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  • Liber Extra (decretals)

    canon law: The Corpus Juris Canonici (c. 1140–c. 1500): …not in Gratian’s Decretum), or Liber decretalium Gregorii IX (“Book of Decretals of Gregory IX”), composed by St. Raymond of Peñafort, a Spanish canonist, and promulgated on September 5, 1234, as the exclusive codex for all of canon law after Gratian. On March 3, 1298, Pope Boniface VIII promulgated Liber…

  • Liber figurarum (work by Joachim of Fiore)

    Joachim Of Fiore: …is expressed in the unique Liber figurarum (“Book of Figures”; discovered in 1937), a book of drawings and figures thought to be a genuine work by most Joachim scholars today. Here his vision of the culminating age of history is embodied in trees that flower and bear fruit luxuriantly at…

  • Liber floridus (work by Lambert of Saint-Omer)

    encyclopaedia: Early development: The Liber floridus (c. 1120) of Lambert of Saint-Omer is an unoriginal miscellany, but it has an interest of its own in that it discards practical matters in favour of metaphysical discussion and pays special attention to such subjects as magic and astrology. The greatest achievement…

  • Liber fornacum (treatise by Geber)

    Geber: …Magistery, 1678), Liber fornacum (Book of Furnaces, 1678), De investigatione perfectionis (The Investigation of Perfection, 1678), and De inventione veritatis (The Invention of Verity, 1678). They are the clearest expression of alchemical theory and the most important set of laboratory directions to appear before the 16th century. Accordingly, they…

  • Liber Gomorrhianus (work by Peter Damian)

    Saint Peter Damian: Early life and career: In Liber Gomorrhianus (“Book of Gomorrah”), written about 1051, he addressed the other central concern of reformers during this period, the question of celibacy versus clerical marriage (nicolaitism). His rhetorical advocacy of celibacy was so excessive, however, that Pope Leo chose not to give it the…

  • Liber gradualis (work by Pothier)

    Dom Joseph Pothier: In 1883 he published the Liber gradualis, which also included research earlier undertaken by Dom Jausions and which, with the Mélodies grégoriennes, marked the beginning of a reform in liturgical chant. In 1889 he was associated with his disciple Dom André Mocquereau (1849–1930) in the foundation of the publication Paléographie…

  • Liber gratissimus (work by Peter Damian)

    Saint Peter Damian: Early life and career: …particularly evident in Damian’s tract Liber gratissimus (1052; “Most-Favoured Book”), which treated the problem of simony (the purchase of ecclesiastical office) and the validity of the sacraments bestowed by a simoniac cleric. Although he strongly condemned the purchase of office by clergymen, Damian defended the validity of the sacraments they…

  • Liber hymnorum (work by Notker)

    Latin literature: The 9th to the 11th century: …to compose sequences, but his Liber hymnorum (“Book of Hymns”), begun about 860, is an integrated collection of texts that spans the whole of the church year in an ordered cycle. Performed between the biblical readings in the mass, each sequence is a free meditation upon scriptural themes, often drawing…

  • Liber Iudiciorum (legal code)

    Liber Judiciorum, Visigothic law code that formed the basis of medieval Spanish law. It was promulgated in 654 by King Recceswinth and was revised in 681 and 693. Although called Visigothic, the code was in Latin and owed much to Roman tradition. The primary innovation of the code was the

  • Liber Judiciorum (legal code)

    Liber Judiciorum, Visigothic law code that formed the basis of medieval Spanish law. It was promulgated in 654 by King Recceswinth and was revised in 681 and 693. Although called Visigothic, the code was in Latin and owed much to Roman tradition. The primary innovation of the code was the

  • Liber Papiens (legal text)

    Italy: Literature and art: …Carolingian updatings, usually called the Liber Papiensis. This text was the source for 11th-century glosses and expositions and juristic arguments over legal theory that led directly to the 12th-century revival of Roman law at Bologna. The study of law in the Lombard and Carolingian capital may have been early medieval…

  • Liber Pater (Greek mythology)

    Dionysus, in Greco-Roman religion, a nature god of fruitfulness and vegetation, especially known as a god of wine and ecstasy. The occurrence of his name on a Linear B tablet (13th century bce) shows that he was already worshipped in the Mycenaean period, although it is not known where his cult

  • Liber pauperum (work by Vacarius)

    Vacarius: Known as Liber pauperum, this work became one of the chief legal texts at Oxford, where, at an uncertain date, Vacarius began to teach. Oxford students of law soon were called pauperistae, in reference to his book.

