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  • Library of Congress Classification (library science)

    Library of Congress Classification, system of library organization developed during the reorganization of the U.S. Library of Congress. It consists of separate, mutually exclusive, special classifications, often having no connection save the accidental one of alphabetical notation. Unlike the D

  • Library of Greek Literature (work by Korais)

    Adamántios Koraïs: …literary works were a 17-volume Library of Greek Literature, published between 1805 and 1826, and the 9-volume Parerga, published between 1809 and 1827. The Library included historical, political, philosophical, and scientific works by classical writers, for which he wrote prefaces in Modern Greek. He also edited the first four books…

  • Library of Water (art installation by Horn)

    Roni Horn: …small town of Stykkishólmur) is Library of Water (2003–07), an installation of 24 glass columns containing water, each one sourced from a unique glacier. The floor of the installation is covered with weather-related words in both Icelandic and English.

  • library science

    Library science, the principles and practices of library operation and administration, and their study. Libraries have existed since ancient times, but only in the second half of the 19th century did library science emerge as a separate field of study. With the knowledge explosion in the 20th

  • Library, The (Greek compendium)

    Apollodorus of Athens: …Bibliothēke (often Latinized as Bibliotheca; The Library), extant under his name, is in fact not by him but was composed in the 1st or 2nd century ad, as was a (lost) guidebook in comic trimeters, A Map of the Earth.

  • libration (astronomy)

    Libration, in astronomy, an oscillation, apparent or real, of a satellite, such as the Moon, the surface of which may as a consequence be seen from different angles at different times from one point on its primary body. The latitudinal libration of the Moon occurs because its axis is tilted

  • libre recherche scientifique (French law)

    François Gény: …law professor who originated the libre recherche scientifique (“free scientific research”) movement in jurisprudence. His advocacy of this principle liberalized the interpretation of codified law in France and helped to increase popular confidence in the judiciary. His approach also influenced legal philosophy in other countries.

  • Libre-Échange, Le (French publication)

    Frédéric Bastiat: …Trade and used its journal, Le Libre-Échange (“Free Trade”), to advance his antiprotectionist views. In a well-known satiric parable that appeared in his Sophismes économiques (1845; Sophisms of Protection), Bastiat concocted a petition brought by candlemakers who asked for protection against the Sun, suggesting that candlemaking and related industries would…

  • Libreria Vecchia (library, Venice, Italy)

    Western architecture: Italian Mannerism or Late Renaissance (1520–1600): Mark’s (Libreria Vecchia [1536–88]), is rich in surface decorative qualities. The library has two stories of arcades; it has no basement but merely three low steps, so as to match the Gothic Palazzo Ducale opposite it. The upper entablature is extremely heavy, equaling half the height…

  • libretto (opera)

    Libretto, (Italian: “booklet”) text of an opera, operetta, or other kind of musical theatre. It is also used, less commonly, for a musical work not intended for the stage. A libretto may be in verse or in prose; it may be specially designed for a particular composer, or it may provide raw material

  • Libreville (national capital, Gabon)

    Libreville, city and capital of Gabon, located on the north shore of the Gabon Estuary, which empties into the Gulf of Guinea. It is built on a succession of hills overlooking a well-sheltered port. The former European sector (modern in appearance and the site of the principal administrative and

  • Libri ad edictum (work by Ulpian)

    Ulpian: …the civil law; incomplete) and Libri ad edictum (81 books concerning praetorian edicts). Justinian’s compilers, headed by Tribonian, drew heavily on these and other treatises and monographs by Ulpian. A work variously called Tituli ex corpore Ulpiani, Epitome Ulpiani, or Regulae Ulpiani is no longer believed to be his.

