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  • Lex Oppia (Roman law)

    dress: Sumptuary laws: …under the Roman Republic, the Lex Oppia, was enacted in 215 bce; it ruled that women could not wear more than half an ounce of gold upon their persons and that their tunics should not be in different colours. Most Roman sumptuary laws tried to control spending on funerals, banquets,…

  • Lex Orchia (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Culture and religion: …the dangers of luxury: the Orchian law (182) limited the lavishness of banquets; the Fannian law (161) strengthened the Orchian provisions, and the Didian law (143) extended the limits to all Italy. A similar sense of the dangers of wealth may also have prompted the lex Voconia (169), which prohibited…

  • Lex Parliamentaria (British government manual)

    parliamentary procedure: Origins and development: Lex Parliamentaria (1689; “Parliamentary Law”) was a pocket manual for members of Parliament and included many precedents that are now familiar. Drawing from the Journal of the House of Commons, it included points such as the following:

  • lex provinciae (Roman law)

    province: …up a special charter, or lex provinciae (provincial law), based on the report of the general who had conquered the province. This charter defined the province’s territorial limits and the number of towns that it included, as well as the rights and duties of the provincials, especially the kind and…

  • Lex Regia (Italian law)

    Italy: The southern kingdoms and the Papal States: Inspired by the Lex Regia, the supposed right of the Roman people to confer authority on the emperor, he announced that the citizens of his own day, under his leadership, could assume that right and resolve all disputes between rival claimants to the office. Achieving prominence as the…

  • Lex Rhodia (Byzantine law)

    Rhodian Sea Law, body of regulations governing commercial trade and navigation in the Byzantine Empire beginning in the 7th century; it influenced the maritime law of the medieval Italian cities. The Rhodian Sea Law was based on a statute in the Digest of the Code of Justinian commissioned in the 6

  • Lex Romana Burgundionum (Germanic law)

    Germanic law: The Lex Burgundiorum and the Lex Romana Burgundiorum of the same period had similar functions, while the Edictum Rothari (643) applied to Lombards only.

  • Lex Romana Visigothorum (Germanic law)

    France: Germans and Gallo-Romans: …population (Papian Code of Gundobad; Breviary of Alaric). By the 9th century this principle of legal personality, under which each person was judged according to the law applying to his status group, was replaced by a territorially based legal system. Multiple contacts in daily life produced an original civilization composed…

  • Lex Salica (Germanic law)

    Salic Law, the code of the Salian Franks who conquered Gaul in the 5th century and the most important, although not the oldest, of all Teutonic laws (leges barbarorum). The code was issued late (c. 507–511) in the reign of Clovis, the founder of Merovingian power in western Europe. It was twice

  • lex talionis (law)

    Talion, principle developed in early Babylonian law and present in both biblical and early Roman law that criminals should receive as punishment precisely those injuries and damages they had inflicted upon their victims. Many early societies applied this “eye-for-an-eye” principle literally. In

  • lex Villia annalis (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Citizenship and politics in the middle republic: …consulship, and in 180 the lex Villia annalis (Villian law on minimum ages) set minimum ages for senatorial magistrates and required a two-year interval between offices. The consulship (two elected to it per year) could be held from age 42, the praetorship (six per year) from age 39, and the…

  • Lex Voconia (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Culture and religion: …may also have prompted the lex Voconia (169), which prohibited Romans of the wealthiest class from naming women as heirs in their wills.

  • Lex XII Tabularum (Roman law)

    Law of the Twelve Tables, the earliest written legislation of ancient Roman law, traditionally dated 451–450 bc. The Twelve Tables allegedly were written by 10 commissioners (decemvirs) at the insistence of the plebeians, who felt their legal rights were hampered by the fact that court judgments

  • Lexa von Aerenthal, Alois, Graf (Austro-Hungarian foreign minister)

    Alois, Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal, foreign minister (1906–12) of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, whose direction of the latter’s annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1908) provoked an international crisis. (See Bosnian crisis of 1908.) Entering the imperial foreign service as attaché in Paris

  • Lexan (chemical compound)

    Polycarbonate (PC), a tough, transparent synthetic resin employed in safety glass, eyeglass lenses, and compact discs, among other applications. PC is a special type of polyester used as an engineering plastic owing to its exceptional impact resistance, tensile strength, ductility, dimensional

  • Lexcen, Ben (Australian yachtsman)

    Ben Lexcen, Australian yachtsman and marine architect who designed Australia II, the first non-American yacht to win (1983) the prestigious America’s Cup in the 132-year history of the race. Lexcen, who had little formal education, was apprenticed at the age of 14 to a locomotive mechanic, but he

  • lexeme (linguistics)

    linguistics: Modes of language: …analysis, sometimes referred to as lexemes (in one sense of this term), are not necessarily identifiable as single grammatical units, whether as morphemes, words, or phrases. No priority, then, is ascribed to any one of the three modes.