  • Liber pro insipiente (work by Gaunilo)

    Gaunilo: Gaunilo’s Liber pro insipiente (“In Defense of the Fool”) was a critique of the rationality of Anselm’s assertion that the concept of “that than which nothing greater can be thought” (i.e., God) implies God’s existence. Gaunilo argued by analogy, pointing out that one’s concept of a…

  • Liber quadratorum (work by Fibonacci)

    Fibonacci: Contributions to number theory: He dedicated his Liber quadratorum (1225; “Book of Square Numbers”) to Frederick. Devoted entirely to Diophantine equations of the second degree (i.e., containing squares), the Liber quadratorum is considered Fibonacci’s masterpiece. It is a systematically arranged collection of theorems, many invented by the author, who used his own…

  • Liber regularum (work by Tyconius)

    Tyconius: 382; The Book of Rules), his sole surviving work, is a handbook for interpreting Scripture, and In Apocalypsin (c. 385?) is a commentary on Revelation that applies the rules set out in the earlier handbook.

  • Liber scholiorum (work by Theodore bar Konai)

    Theodore Bar Konai: …only extant work is the Liber scholiorum (“Book of Annotations”), the Latin designation of a vast Syriac collection of observations and elucidations taking their point of departure from biblical passages but developed into detailed considerations of philosophy, psychology, logic, and Eastern religions. Containing 11 mēmrē, or general sections of commentary,…

  • Liber Spectaculorum (work by Martial)

    Martial: Life and career: Martial’s first book, On the Spectacles (ad 80), contained 33 undistinguished epigrams celebrating the shows held in the Colosseum, an amphitheatre in the city begun by Vespasian and completed by Titus in 79; these poems are scarcely improved by their gross adulation of the latter emperor. In the…

  • Liber Studiorum (work by Turner)

    J.M.W. Turner: Early life and works: …100 plates known as the Liber Studiorum, inspired, in part, by Claude’s own studio record, Liber veritatis (begun in 1635 and continued until his death in 1682). Turner’s aim was to document the great variety and range of landscape; some of the subjects were taken from his own existing paintings…

  • Liber syllogismi recti (work by Levi ben Gershom)

    Levi ben Gershom: …Islāmic philosopher Averroës, Levi wrote Sefer ha-hekkesh ha-yashar (1319; Latin Liber syllogismi recti; “Book of Proper Analogy”), criticizing several arguments of Aristotle; he also wrote commentaries on the works of both philosophers.

  • Liber usualis (liturgical book)

    psalm tone: Examples are in the Liber usualis, the liturgical book containing frequently used Gregorian chants. See also Ambrosian chant; Gregorian chant; psalmody.

  • Liber Veritatis (work by Claude Lorrain)

    Claude Lorrain: Life and works: In 1635–36 he began the Liber Veritatis (“Book of Truth”; in the British Museum, London), a remarkable volume containing 195 drawings carefully copied by Claude after his own paintings, with particulars noted on the backs of the drawings indicating the patron for whom, or the place for which, the picture…

  • Liberace (American pianist)

    Liberace, American pianist. Born to Polish and Italian immigrants, he appeared as a soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at age 16. He began giving concerts in flamboyant costumes with ornate pianos and candelabra, and though he occasionally performed with symphony orchestras, he built his

  • Liberace, Wladziu Valentino (American pianist)

    Liberace, American pianist. Born to Polish and Italian immigrants, he appeared as a soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at age 16. He began giving concerts in flamboyant costumes with ornate pianos and candelabra, and though he occasionally performed with symphony orchestras, he built his

  • Liberal (Kansas, United States)

    Liberal, city, seat (1892) of Seward county, southwestern Kansas, U.S. It lies near the Oklahoma border just north of the Oklahoma Panhandle. Founded in 1888, it was so-named because a local landowner, L.E. Keefes, was “liberal” in allowing the use of his well in time of drought. The community

  • Liberal Alliance (political party, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Nicaragua from 1990 to 2006: …and the newly formed right-wing Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal; AL), a coalition of three liberal parties, were the main contenders in the 1996 national elections. Daniel Ortega was the FSLN’s presidential candidate, and his party campaigned for expanded social services and civil liberties, national unity, and, in contrast to its…