  • Libri ad Sabinum (work by Ulpian)

    Ulpian: …major works are the commentaries Libri ad Sabinum (51 books interpreting the civil law; incomplete) and Libri ad edictum (81 books concerning praetorian edicts). Justinian’s compilers, headed by Tribonian, drew heavily on these and other treatises and monographs by Ulpian. A work variously called Tituli ex corpore Ulpiani, Epitome Ulpiani,…

  • Libri Carolini (code of laws)

    Christianity: Theology of icons: …the Frankish kingdom in the Libri Carolini, a theological treatise composed primarily by Theodulf of Orléans at Charlemagne’s request. In this work it is emphasized that images have only a representative character. Thus, they are understood not as an appearance of the saint but only as a visualization of the…

  • Libri de Piscibus Marinis (work by Rondelet)

    Guillaume Rondelet: Rondelet’s book, Libri de Piscibus Marinis (1554–55; “Book of Marine Fish”), contains detailed descriptions of nearly 250 kinds of marine animals with nearly the same number of illustrations. He included, in addition to fishes, whales, marine invertebrates, and seals, regarding them all as fishes. As professor of…

  • Libri feudorum (Italian compilation of customs)

    feudalism: Origins of the idea: …from the Middle Ages—especially the Libri feudorum (“Book of Fiefs”), an Italian compilation of customs relating to property holding, which was made in the 12th century and incorporated into Roman law—led historians and lawyers to search for the origins of contemporary feudal institutions in the Middle Ages.

  • Libri IV de gestis Francorum (work by Aimoin)

    Aimoin: His Historia Francorum, or Libri IV de gestis Francorum, was compiled from texts from the Merovingian period that were rewritten by Aimoin in better Latin. Later, 12th-century historians expanded and refined his history of the Franks. His biographies of Abbon and St. Benedict offer more direct…

  • Libri juris civilis (work by Cassius Longinus)

    Gaius Cassius Longinus: …from his chief work, the Libri juris civilis, in 10 books, were incorporated into the Digest issued by the 6th-century Byzantine emperor Justinian I.

  • Libri morales (work by Seneca the Younger)

    Stoicism: Later Roman Stoicism: …in Seneca’s Libri morales (Moral Essays) and Epistulae morales (Moral Letters) reinforce the new direction in Stoic thought. The Encheiridion (Manual) of Epictetus and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius furthered the sublime and yet personal consolation of the Stoic message and increasingly showed the strength of its rivalry to…

  • libri poenitentiales (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …the clergy and monks used libri poenitentiales (“penitential books”), which contained detailed catalogs of misdeeds with appropriate penances. They were private writings without official authority and with very disparate content. From the monasteries founded in Europe by the Irish monk St. Columban and missionaries of Anglo-Saxon background, the libri poenitentiales…

  • Libri posteriores (work by Labeo)

    Marcus Antistius Labeo: Labeo’s Libri posteriores, a systematic exposition of Roman law, is so called because it was published after his death. This posthumous publication is indicative of the great esteem in which he was held, and it is the only such instance in Roman legal history. Labeo was…

  • Libritabs (drug)

    Chlordiazepoxide, tranquilizing drug used in the treatment of anxiety. The drug was introduced in the 1960s under several trade names, including Libritabs (the original base) and Librium (the hydrochloride salt). Chlordiazepoxide belongs to a group of chemically related compounds called

  • Librium (drug)

    Chlordiazepoxide, tranquilizing drug used in the treatment of anxiety. The drug was introduced in the 1960s under several trade names, including Libritabs (the original base) and Librium (the hydrochloride salt). Chlordiazepoxide belongs to a group of chemically related compounds called

  • libro de arena, El (short stories by Borges)

    Jorge Luis Borges: Life: …El libro de arena (1975; The Book of Sand), both of which are allegories combining the simplicity of a folk storyteller with the complex vision of a man who has explored the labyrinths of his own being to its core.

  • Libro de buen amor (work by Ruiz)

    Juan Ruiz: …amor (1330; expanded in 1343; The Book of Good Love) is perhaps the most important long poem in the literature of medieval Spain.

  • Libro de la erudición poética (work by Carrillo y Sotomayor)

    Luis Carrillo y Sotomayor: In Carrillo’s treatise on poetry, Libro de la erudición poética (mod. ed., 1946), he attempted to justify his methods by claiming the merits of obscurity in poetry.

  • Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez (work by López de Segura)

    Ruy López de Segura: …manual of Chess instruction, his Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez (“Book of the Liberal Invention and Art of Playing Chess”; 1561).