  • lexical definition (language and philosophy)

    definition: Lexical definition specifies the meaning of an expression by stating it in terms of other expressions whose meaning is assumed to be known (e.g., a ewe is a female sheep). Ostensive definition specifies the meaning of an expression by pointing to examples of things to…

  • lexical learning hypothesis (linguistics)

    creole languages: Theories of creolization: …and became known as the lexical learning hypothesis, children who were exposed to a pidgin at an early age created a creole language by adopting only the vocabularies of the pidgin. They developed new grammars following the default specifications of the biological blueprint for language, known as universal grammar or…

  • lexical stress

    accent: Word accent (also called word stress, or lexical stress) is part of the characteristic way in which a language is pronounced. Given a particular language system, word accent may be fixed, or predictable (e.g., in French, where it occurs regularly at the end of words,…

  • lexicography

    dictionary: …compilation of a dictionary is lexicography; lexicology is a branch of linguistics in which, with the utmost scientific rigour, the theories that lexicographers use in the solution of their problems are developed.

  • lexicon (linguistics)

    human behaviour: Language: …month, he has a speaking vocabulary of about 50 words. The single words he uses may stand for entire sentences. Thus, the word “eat” may signify “Can I eat now?” and “shoe” may mean “Take off my shoe.” The child soon begins to use two-word combinations for making simple requests…

  • lexicon (reference work)

    Dictionary, reference book that lists words in order—usually, for Western languages, alphabetical—and gives their meanings. In addition to its basic function of defining words, a dictionary may provide information about their pronunciation, grammatical forms and functions, etymologies, syntactic

  • Lexicon Abbreviaturarum (text by Cappelli)

    paleography: Abbreviations: …the standard work, Adriano Cappelli’s Lexicon Abbreviaturarum (1912).

  • Lexicon Technicum (work by Harris)

    encyclopaedia: Authorship: …Isaac Newton, in compiling his Lexicon Technicum (1704; “Technical Lexicon”). Johann Heinrich Zedler, in his Universal-Lexicon (1732–50), went further by enlisting the help of two general editors, supported by nine specialist editors, the result being a gigantic work of great accuracy. The French Encyclopédie, the largest encyclopaedia issued at that…

  • lexicostatistics (linguistic technique)

    Austronesian languages: Vocabulary: Lexicostatistics, a controversial method for studying word replacement in relation to subgrouping, often distinguishes a subset of terms called “basic vocabulary.” Lists of basic vocabulary words typically include those for body parts, terms for everyday natural phenomena (sky, wind, rain, sun, star, earth, stone, water,…

  • Lexington (Kentucky, United States)

    Lexington, city, coextensive with Fayette county, north-central Kentucky, U.S., the focus of the Bluegrass region and a major centre for horse breeding. Named in 1775 for the Battle of Lexington, Massachusetts, it was chartered by the Virginia legislature in 1782 and was the meeting place (1792)

  • Lexington (United States aircraft carrier)

    Battle of the Coral Sea: carrier Lexington and damaged the carrier Yorktown, while U.S. planes so crippled the large Japanese carrier Shokaku that it had to retire from action. So many Japanese planes were lost that the Port Moresby invasion force, without adequate air cover and harassed by Allied land-based bombers,…

  • Lexington (Virginia, United States)

    Lexington, city, seat (1777) of Rockbridge county (though administratively independent of it), west-central Virginia, U.S. It lies in the Shenandoah Valley, on the Maury River, 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Lynchburg. The area was inhabited by the Cherokee and Monacan peoples before the 1730s, when

  • Lexington (county, South Carolina, United States)

    Lexington, county, central South Carolina, U.S. It lies between the North Fork Edisto River to the southwest and the city of Columbia and the Congaree River to the east. The county is also drained by the Saluda River, which is impounded by the Saluda Dam to form Lake Murray. Lexington county’s