  • Liberal and Democratic Flemish Party (political party, Belgium)

    Guy Verhofstadt: …of the PVV to the Liberal and Democratic Flemish Party (VLD) in hopes of attracting more centrist voters. In 1997 he was reelected as president of the VLD. In elections in 1999 the VLD defeated Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene’s centre-left coalition, and Verhofstadt became the first liberal prime minister of…

  • liberal arts

    Liberal arts, college or university curriculum aimed at imparting general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. In the medieval European university the seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, and logic (the

  • Liberal Association of Birmingham (British organization)

    caucus: … and Frank Schnadhorst organized the Liberal Association of Birmingham on strict disciplinary lines, with a view toward managing elections and controlling voters. This type of organization became the model for other Liberal Party associations throughout the country; and, because it was a supposed imitation of the U.S. political machine, Benjamin…

  • Liberal branch of the Society of Friends (religious group)

    Elias Hicks: …but orthodox Quakers labeled them Hicksites. The Hicksites remained isolated from other Quakers until the 20th century, when mutual cooperation began to prevail.

  • Liberal Catholic Church (religious movement)

    theosophy: Assessment: …Universal and Triumphant, and the Liberal Catholic Church.

  • Liberal Constitutionalist Party (political party, Egypt)

    Egypt: The interwar period: …the first of which, the Liberal Constitutionalist Party, broke off as early as 1922. The primary aim of the British government, represented by its high commissioner (after 1936, its ambassador), was to secure imperial interests, especially the control of communications through the Suez Canal. The need for a treaty to…

  • liberal democracy (political philosophy)

    democracy: Rawls: …an egalitarian form of democratic liberalism. Rawls is accordingly regarded as the leading philosophical defender of the modern democratic capitalist welfare state.

  • Liberal Democratic Party (political party, Kenya)

    Raila Odinga: Political maneuvers: …left KANU and formed the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).

  • Liberal Democratic Party (political party, Lithuania)

    Rolandas Paksas: Paksas founded the centre-right Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalų Demokratų Partija; LDP) in March 2002. Under its banner, he won the presidency of Lithuania in the second round of elections on Jan. 5, 2003, with 54.7 percent of the vote. His success came as a surprise to many. All the…

  • Liberal Democratic Party (political party, Japan)

    Liberal-Democratic Party of Japan (LDP), Japan’s largest political party, which has held power almost continuously since its formation in 1955. The party has generally worked closely with business interests and followed a pro-U.S. foreign policy. During nearly four decades of uninterrupted power

  • Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova (political party, Moldova)

    Moldova: Independent Moldova: …and Vlad Filat of the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova (PLDM) was named prime minister. Despite their victory, however, the four parties fell short of the three-fifths majority required to choose a president.

  • Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (political party, Russia)

    neofascism: …Marine Le Pen, and the Liberal-Democratic Party in Russia, led from 1991 by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, are often cited as neofascist.

  • Liberal Democrats (political party, United Kingdom)

    Liberal Democrats, British political party founded in 1988 through a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP). In the middle ground between the dominant Labour Party and Conservative Party, the Liberal Democrats occupy a centre-left libertarian position. The Liberals became

  • liberal education

    education: Traditional movements: …essentialism was what was called humanistic, or liberal, education in its traditional form. Although many intellectuals argued the case, Robert M. Hutchins, president and then chancellor of the University of Chicago from 1929 to 1951, and Mortimer J. Adler, professor of the philosophy of law at the same institution, were…

  • liberal feminism (feminism)

    feminism: Dissension and debate: The first was liberal, or mainstream, feminism, which focused its energy on concrete and pragmatic change at an institutional and governmental level. Its goal was to integrate women more thoroughly into the power structure and to give women equal access to positions men had traditionally dominated. While aiming…

  • Liberal Front Party (political party, Brazil)

    Liberal Front Party (PFL), centre-right Brazilian political party that supports free-market policies. Founded in 1984, the Liberal Front Party (PFL) was established ostensibly to oppose the presidential candidacy of Paulo Maluf in Brazil’s 1985 elections—the first civilian democratic elections

  • Liberal Imagination, The (work by Trilling)