  • Libro de los enxiemplos del conde Lucanor et de Patronio (work by Juan Manuel)

    short story: Spreading popularity: …Manuel’s collection of lively exempla Libro de los enxiemplos del conde Lucanor et de Patronio (1328–35), which antedates the Decameron; the anonymous story “The Abencerraje,” which was interpolated into a pastoral novel of 1559; and, most importantly, Miguel de Cervantes’ experimental Novelas ejemplares (1613; “Exemplary Novels”). Cervantes’ short fictions vary…

  • Libro de los estados (work by Juan Manuel)

    Don Juan Manuel: …among his extant works are Libro de los estados (“The Book of States”), a treatise on politics, and Libro del caballero y del escudero (“The Book of the Knight and the Squire”), a treatise on society.

  • libro de los seres imaginarios, El (work by Borges)

    Jorge Luis Borges: Life: …de los seres imaginarios (1967; The Book of Imaginary Beings), almost erase the distinctions between the genres of prose and poetry. His later collections of stories include El informe de Brodie (1970; Doctor Brodie’s Report), which deals with revenge, murder, and horror, and El libro de arena (1975; The Book…

  • Libro de los signos (work by Greiff)

    León de Greiff: Libro de los signos (1930; “Book of Signs”) uses the same stylistic devices; the predominant themes of this poetry collection are solitude, the tedium of existence, and the past. There is a conscious striving for formal perfection in an attempt to create a union of…

  • Libro de Manuel (novel by Cortázar)

    Julio Cortázar: …and Libro de Manuel (1973; A Manual for Manuel). A series of playful and humorous stories that Cortázar wrote between 1952 and 1959 were published in Historias de cronopios y de famas (1962; Cronopios and Famas). His later collections of short stories included Todos los fuegos el fuego (1966; All…

  • Libro de poemas (work by García Lorca)

    Federico García Lorca: Early poetry and plays: Libro de poemas (“Book of Poems”), an uneven collection of predominantly modernista poems culled from his juvenilia, followed in 1921. Both efforts disappointed Lorca and reinforced his inherent resistance to publication, a fact that led to frequent delays in the publication and production of his…

  • Libro del caballero y del escudero (work by Juan Manuel)

    Don Juan Manuel: …a treatise on politics, and Libro del caballero y del escudero (“The Book of the Knight and the Squire”), a treatise on society.

  • Libro del Conde Lucanor et de Patronio (work by Juan Manuel)

    short story: Spreading popularity: …Manuel’s collection of lively exempla Libro de los enxiemplos del conde Lucanor et de Patronio (1328–35), which antedates the Decameron; the anonymous story “The Abencerraje,” which was interpolated into a pastoral novel of 1559; and, most importantly, Miguel de Cervantes’ experimental Novelas ejemplares (1613; “Exemplary Novels”). Cervantes’ short fictions vary…

  • libro del cortegiano, Il (work by Castiglione)

    Giovanni Della Casa: …etiquette manual, Baldassare Castiglione’s Il cortegiano (“The Courtier”), in being more concerned with the details of correct behaviour in polite society than with courtly etiquette. Like Il cortegiano, Della Casa’s manual became widely read throughout Europe.

  • libro dell’arte, Il (work by Cennini)

    Cennino Cennini: …writing Il libro dell’arte (1437; The Craftsman’s Handbook), the most informative source on the methods, techniques, and attitudes of medieval artists. Painting, according to Cennini, holds a high place among human occupations because it combines theory or imagination with the skill of the hand. In Il libro dell’arte, Cennini gave…

  • libro dell’arte, Il (work by Cennini)

    Cennino Cennini: …writing Il libro dell’arte (1437; The Craftsman’s Handbook), the most informative source on the methods, techniques, and attitudes of medieval artists. Painting, according to Cennini, holds a high place among human occupations because it combines theory or imagination with the skill of the hand. In Il libro dell’arte, Cennini gave…

  • Libro delle tre scritture (work by Bonvesin)

    Bonvesin Da La Riva: …work, the vernacular poetry of Libro delle tre scritture (1274; “Book of the Three Writings”), described in three sections the pains of hell, the joys of heaven, and the Passion.