  • Lexington (Missouri, United States)

    Lexington, city, seat (1823) of Lafayette county, west-central Missouri, U.S., on the Missouri River (there bridged to Henrietta), 35 miles (56 km) east of Kansas City. The site, around William Jack’s Ferry, was settled after 1819. The town was laid out in 1822 and named for Lexington, Ky. One of

  • Lexington (Massachusetts, United States)

    Lexington, town (township), Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., 11 miles (18 km) northwest of Boston. Settled in 1640 and later organized as the parish of Cambridge Farms, it became an independent township in 1713 and was named for Lexington (now Laxton), England. The town is

  • Lexington and Concord, Battles of (United States history)

    Battles of Lexington and Concord, (April 19, 1775), initial skirmishes between British regulars and American provincials, marking the beginning of the American Revolution. Acting on orders from London to suppress the rebellious colonists, General Thomas Gage, recently appointed royal governor of

  • Lexington Civic League (American organization)

    Madeline McDowell Breckinridge: …Committee (later reorganized as the Lexington Civic League). The league agitated successfully for the establishment of playgrounds and kindergartens in poorer districts of the city and for legislation setting up a juvenile court system, regulating child labour, and compelling school attendance. Also in 1900 Breckinridge led in founding the Lexington…

  • Lexis (work by Aristophanes of Byzantium)

    classical scholarship: Library of Alexandria: His Lexeis (“Readings”) was the most important of the numerous lexicographical works produced at this time, which included lexicons of particular authors and dialects; he also wrote some of the many treatises about literature that were now appearing.

  • lexon (linguistics)

    linguistics: Technical terminology: …units of the stratum above, lexons, by means of the relationship of realization. For example, the word form “hated” realizes (on the morphemic stratum) a combination of two lexons, one of which, the stem, realizes the lexeme HATE and the other, the suffix, realizes the PAST TENSE lexeme; each of…

  • Lexus (automobile)

    Toyota Motor Corporation: …such as its luxury brand, Lexus (1989), and the first mass-produced hybrid-powered vehicle in the world, the Prius (1997). In 1999 Toyota was listed on both the London Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. The company continued to expand to new markets—specifically targeting younger buyers with the launch…

  • ley del desero, La (film by Almodóvar [1987])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …La ley del deseo (1987; Law of Desire), deal with the intersection between violence and sexual desire. A dizzying farce called Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (1988; Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) won international acclaim, including an Academy Award nomination for best foreign-language film.…

  • Ley Juárez (Mexican law)

    Mexico: La Reforma: …first reforms was the so-called Ley Juárez (Nov. 23, 1855), which abolished fueros (special exemptions) and the use of special military and ecclesiastical courts in civil cases. The minister of finance, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, sponsored the Ley Lerdo (June 25, 1856), which restricted the right of ecclesiastical and civil…

  • Ley Lerdo (Mexican law)

    Benito Juárez: Early career: …1856 the government published the Ley Lerdo (“Lerdo Law,” named for the minister of finance). Although it forced the church to sell its property, it contained no threat of confiscation. By breaking up large landed estates, the government hoped that many Mexicans would be able to acquire property and thus…

  • Ley, Robert (German politician)

    Robert Ley, Nazi politician and head of German labour, who helped supervise the recruitment of slave labour during World War II. The son of a small landowner, Ley studied at the universities of Jena and Bonn, received a Ph.D. in chemistry, and worked for IG Farbenindustrie, before he was discharged

  • Leybourn, William (British mathematician)

    number game: Pioneers and imitators: In England, somewhat belatedly, William Leybourn, a mathematics teacher, textbook writer, and surveyor, in 1694, published his Pleasure with Profit: Consisting of Recreations of Divers Kinds, viz., Numerical, Geometrical, Mechanical, Statical, Astronomical, Horometrical, Cryptographical, Magnetical, Automatical, Chymical, and Historical. The title page further states that the purpose of the…

  • Leycesteria formosa (plant)

    Caprifoliaceae: Major genera and species: Himalaya honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa) has long leaves and produces drooping spikes of purple flowers with purple bracts. It is one of six species in its genus, all of which are native to temperate Asia.