    American literature: Literary and social criticism: Freudian, Lionel Trilling, in The Liberal Imagination (1950) and other works, rejected Vernon L. Parrington’s populist concept of literature as social reportage and insisted on the ability of literature to explore problematic human complexity. His criticism reflected the inward turn from politics toward “moral realism” that coincided with the…

  • liberal internationalism

    Liberal internationalism, cluster of ideas derived from the belief that international progress is possible, where progress is defined as movement toward increasing levels of harmonious cooperation between political communities. Liberal internationalist theories address how best to organize and

  • Liberal Judaism

    Reform Judaism, a religious movement that has modified or abandoned many traditional Jewish beliefs, laws, and practices in an effort to adapt Judaism to the changed social, political, and cultural conditions of the modern world. Reform Judaism sets itself at variance with Orthodox Judaism by

  • Liberal movement (Judaism)

    Israel Abrahams: …among the founders of the Liberal movement, an Anglo-Jewish group that stressed the universality of Jewish ethics, minimized ritual and custom, and originally eschewed Zionism.

  • Liberal National Party (political party, United Kingdom)

    John Allse Brook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon: …1930s he also led the Liberal National Party, a group of former Liberals who opposed Socialism and had accepted the Conservatives’ view favouring protective tariffs. He favoured a rapprochement between Britain and Nazi Germany and from 1936 was considered among the appeasement-minded politicians.

  • Liberal Party (political party, Israel)

    Likud: Formation and ideology: …Herut (“Freedom”) party and the Liberal Party (Miflaget ha-Liberali). The Herut had its roots in Vladimir Jabotinsky’s Revisionist Zionism, popular especially among Russian Jews of the 1920s and ’30s. It was formally organized in 1948, the year of Israel’s independence, in the merger of preindependence groups such as the Irgun…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Japan)

    Gotō Shōjirō: …political party, the Jiyūtō (Liberal Party), based on Rousseauist democratic doctrines. After the movement was discontinued briefly, Gotō reorganized it as a league calling for revision of Japan’s treaties with the West. Upon the promulgation of the constitution and co-optation of the party leaders, he joined the government in…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Hungary)

    Hungary: Hungary under dualism: This new Liberal Party then held office for nearly 30 years. During these years the Compromise stood intact, but there was mounting friction with Vienna over the army, which the Hungarians regarded, with some reason, as imbued with a spirit hostile to themselves; over the economic provisions…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Netherlands)

    Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte: By 1862 he was a Liberal leader of Parliament, and in 1863 he was appointed minister of colonies. When he became prime minister (1866), his plan to abolish communal ownership of land on Java met with great resistance, and he was forced to resign. The power of the Liberal Party…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Liberal Party, moderately conservative Italian political party that dominated Italian political life in the decades after unification (1861) and was a minor party in the period after World War II. The Liberal Party was first formed as a parliamentary group within the Piedmont assembly in

  • Liberal Party (political party, New Zealand)

    John Ballance: …Zealand (1891–93) who unified the Liberal Party, which held power for 20 years; he also played a major role in the enactment of social welfare legislation.

  • Liberal Party (political party, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Reconstruction: …two major political parties, the Liberal Party and the National Republican Association (Asociación Nacional Republicana; ANR), generally known as the Colorado Party, were born. The Colorados were in power from 1887 until a liberal revolt unseated them in 1904, and the Liberal Party, in its turn, dominated the presidency for…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Political process: The populist Freedom Party of Austria (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs; FPÖ), sometimes referred to as the Liberal Party, was founded in 1955 as a successor to the League of Independents. Initially drawing the bulk of its support from former National Socialists, the party’s fiercely right-wing views had been…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Romania)

    Ion Brătianu: …Cuza, Brătianu founded the Romanian Liberal Party with his brother Dumitru and in 1866 figured prominently in the deposing of Cuza and the selection of Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen as prince of Romania, later (1881) King Carol I. As minister of finance, Brătianu played an important role in designing the Romanian…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Spain)

    Spain: Opposition movements, 1898–1923: Rather than resist a Liberal Party that had allied with the Republican parties, the king held that the Liberals were a useful “lightning conductor,” protecting the monarchy from the threat on the left. Ever since Maura’s fall, the king’s diagnosis had been challenged by conservatives.