  • Libro di Antonio Billi (Florentine art history)

    Giotto: Early life: …two known versions of the Libro di Antonio Billi, a 16th-century collection of notes on Florentine artists. In the Codex Petrei version, a statement that Giotto was born in 1276 at Vespignano, the son of a peasant, occurs at the very end of the “Life” and may have been added…

  • Libro nuovo d’imparare a scrivere (manual by Palatino)

    calligraphy: Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century): …Giovanni Battista Palatino published his Libro nuovo d’imparare a scrivere (“New Book for Learning to Write”), which proved to be, along with the manuals of Arrighi and Tagliente, one of the most influential books on writing cancelleresca issued in the first half of the 16th century. These three authors were…

  • libro talonario, El (work by Echegaray y Eizaguirre)

    José Echegaray y Eizaguirre: His first play, El libro talonario (“The Checkbook”), was not produced until 1874, when he was 42; but he had a prolific career, producing an average of two plays a year for the rest of his life. His early work is almost wholly Romantic, but, under the influence of…

  • Libuda, Reinhard (German athlete)

    Reinhard Libuda, German association football (soccer) right winger who played with Schalke 04, Borussia Dortmund, and the West German national team in the 1960s and early ’70s. His tremendous skill as a dribbler was a major factor in Dortmund’s 1966 European Cup-Winners’ Cup championship and West

  • Liburni Portus (Italy)

    Livorno, city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on the Ligurian Sea at the western edge of a cultivated coastal plain and is enclosed east and south by a circle of low hills, the Livornesi Hills. Originally a small fishing village, it first became important when it was given by the

  • liburnian (warship)

    Albania: The Illyrians: …type of warship called the liburnian.

  • Liburnian galley (warship)

    Albania: The Illyrians: …type of warship called the liburnian.

  • Liburnum (Italy)

    Livorno, city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on the Ligurian Sea at the western edge of a cultivated coastal plain and is enclosed east and south by a circle of low hills, the Livornesi Hills. Originally a small fishing village, it first became important when it was given by the

  • Libuše (opera by Smetana)

    Bedřich Smetana: Libuše, named after a legendary figure in the history of Prague and intended to celebrate the projected coronation (which never took place) of the emperor Francis Joseph as king of Bohemia, was not produced until 1881. In 1874 Smetana’s health began to deteriorate as a…

  • Libussa (work by Grillparzer)

    Franz Grillparzer: …basis of the third play, Libussa, in which he foresees human development beyond the rationalist stage of civilization.

  • Libya

    Libya, country located in North Africa. Most of the country lies in the Sahara desert, and much of its population is concentrated along the coast and its immediate hinterland, where Tripoli (Ṭarābulus), the de facto capital, and Banghāzī (Benghazi), another major city, are located. Libya comprises

  • Libya bombings of 1986 (United States-Libyan history)

    Libya bombings of 1986, U.S. air attacks on selected targets in Libya, launched on April 15, 1986, in retaliation for that country’s perceived terrorist activities. Ten days before the attacks, a bomb exploded in a discotheque in West Berlin frequented by U.S. soldiers, killing two people and

  • Libya Dawn (Islamist coalition)

    Libya: Competing governments in Tripoli and Tobruk: …armed Islamist groups, known as Libya Dawn, restored the outgoing GNC in Tripoli, which came to be known as the National Salvation Government (NSG). Meanwhile, the new assembly elected in June, the House of Representatives, convened in the eastern city of Tobruk under the protection of Haftar’s troops.