  • Leyden (Netherlands)

    Leiden, gemeente (municipality), western Netherlands. It lies at the confluence of the Oude Rijn and Nieuwe Rijn (Old Rhine and New Rhine) rivers, 10 miles (16 km) northeast of The Hague and 5 miles (8 km) inland from the North Sea. First mentioned in 922 as a holding of Utrecht diocese, Leiden

  • Leyden jar (electrical instrument)

    Leyden jar, device for storing static electricity, discovered accidentally and investigated by the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek of the University of Leiden in 1746, and independently by the German inventor Ewald Georg von Kleist in 1745. In its earliest form it was a glass vial, partly

  • Leyden, Lucas van (Dutch artist)

    Lucas van Leyden, northern Renaissance painter and one of the greatest engravers of his time. Lucas was first trained by his father, Huygh Jacobszoon; later, he entered the workshop of Cornelis Engelbrechtsz(oon), a painter of Leiden. His paintings, as well as his prints, reveal his unique approach

  • Leydig cell (anatomy)

    hormone: Luteinizing hormone (interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone): …of the interstitial tissue (Leydig cells) of the testes and hence promotes secretion of the male sex hormone, testosterone. It may be associated with FSH in this function. The interrelationship of LH and FSH has made it difficult to establish with certainty that two separate hormones exist, particularly since…

  • Leyeles, A. (American poet)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: …most important Introspectivist poets were A. Leyeles (pseudonym of Aaron Glanz), Jacob Glatstein (Yankev Glatshteyn), and Y.L. (Yehuda Leyb) Teller. Influenced by current trends in modernism, they rejected the more traditional metre and rhyme of Di Yunge. In their early manifesto, published in their anthology In zikh (1920), Leyeles, Glatstein,…

  • Leyenda (work by Albéniz)

    Asturias, solo piano piece written in the early 1890s by Catalan composer and pianist Isaac Albéniz, using rolled chords that effectively evoke the strumming of a guitar. In fact, the version usually played is a transcription of the original piano piece for guitar. Despite being called

  • Leyenda Negra (Spanish history)

    Black Legend, term indicating an unfavourable image of Spain and Spaniards, accusing them of cruelty and intolerance, formerly prevalent in the works of many non-Spanish, and especially Protestant, historians. Primarily associated with criticism of 16th-century Spain and the anti-Protestant

  • Leyendas (work by Bécquer)

    Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer: Bécquer’s prose pieces, Leyendas, are characterized by medieval settings, supernatural characters such as nymphs, and a mysterious, dreamlike atmosphere. Written in a lyrical, richly coloured style, the narratives are based upon the themes of love, death, and the world beyond. His spiritual autobiography, the series of letters Cartas…

  • Leyendas de Guatemala (work by Asturias)

    Miguel Ángel Asturias: His first major work, Leyendas de Guatemala (1930; “Legends of Guatemala”), describes the life and culture of the Maya before the arrival of the Spanish. It brought him critical acclaim in France as well as at home.

  • Leyer und Schwert (work by Körner)

    Theodor Körner: …militantly passionate patriotic poetry in Leyer und Schwert (1814; “Lyre and Sword”), which was received enthusiastically and filled his contemporaries with feelings of patriotism.

  • Leyes Nuevas (Spanish colonial laws)

    Bartolomé de Las Casas: The Apologética and the Destrucción: …King Charles signed the so-called New Laws (Leyes Nuevas). According to those laws, the encomienda was not to be considered a hereditary grant; instead, the owners had to set free their Indian serfs after the span of a single generation. To ensure enforcement of the laws, Las Casas was named…

  • Leylā and Mejnūn (work by Fuzuli)

    Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli: …of the great Muslim classic Leylâ ve Mecnun. This celebrated allegorical romance depicts the attraction of the Majnūn (the human spirit) for Laylā (divine beauty). Fuzuli is the author of two divans (collections of poems), one in Azerbaijani Turkish and one in Persian. These anthologies contain examples of his most…

  • Leyla ü Mecnun (work by Fuzuli)

    Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli: …of the great Muslim classic Leylâ ve Mecnun. This celebrated allegorical romance depicts the attraction of the Majnūn (the human spirit) for Laylā (divine beauty). Fuzuli is the author of two divans (collections of poems), one in Azerbaijani Turkish and one in Persian. These anthologies contain examples of his most…

  • Leylâ ve Mecnun (work by Fuzuli)

    Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli: …of the great Muslim classic Leylâ ve Mecnun. This celebrated allegorical romance depicts the attraction of the Majnūn (the human spirit) for Laylā (divine beauty). Fuzuli is the author of two divans (collections of poems), one in Azerbaijani Turkish and one in Persian. These anthologies contain examples of his most…

  • Leyland (England, United Kingdom)

    South Ribble: Leyland is the administrative centre, and the borough also includes part of the city of Preston.

