern Ireland. The town, on the River Lagan 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Belfast, was a small village known as Lisnagarvey before the English, Scots, and Welsh settled the site in the 1620s as part of the Plantation of Ulster scheme.

  • Liotard, Jean-Étienne (Swiss painter)

    Jean-Étienne Liotard, Swiss painter noted for his pastel portraits. After studying in Paris, Liotard was taken to Naples by a patron and went to Rome in 1735 to paint the portraits of Pope Clement XII and several cardinals. In 1738 he accompanied another patron, Lord Duncannon, to Constantinople.

  • Liotta, Ray (American actor)

    Martin Scorsese: Films of the 1990s: GoodFellas, Cape Fear, and Casino: Ray Liotta played Hill, and Paul Sorvino, Joe Pesci, Lorraine Bracco, and De Niro excelled in their supporting roles, particularly Pesci, who won an Academy Award for his portrayal of Hill’s short-tempered friend Tommy DeVito. Scorsese displayed his mastery of the medium in new and…

  • Liouville number (mathematics)

    Liouville number, in algebra, an irrational number α such that for each positive integer n there exists a rational number p/q for which p/q < |α − (p/q)| < 1/qn. All Liouville numbers are transcendental numbers—that is, numbers that cannot be expressed as the solution (root) of a polynomial

  • Liouville’s constant (mathematics)

    Liouville number: …proven transcendental number, known as Liouville’s constant, in 1850.

  • Liouville, Joseph (French mathematician)

    Joseph Liouville, French mathematician known for his work in analysis, differential geometry, and number theory and for his discovery of transcendental numbers—i.e., numbers that are not the roots of algebraic equations having rational coefficients. He was also influential as a journal editor and

  • lip (plant anatomy)

    mimicry: Orchids: The labellum (lip) of the Ophrys flower is a specialized median petal that acts as a dummy female of a species of bee or wasp (depending on the species of Ophrys), the resemblance being so close that males visit the flower in an attempt to copulate…

  • lip fern (plant)

    Lip fern, (genus Cheilanthes), any of about 150 species of ferns of the genus Cheilanthes (family Pteridaceae), found in tropical and temperate regions around the world. Lip ferns are often found in dry or seasonally dry climates, and many can tolerate open rocky areas in full Sun. A few are

  • lip plate (ornament)
  • lip plug (ornament)

    body modifications and mutilations: The head: …for insertion of a decorative plug or other ornament was once widespread among Africans, lowland South American Indians, the Indians of the northwest North American coast, and the Inuit (Eskimo). Striking examples include those of the women of the Mursi and Sara tribes of Africa (for a time commonly known…

  • lip ring (ornament)

    Lip ring, lip plug, and lip plate, objects, usually ring-shaped, inserted into the lips to alter their shape, used as decoration by certain primitive peoples. The lip plug is also known as a labret. In South America at the time of the Spanish conquests, lip plugs, usually made of stone, gold, or

  • lip-reading (speech reception)

    ear disease: Rehabilitation: Lipreading, which actually entails attentive observation of the entire facial expression rather than the movements of the lips alone, is used even by persons with normal hearing who, in the presence of background noise, need these visual clues to supplement hearing. As hearing begins to…

  • Lipa (Philippines)

    Lipa, chartered city, southwestern Luzon, Philippines. Formerly a Spanish military headquarters, it is a market town for a fruit-growing region. Lipa was rebuilt (including its cathedral) after a disastrous volcanic eruption in 1754 and again after its virtual destruction under Japanese occupation

  • Lipalian interval (geology)

    Lipalian interval, in geology, time span suggested in an attempt to explain the sudden appearance of abundant life forms in the earliest known Cambrian rocks (approximately 542 million years old), in contrast to their absence in the latest Precambrian strata. Unlike Precambrian indications of

  • Lipan (people)

    Apache: The Lipan of Texas, who were probably originally a band of Jicarilla, had largely given up farming for a more mobile lifestyle. The Mescalero were influenced by the Plains tribes’ corn- and bison-based economies, but their chief food staple was the mescal plant (hence the name…

  • Lipany, Battle of (Czech history)

    Czechoslovak history: The Hussite wars: …in a fratricidal battle at Lipany in May 1434.

  • Lipari Islands (islands, Italy)

    Eolie Islands, volcanic island group in the Tyrrhenian Sea (of the Mediterranean) off the north coast of Sicily, Italy. The group, with a total land area of 34 square miles (88 square km), consists of seven major islands and several islets lying in a general “Y” shape. The base of the Y is formed

  • Liparidae (fish)

    Snailfish, any of about 115 species of marine fish often placed with the lumpsuckers in the family Cyclopteridae, but sometimes separated as a distinct family, Liparidae (order Scorpaeniformes). Snailfish are small, growing to a maximum length of about 30 centimetres (12 inches). They are

  • Liparis (orchid genus)

    twayblade: …the orchids of the genera Liparis and Neottia (family Orchidaceae). The common name derives from the characteristic pair of leaves borne at the base of the flowering stalk.

  • Liparis lilifolia (plant)

    twayblade: The flowers of the large twayblade (L. lilifolia), of eastern North America, have thin slender side petals and a broad lip. The fen orchid (L. loeselii) is a similar species found in northern Eurasia.

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