  • Libya Inferior (Roman province, North Africa)

    North Africa: Roman Cyrenaica: …or Pentapolis (capital Ptolemais), and Libya Inferior, or Sicca (capital Paraetonium [Marsā Maṭrūḥ, Egypt]). A regular force was stationed there for the first time under a dux Libyarum. At the end of the 4th century, the Austuriani, a nomad tribe that had earlier raided Tripolitania, caused much damage, and Cyrenaica…

  • Libya Revolt of 2011

    In early 2011, amid a wave of popular protest in countries throughout the Middle East and North Africa, largely peaceful demonstrations against entrenched regimes brought quick transfers of power in Egypt and Tunisia. In Libya, however, an uprising against the four-decade rule of Muammar al-Qaddafi

  • Libya Superior (Roman province and North African city group)

    North Africa: The Greeks in Cyrenaica: …while Barce declined; the term Pentapolis came to be used for the five cities Apollonia, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Taucheira, and Berenice. In 96 bc Ptolemy Apion bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which annexed the royal estates but left the cities free. Disorders led Rome to create a regular province out of Cyrenaica…

  • Libya, flag of

    national flag consisting of three unequal horizontal stripes of (top to bottom) red, black, and green, with a white crescent and star centred on the larger black stripe. It has a width-to-length ratio of 1 to 2.Under Italian colonial rule from 1911 until 1942, Libya had no flag of its own.

  • Libya, history of

    Libya: History: This discussion focuses on Libya since the 18th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa.

  • Libyan (ancient people)

    Ramses II: Military exploits: …more serious war against the Libyans, who were constantly trying to invade and settle in the delta; it is probable that Ramses took a personal part in the Libyan war but not in the minor expeditions. The latter part of the reign seems to have been free from wars.

  • Libyan Berber (people)

    western Africa: Muslims in western Africa: …Sahara who belonged to the Libyan Amazigh groups who spoke a non-Semitic language and were the dominant group of North Africa before its conquest by the Arabs.

  • Libyan Desert (desert, North Africa)

    Libyan Desert, northeastern portion of the Sahara, extending from eastern Libya through southwestern Egypt into the extreme northwest of Sudan. The desert’s bare rocky plateaus and stony or sandy plains are harsh, arid, and inhospitable. The highest point is Mount Al-ʿUwaynāt (6,345 feet [1,934

  • Libyan lotus (plant)

    hackberry: The Mediterranean hackberry, or European nettle tree (C. australis), is an ornamental that has lance-shaped, gray-green leaves and larger edible fruit. Some West African species produce valuable timber.

  • Libyan National Army (Libyan army)

    Libya: Competing governments in Tripoli and Tobruk: …the leader of the self-styled Libyan National Army (LNA), led his forces against Islamists and their allies in eastern Libya in an offensive dubbed Operation Dignity. He condemned the GNC as dominated by Islamists, and fighters loyal to him made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the parliament building in Tripoli…

  • Libyan Republic, The

    Libya, country located in North Africa. Most of the country lies in the Sahara desert, and much of its population is concentrated along the coast and its immediate hinterland, where Tripoli (Ṭarābulus), the de facto capital, and Banghāzī (Benghazi), another major city, are located. Libya comprises

  • Libypithecus (primate)

    primate: Pliocene: Libypithecus and Dolichopithecus, both monkeys, were probably ancestral colobines, but neither genus can be placed in a precise ancestral relationship with modern members of this subfamily. What did characterize the Pliocene was the rise in Africa of the human line, with Ardipithecus ramidus at 4.4…

  • Libytheinae (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: …rear; spin crude cocoons; the Libytheinae (snout butterflies) are so named because of their long protruding palps; the very large Brassolinae and iridescent Morphinae are Neotropical, as are the highly distasteful, aposematic Heliconiinae and Ithomiinae that, with the worldwide Danainae, are models in many mimicry complexes; most of the pantropical…

  • Licancábur, Mount (mountain, Chile)

    Chile: The Chilean Andes: …as the Llullaillaco, 22,109 feet; Licancábur, 19,409 feet; and Ojos del Salado, 22,614 feet. After the last glaciation the melting waters collected in shallow lakes in the intermediate elevated basins. Today these salt lake basins (salares), the most noted of which is the Atacama Salt Flat, are evaporating to the…

  • Licata (Italy)

    Licata, town and Mediterranean port, southern Sicily, Italy, situated at the mouth of the Salso River (ancient Himera Meridionalis), northwest of Ragusa. It lies at the foot of the promontory of Sant’Angelo (ancient Ecnomus), the site of the town of Phintias, founded about 281 bc. During World War