  • Leyland cypress (tree)

    cypress: The hybrid or Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii) is an ornamental windbreak developed by crossing the Monterey cypress with the yellow cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis).

  • Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd. (British company)

    Donald Gresham Stokes, Baron Stokes: …well as managing director of Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd., one of the partners in the merger, the consolidated company was not a success and was nationalized by the British government in 1975.

  • Leynet og meninger (work by Ewald)

    Johannes Ewald: …first chapters of his memoirs, Levnet og meninger (written c. 1774–78: “Life and Opinions”), explaining his enthusiasm for the adventurous and fantastic. In 1775 he was transferred to a still more solitary place near Elsinore, where he went through a religious crisis—a struggle between the Pietistic idea of self-denial and…

  • Leyrens, Jan (Dutch painter)

    Jan Lievens, versatile painter and printmaker whose style derived from both the Dutch and Flemish schools of Baroque art. A contemporary of Rembrandt, he was a pupil of Joris van Schooten (1616–18) and of Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam (1618–20). After residing in Leiden for a

  • Leys, Hendrik (Belgian painter)

    Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema: …under the Belgian historical painter Hendrik Leys, assisting the painter in 1859 with frescoes for the Stadhuis (town hall) in Antwerp. During a visit to Italy in 1863, Alma-Tadema became interested in Greek and Roman antiquity and Egyptian archaeology, and afterward he depicted imagery almost exclusively from those sources. Moving…

  • Leys, Simon (Belgian-born scholar)

    Pierre Ryckmans, (Simon Leys), Belgian-born scholar (born Sept. 28, 1935, Brussels, Belg.—died Aug. 11, 2014, Sydney, Australia), as one of Australia’s most-respected sinologists, shattered the optimistic illusions that some people held about Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Ryckmans

  • Leyster, Judith (Dutch painter)

    Judith Leyster, Dutch painter, one of the few female artists of the era to have emerged from obscurity. Among her known works are portraits, genre paintings, and still lifes. Leyster was the daughter of a brewer. She began to paint while still quite young, and by age 24 she had become a member of

  • Leyte (island, Philippines)

    Leyte, island, one of the Visayan group in the central Philippines, lying east of Cebu and Bohol across the Camotes Sea. It lies southwest of the island of Samar, with which it is linked by a 7,093-foot (2,162-metre) bridge (completed in 1973) across the narrow San Juanico Strait. The Samar and

  • Leyte Gulf, Battle of (World War II)

    Battle of Leyte Gulf, (October 23–26, 1944), decisive air and sea battle of World War II that crippled the Japanese Combined Fleet, permitted U.S. invasion of the Philippines, and reinforced the Allies’ control of the Pacific. The battle was precipitated by a U.S. amphibious assault on the central

  • Leza (Luba deity)

    Luba: …figures constitute the supernatural world: Leza (Supreme God), mikishi or bavidye (various spirits), and bankambo (ancestors). In the world of the living, the main figures are kitobo or nsengha (priest), the nganga (healer), and the mfwintshi (the witch, the embodiment of evil and the antithesis of the will of the…

  • Lezak, Jason (American swimmer)
  • Lezama Lima, José (Cuban author)

    José Lezama Lima, Cuban experimental poet, novelist, and essayist whose baroque writing style and eclectic erudition profoundly influenced other Caribbean and Latin American writers. Lezama’s father, a military officer, died in 1919. Lezama was a sickly boy, and while recuperating from various

  • Lézarde, La (novel by Glissant)

    Édouard Glissant: The Ripening) won him France’s Prix Théophraste Renaudot (1958), an important annual award bestowed upon a novel. In Le Quatrième Siècle (1964; “The Fourth Century”), he retraced the history of slavery in Martinique and the rise of a generation of young West Indians, trained in…

  • lezghinka (dance)