  • Liberal Party (political party, Sweden)

    Sweden: Political process: …Party), the Centre Party, the Liberal Party, and the Green Party—and two socialist parties—the Swedish Social Democratic Workers’ Party (SAP; commonly called the Social Democratic Labour Party) and the Left Party (former Communist Party). The SAP is closely allied with the trade unions and was in power for a considerable…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: Political process: …Party (Konservative Folkeparti) and the Liberal Party (Venstre) ruled until 1993, when the Social Democrats regained power. A centre-right Liberal-Conservative coalition held power from 2001 to 2011, when a centre-left coalition led by the Social Democrats took the reins of government. Other prominent parties include the right-wing Danish People’s Party…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Venezuela)

    Venezuela: Páez and the Conservatives: …and professional men, founded the Liberal Party. Guzmán’s new liberal newspaper, El Venezolano, demanded abolition of slavery, extension of voting rights, and protection for the debtor classes. During the 1840s the demand for Venezuela’s agricultural commodities declined on the world market; this produced economic difficulties, which in turn contributed to…

  • Liberal Party (political party, United Kingdom)

    Liberal Party, a British political party that emerged in the mid-19th century as the successor to the historic Whig Party. It was the major party in opposition to the Conservatives until 1918, after which it was supplanted by the Labour Party. The Liberals continued as a minor party until 1988,

  • Liberal Party (political party, Colombia)

    Colombia: Colombia in the 21st century: …Party with 15, and the Colombian Liberal Party and the Social Party of National Unity with 14 each. The Colombian Liberal Party finished first with 35 seats in the 172-seat House, ahead of DC, which won 32 seats, Radical Change with 30 seats, the Social Party of National Unity with…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: The principality: The Liberal Party, under Dragan Tsankov, Petko Karavelov (the brother of Lyuben Karavelov), and Petko Slaveikov, dominated the assembly and created a constitution that was one of the most democratic in Europe. It provided for a single National Assembly elected by universal male suffrage, guarantees of…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties: Starting with the presidency (1880–84) of Narciso Campero, Bolivia moved into an era of civilian government. The country’s upper classes divided their support between two parties—Liberal and Conservative— and then proceeded to share power through them. This intraclass political party system…

  • Liberal Party (political party, Belgium)

    Belgium: Liberal dominance: …the foundation for a national liberal party independent of the Unionist movement, aiming in particular at the curtailment of the church’s growing social position. Later, a Roman Catholic conservative party took shape in opposition. Thus, one of the ideological polarities of modern Belgian politics was born.

  • Liberal Party (political party, United States)

    Liberal Party, a minor U.S. political party in New York state, founded in May 1944 by leaders of the moderate wing of the American Labor Party in revolt against the alleged infiltration of that party by communists. Although the party has usually favoured candidates of the Democratic Party (its

  • Liberal Party (political party, Switzerland)

    FDP. The Liberals, centrist political party of Switzerland formed in 2009 by the merger of the Radical Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz [FDP]) and the Liberal Party (German: Liberale Partei der Schweiz [LPS]). FDP. The Liberals assumed the role previously held

  • Liberal Party (political party, Australia)

    Liberal Party of Australia, one of the major Australian political parties. In its current form it was founded in 1944–45 by Robert Gordon Menzies. The term “Liberals” was used in federal politics from 1901 by radical protectionists; they continued to apply it to themselves after uniting with more

  • Liberal Party (political party, Canada)

    Liberal Party of Canada, centrist Canadian political party, one of the major parties in the country since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Liberal Party has been the governing party at the federal level for most of the period since the late 1890s, bringing together pragmatic

  • Liberal Party (political party, South Africa)

    Alan Paton: …1953 he helped found the Liberal Party of South Africa to offer a nonracial alternative to apartheid; Paton was its national president until its enforced dissolution in 1968. His active opposition to the policy of apartheid led to confiscation of his passport from 1960 to 1970.

  • Liberal Party of Australia (political party, Australia)

    Liberal Party of Australia, one of the major Australian political parties. In its current form it was founded in 1944–45 by Robert Gordon Menzies. The term “Liberals” was used in federal politics from 1901 by radical protectionists; they continued to apply it to themselves after uniting with more

  • Liberal Party of Canada (political party, Canada)

    Liberal Party of Canada, centrist Canadian political party, one of the major parties in the country since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Liberal Party has been the governing party at the federal level for most of the period since the late 1890s, bringing together pragmatic

  • Liberal Party of South Africa (political party, South Africa)

    Alan Paton: …1953 he helped found the Liberal Party of South Africa to offer a nonracial alternative to apartheid; Paton was its national president until its enforced dissolution in 1968. His active opposition to the policy of apartheid led to confiscation of his passport from 1960 to 1970.