  • Licchavi (ancient people)

    Licchavi, a people of northern India. They settled (6th–5th century bce) on the north bank of the Ganges (Ganga) River in what is now Bihar state; their capital city was at Vaishali. The Licchavis were renowned for their republican government, which had a general assembly of the heads of the

  • Licchavi dynasty (Nepalese history)

    Licchavi era, (c. 450–c. 750 ce) in Nepal, the period of rule by the Licchavi dynasty. The dynasty originated in India, used Sanskrit as a court language, and issued Indian-style coins. It maintained close ties to India and also had economic and political relations with Tibet, thus becoming a

  • Licchavi era (Nepalese history)

    Licchavi era, (c. 450–c. 750 ce) in Nepal, the period of rule by the Licchavi dynasty. The dynasty originated in India, used Sanskrit as a court language, and issued Indian-style coins. It maintained close ties to India and also had economic and political relations with Tibet, thus becoming a

  • lice (insect)

    Louse, (order Phthiraptera), any of a group of small wingless parasitic insects divisible into two main groups: the Amblycera and Ischnocera, or chewing or biting lice, which are parasites of birds and mammals, and the Anoplura, or sucking lice, parasites of mammals only. One of the sucking lice,

  • licence

    dentistry: Canada: …holder wants to obtain a license to practice. The regulations of the provincial licensing boards vary but usually require an examination for licensing.

  • Licence to Kill (film by Glen [1989])

    Benicio Del Toro: …in the James Bond movie Licence to Kill (1989) and earned favourable reviews for his portrayal of a Mexican drug lord in the fact-based TV miniseries Drug Wars: The Camarena Story (1990). Del Toro appeared in such movies as Money for Nothing (1993) and China Moon (1994) before his breakthrough…

  • licence-en-droit (French law)

    legal education: Levels of study: …candidate to enroll for the licence-en-droit, which is given at the end of the third year of study. Successful completion of a fourth year leads to a maîtrise-en-droit, which for all practical purposes has become the basic French law degree.

  • license (property law)

    License, in property law, permission to enter or use the property of another. There are three categories of license: bare licenses, contractual licenses, and licenses coupled with an interest. A bare license occurs when a person enters or uses the property of another with the express or implied

  • license

    dentistry: Canada: …holder wants to obtain a license to practice. The regulations of the provincial licensing boards vary but usually require an examination for licensing.

  • license and permit bond

    insurance: Major types of surety bonds: License and permit bonds are issued on persons such as owners of small businesses to guarantee reimbursement for violations of the licenses or permits under which they operate.

  • license coupled with an interest (property law)

    license: A license coupled with an interest arises when a person acquires the right to take possession of property located on someone else’s land, as when a lender acquires the right to repossess an automobile that is located on private property after the borrower has defaulted on…

  • Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, Association of (American industrial association)

    Henry Ford: Early life: …weeks after its incorporation the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers threatened to put it out of business because Ford was not a licensed manufacturer. He had been denied a license by this group, which aimed at reserving for its members the profits of what was fast becoming a major industry.…

  • Licensed to Ill (album by Beastie Boys)

    Beastie Boys: …and parodic fraternity-boy posturing turned Licensed to Ill (1986), with its hit single “(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right (to Party),” into a smash debut album, confirming the emotional and stylistic affinities some critics found between rap and hard rock. After moving from Def Jam to Capitol Records for their…

  • licensing

    dentistry: Canada: …holder wants to obtain a license to practice. The regulations of the provincial licensing boards vary but usually require an examination for licensing.

  • Licensing Act (England [1737])

    Henry Fielding: Early life.: …to push through Parliament the Licensing Act, by which all new plays had to be approved and licensed by the lord chamberlain before production.