    Lezginka, folk dance originating among the Lezgian people of the Caucasus. It is a male solo dance (often with a sword) and also a couple dance. The man, imitating the eagle, falls to his knees, leaps up, and dances with concise steps and strong, sharp arm and body movements. When the dance is

  • Lezgi language

    Caucasian languages: The Lezgian languages: This language group includes Lezgi (with 240,000 speakers in Dagestan and about 170,000 in Azerbaijan); Tabasaran (about 90,000); Agul (about 12,000); Rutul (about 15,000); Tsakhur (about 11,000); Archi (fewer than 1,000); Kryz (about 6,000); Budukh (about 2,000);

  • Lezgian (people)

    history of Transcaucasia: Russian penetration: …Circassians of Abkhazia and the Lezgians of Dagestan, was more fierce and protracted. During 30 years, from 1815 to 1845, the Russians could do little more than hold these mountain peoples at bay. Some were sustained by patriotic feelings, others by religious fervour. The Circassians of the Western Caucasus were…

  • Lezgian languages (language group)

    Caucasian languages: The Lezgian languages: This language group includes Lezgi (with 240,000 speakers in Dagestan and about 170,000 in Azerbaijan); Tabasaran (about 90,000); Agul (about 12,000); Rutul (about 15,000); Tsakhur (about 11,000); Archi (fewer than 1,000);

  • lezginka (dance)

    Lezginka, folk dance originating among the Lezgian people of the Caucasus. It is a male solo dance (often with a sword) and also a couple dance. The man, imitating the eagle, falls to his knees, leaps up, and dances with concise steps and strong, sharp arm and body movements. When the dance is

  • Lezioni di analisi infinitesimale (book by Peano)

    Giuseppe Peano: …Principles of Integral Calculus”) and Lezioni di analisi infinitesimale, 2 vol. (1893; “Lessons of Infinitesimal Analysis”), are two of the most important works on the development of the general theory of functions since the work of the French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789–1857). In Applicazioni geometriche del calcolo infinitesimale (1887; “Geometrical…

  • LF (metallurgy)

    steel: Controlling temperature: …can be achieved in a ladle furnace (LF). This is a small electric-arc furnace with an 8- to 25-megavolt-ampere transformer, three electrodes for arc heating, and the ladle acting as the furnace shell—as shown in A in the figure. Argon or electromagnetic stirring is applied for better heat transfer. Most…

  • LF (Lebanese military unit)

    Beirut: Modern Beirut: …unified Christian militia of the Lebanese Forces (LF). In West Beirut, however, the situation drifted to near total anarchy, as the different Muslim militias repeatedly clashed with one another in the streets to settle sectarian or partisan scores. Security collapsed under these circumstances, and many Lebanese and resident foreigners were…

  • LFO (Pakistan [1970])

    Pakistan: Military government: He also issued a Legal Framework Order (LFO) that broke up the single unit of West Pakistan and reconstituted the original four provinces of Pakistan—i.e., Punjab, Sind, North-West Frontier Province, and Balochistan. The 1970 election therefore was not only meant to restore parliamentary government to the country, it was…

  • LFO (Pakistan [2002])

    Pakistan: Reinstated constitution: …in a document called the Legal Framework Order (LFO). In addition to extending Musharraf’s term, the LFO expanded the president’s powers and increased the number of members of both houses of the legislature. Parliamentary elections followed in October under the limitations imposed by the LFO, and Musharraf’s adopted political party,…

  • LFSE

    chemical bonding: Ligand field theory: …two sets of orbitals, the ligand-field splitting energy (LFSE) is the ligand field version of the CFSE in crystal field theory, and from this point on the construction of the lowest-energy electron configuration is much the same as in crystal field theory. However, ligand field theory is less artificial, allows…

  • LFTR (nuclear physics)

    breeder reactor: Thermal breeder reactors: …thermal breeder known as the liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) employs molten fluoride salt to transfer heat to the turbines. Such reactors do not require fuel rods, and interest in developing the technology has grown in the early 21st century.

  • LG (South Korean conglomerate)

    chaebol: …the largest chaebols are Samsung, LG, Hyundai, and SK Group. In the early 21st century the chaebols produced about two-thirds of South Korea’s exports and attracted the greater part of the country’s foreign capital inflows.