  • liberal peace (political science)

    Democratic peace, the proposition that democratic states never (or almost never) wage war on one another. The concept of democratic peace must be distinguished from the claim that democracies are in general more peaceful than nondemocratic countries. Whereas the latter claim is controversial, the

  • Liberal People’s Party (political party, Sweden)

    Sweden: Political process: …Party), the Centre Party, the Liberal Party, and the Green Party—and two socialist parties—the Swedish Social Democratic Workers’ Party (SAP; commonly called the Social Democratic Labour Party) and the Left Party (former Communist Party). The SAP is closely allied with the trade unions and was in power for a considerable…

  • Liberal Republican Party (political party, United States)

    Liberal Republican Party, insurgent reform wing of the U.S. Republican Party that challenged what it considered the corruption of President Ulysses S. Grant’s administration by nominating a rival slate of candidates in the national election of November 1872. Led by such prominent Americans as

  • Liberal Republican Party (political party, Turkey)

    Turkey: Opposition: …army; and the similarly short-lived Liberal Republican Party (August–December 1930) was an abortive attempt by Mustafa Kemal to organize a moderate opposition to his own party. Otherwise, he ruled quite autocratically. A plot against his life in 1926 gave him the chance to deal with his rivals, who were tried…

  • Liberal Revolutionary Movement (political party, Colombia)

    Alfonso López Michelsen: …party of dissident Liberals, the Liberal Revolutionary Movement (MRL), to oppose the National Front. The National Front was a coalition of Liberals and Conservatives established in 1957 to end a decade of violent civil strife. The pact between the two major established parties had guaranteed the peaceful alternation of presidential…

  • liberal socialism (economics)

    Market socialism, economic system representing a compromise between socialist planning and free enterprise, in which enterprises are publicly owned but production and consumption are guided by market forces rather than by government planning. A form of market socialism was adopted in Yugoslavia in

  • liberal theology (religion)

    Theological liberalism, a form of religious thought that establishes religious inquiry on the basis of a norm other than the authority of tradition. It was an important influence in Protestantism from about the mid-17th century through the 1920s. The defining trait of this liberalism is a will to

  • Liberal Union (Ottoman history)

    Ottoman Empire: Rise of the CUP: …a political coalition called the Liberal Union.

  • Liberal Union (political party, Spain)

    Spain: Economic expansion: …over this prosperity was O’Donnell’s Liberal Union, which was an attempt to fuse all dynastic parties in a broad-based coalition. It provided a long period of stable government (1856–63), and, had the Progressive politicians been less afraid of losing their left wing to the Democrats and had the queen been…

  • Liberal Union (political party, Germany)

    German Empire: The breach with the National Liberals: …Bismarck; the other formed the Liberal Union party, which in 1884 joined the Progressives under Eugen Richter to form the German Radical Party (Deutsche Freisinnige Partei). In response, Bismarck struck a bargain with the Centre. He agreed that the conflict with the Roman Catholic Church should be called off and…

  • Liberal Unionism (political party, Great Britain)

    Conservative Party: History: …when it allied with the Liberal Unionists, a faction of the Liberal Party that opposed the policy of Home Rule in Ireland put forward by the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone. Thus reinforced, the Conservatives held office for all but 3 of the next 20 years, first under the leadership…

  • Liberal, The (British journal)

    Lord Byron: Life and career: …Byron edit a radical journal, The Liberal. Byron returned to Pisa and housed Hunt and his family in his villa. Despite the drowning of Shelley on July 8, the periodical went forward, and its first number contained The Vision of Judgment. At the end of September Byron moved to Genoa,…

  • Liberal-Democratic Party of Japan (political party, Japan)

    Liberal-Democratic Party of Japan (LDP), Japan’s largest political party, which has held power almost continuously since its formation in 1955. The party has generally worked closely with business interests and followed a pro-U.S. foreign policy. During nearly four decades of uninterrupted power

  • Liberale da Verona (Italian artist)