  • Licet juris (electoral law)

    Louis IV: Acceptance of the imperial crown: …a basic electoral law (Licet juris) in Frankfurt (August 3) and again in Coblenz, where he met the king of England and bestowed on him an imperial vicarate on the Lower Rhine. The promulgation of that law, however, remained an empty gesture because the electoral princes, while assembled at…

  • lich-gate (architecture)

    Lych-gate, (from Middle English lyche, “body”; yate, “gate”) roofed-in gateway to a churchyard in which a bier might stand while the introductory part of the burial service was read. The most common form of lych-gate was a simple shed composed of a roof with two gabled ends, covered with tiles or

  • lich-wake (religious rite)

    Wake, watch or vigil held over the body of a dead person before burial and sometimes accompanied by festivity; also, in England, a vigil kept in commemoration of the dedication of the parish church. The latter type of wake consisted of an all-night service of prayer and meditation in the church.

  • Lichchhavi (ancient people)

    Licchavi, a people of northern India. They settled (6th–5th century bce) on the north bank of the Ganges (Ganga) River in what is now Bihar state; their capital city was at Vaishali. The Licchavis were renowned for their republican government, which had a general assembly of the heads of the

  • lichen (symbiotic organism)

    Lichen, any of about 15,000 species of thallophytic plantlike organisms that consist of a symbiotic association of algae (usually green) or cyanobacteria and fungi (mostly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes). Lichens are found worldwide and occur in a variety of environmental conditions. A diverse

  • lichen pilaris (skin disease)

    keratosis: Keratosis pilaris, also called ichthyosis follicularis, lichen pilaris, or follicular xeroderma, is a condition in which abnormal keratinization is limited to the hair follicles, manifesting itself as discrete, tiny follicular papules (solid, usually conical elevations); they are most commonly seen on the outer surface of…

  • lichen planus (skin disease)

    skin disease: Diagnosis: …the morphology of eczema or lichen planus on the palms and soles may bear little or no resemblance to the same disease in the same individual on the face or scalp. In these instances a biopsy shows the abnormalities of the cells of the skin and the pattern and distribution…

  • lichen woodland

    taiga: Distribution: …roughly parallel zones: closed-canopy forest, lichen woodland or sparse taiga, and forest-tundra. The closed-canopy forest is the southernmost portion of the taiga. It contains the greatest richness of species, the warmest soils, the highest productivity, and the longest growing season within the boreal zone. North of the closed-canopy forest is…

  • Lichenographia Europaea Reformata (work by Fries)

    Elias Fries: This system, presented in his Lichenographia Europaea Reformata (1831), was widely accepted until the use of the microscope revolutionized knowledge in this field. Fries was the first person to distinguish between lichens with external coverings on the fruiting body and those without.

  • Lichfield (England, United Kingdom)

    Lichfield, city and district, administrative and historic county of Staffordshire, west-central England. It is located on the northern margin of both the West Midlands plateau and the metropolitan complex centred on Birmingham. A nearby site is traditionally held to be the scene of the martyrdom in

  • Lichfield (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Lichfield: district, administrative and historic county of Staffordshire, west-central England. It is located on the northern margin of both the West Midlands plateau and the metropolitan complex centred on Birmingham.

  • Lichfield cathedral (cathedral, England, United Kingdom)

    Lichfield: The present cathedral in the city of Lichfield, one of the smallest medieval cathedrals in England, dates from the 13th and early 14th centuries. The cathedral city was incorporated in 1548, but its municipal history began much earlier. Lichfield is associated with writer and lexicographer Samuel Johnson,…

  • Lichfield, Thomas Patrick John Anson, 5th Earl of (British photographer)

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  • Lichinales (order of fungi)

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  • Lichinga Plateau (plateau, Mozambique)

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  • Lichinomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Lichinomycetes Parasitic, saprotrophic, or symbiotic; inoperculate asci; includes peltula lichen; contains 1 order. Order Lichinales Forms lichens; asci may be lecanoralean or prototunicate; example genera include Heppia, Lichina, and Peltula. Class Orbiliomycetes

  • Licht (operatic cycle by Stockhausen)

    Karlheinz Stockhausen: …the grandiose seven-part operatic cycle LICHT (“Light”), a work steeped in spirituality and mysticism that he intended to be his masterpiece. In 2005 the first parts of another ambitious series, KLANG (“Sound”)—in segments that correspond to the 24 hours in a day—were premiered.

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