    Liberale da Verona, early Renaissance artist, one of the finest Italian illuminators of his time. Liberale’s name derives from his native city of Verona, where he trained as a miniaturist and panel painter. He was influenced initially by Andrea Mantegna and by the Mantegnesque miniaturist Girolamo

  • Liberale di Jacopo dalla Brava (Italian artist)

    Liberale da Verona, early Renaissance artist, one of the finest Italian illuminators of his time. Liberale’s name derives from his native city of Verona, where he trained as a miniaturist and panel painter. He was influenced initially by Andrea Mantegna and by the Mantegnesque miniaturist Girolamo

  • Liberalia (ancient Roman festival)

    Liber and Libera: At the festival of the Liberalia, held at Rome on March 17, the toga virilis was commonly assumed for the first time by boys who were of age. At the town of Lavinium, a whole month was consecrated to Liber, and the festival activities there were believed to make the…

  • liberalism (politics)

    Liberalism, political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. Liberals typically believe that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, but they also recognize that government itself can pose

  • liberalism, theological (religion)

    Theological liberalism, a form of religious thought that establishes religious inquiry on the basis of a norm other than the authority of tradition. It was an important influence in Protestantism from about the mid-17th century through the 1920s. The defining trait of this liberalism is a will to

  • liberalization (political science)

    Liberalization, the loosening of government controls. Although sometimes associated with the relaxation of laws relating to social matters such as abortion and divorce, liberalization is most often used as an economic term. In particular, it refers to reductions in restrictions on international

  • Liberalų Demokratų Partija (political party, Lithuania)

    Rolandas Paksas: Paksas founded the centre-right Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalų Demokratų Partija; LDP) in March 2002. Under its banner, he won the presidency of Lithuania in the second round of elections on Jan. 5, 2003, with 54.7 percent of the vote. His success came as a surprise to many. All the…

  • Liberated Europe, Declaration on (European history)

    20th-century international relations: The final Allied agreements: Roosevelt proposed a Declaration on Liberated Europe, by which the Big Three promised to help all liberated peoples “to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems” through “free elections of Governments responsive to the will of the people.” Stalin signed, probably considering this more high-flown…

  • liberation (mining)

    coal mining: Liberation: Liberation is the creation of individual particles that are more homogeneous in their composition as either coal or impurities. (In practice, middlings, or particles containing both coal and impurities, are also produced.) Liberation is achieved by size reduction of the ROM coal. It is…

  • Liberation Army of the South (Mexican army)

    Emiliano Zapata: The Plan of Ayala: …his army (now called the Liberation Army of the South and numbering 25,000 men) to occupy Mexico City. The people of the capital watched in astonishment as the peasants went from door to door humbly asking for food and drink, instead of assaulting palaces and violating women.

  • Liberation Committee of the Arab West (government organization, Cairo, Egypt)

    Abd el-Krim: Exile and after: …el-Krim associated himself with the Liberation Committee of the Arab West (Magreb) until he broke with that group in the early 1950s. He continued to give interviews and to write articles for Arab consumption against European colonialism and for the liberation of North Africa. Even after Morocco’s independence in 1956,…

  • Liberation Monument (monument, Baghdad, Iraq)

    Baghdad: Architecture and monuments: …the best-known are Jawād Salīm’s Liberation Monument in Taḥrīr (“Liberation”) Square, depicting the struggle of the Iraqi people to achieve liberty before the 1958 revolution, and Muḥammad Ghānī’s “Murjāna Monument,” which depicts Murjāna, Ali Baba’s housekeeper in The Thousand and One Nights, pouring boiling oil on the 40 thieves.

  • Liberation Music Orchestra (music group)

    Charlie Haden: In 1969 Haden formed his Liberation Music Orchestra, which included bebop-oriented as well as free jazz players; he re-formed the orchestra in 1982 and 1990. The group played Carla Bley’s original adaptations of themes from the Spanish Civil War and Latin American resistance movements, as well as original works (such…

  • Libération Nationale Congolaise, Front de la (political party, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: Mobutu’s regime: …country’s main opposition movement, the Congolese National Liberation Front (Front de la Libération Nationale Congolaise; FLNC), operating from Angola, launched two major invasions into Shaba (which Katanga was called from 1972 to 1997). On both occasions external intervention by friendly governments—primarily Morocco in 1977 and France in 1978—saved the day,…

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