  • LGBT Pride

    Gay Pride, annual celebration, usually in June in the United States and sometimes at other times in other countries, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity. Gay Pride commemorates the Stonewall riots, which began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, after police raided

  • LGBTQ community (sociology)

    Gay Pride: …times in other countries, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity. Gay Pride commemorates the Stonewall riots, which began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, after police raided the Stonewall Inn bar in New York City’s Greenwich Village neighbourhood. Gay Pride typically involves a series of…

  • LGBTQ Pride

    Gay Pride, annual celebration, usually in June in the United States and sometimes at other times in other countries, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity. Gay Pride commemorates the Stonewall riots, which began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, after police raided

  • LGN (anatomy)

    human eye: Geniculate neurons: In general, the lateral geniculate neuron is characterized by an accentuation of the centre-periphery arrangement, so that the two parts of the receptive field tend to cancel each other out completely when stimulated together, by contrast with the ganglion cell in which one or another would predominate. Thus,…

  • LH

    Luteinizing hormone (LH), one of two gonadotropic hormones (i.e., hormones concerned with the regulation of the gonads, or sex glands) that is produced by the pituitary gland. LH is a glycoprotein and operates in conjunction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Following the release of the egg

  • Lha mo don grub (Tibetan Buddhist monk)

    14th Dalai Lama, title of the Tibetan Buddhist monk who was the 14th Dalai Lama but the first to become a global figure, largely for his advocacy of Buddhism and of the rights of the people of Tibet. Despite his fame, he dispensed with much of the pomp surrounding his office, describing himself as

  • Lha-bzang (Khoshut khan)

    Tibet: Tibet under Manchu overlordship: …an antagonist to Sangs-rgyas-rgya-mtsho when Lha-bzang Khan, fourth successor of Güüshi, sought to assert rights as king that had atrophied under his immediate predecessors. The behaviour of the sixth Dalai Lama, Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho, who preferred poetry and libertine amusements to religion, gave Lha-bzang his opportunity. In 1705, with the emperor’s approval,…

  • Lha-mo (Tibetan Buddhist deity)

    Lha-mo, in Tibetan Buddhism, the only goddess among the “Eight Terrible Ones,” who are defenders of the faith. See

  • Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa (Nepali mountaineer)

    Apa Sherpa, Nepali mountaineer and guide who set a record for most ascents of Mount Everest (21) that was later equaled by other Sherpas before being surpassed in 2018. Apa was raised in the small village of Thami (or Thame) in the Khumbu valley of far northern Nepal, just west of Mount Everest.

  • Lhamo Dondrup (Tibetan Buddhist monk)

    14th Dalai Lama, title of the Tibetan Buddhist monk who was the 14th Dalai Lama but the first to become a global figure, largely for his advocacy of Buddhism and of the rights of the people of Tibet. Despite his fame, he dispensed with much of the pomp surrounding his office, describing himself as

  • Lhamo Thondup (Tibetan Buddhist monk)

    14th Dalai Lama, title of the Tibetan Buddhist monk who was the 14th Dalai Lama but the first to become a global figure, largely for his advocacy of Buddhism and of the rights of the people of Tibet. Despite his fame, he dispensed with much of the pomp surrounding his office, describing himself as

  • Lhasa (China)

    Lhasa, capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwestern China. It is located at an elevation of 11,975 feet (3,650 metres) in the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains of southern Tibet near the Lhasa River, a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo (Tsangpo) River (the name of the Brahmaputra River in Tibet).

  • Lhasa apso (breed of dog)

    Lhasa apso, breed of dog from Tibet, where it is called abso seng kye (“bark lion sentinel dog”) and is used as an indoor guard dog. The Lhasa apso is characteristically hardy, intelligent, and watchful. Longer than it is tall, it stands 10 to 11 inches (25 to 28 cm) and weighs 13 to 15 pounds (6

  • Lhasa rdo-ring (architecture)

    stela: …is the Lhasa rdo-ring (Long Stone of Lhasa), which stands in front of the main entrance to the Jo-khang temple in Tibet, regarded as the holiest of holy places and the centre of Tibet. On the stela is inscribed the text of a bilingual Tibetan-Chinese peace treaty of 821–822…

  • Lhasa River (river, Asia)

    Tibet: Drainage and soils: …east and, after joining the Lhasa River south of Lhasa, forms the Brahmaputra.

  • Lhasa, Council of (Tibetan Buddhism)

    Samye Debate, in Tibetan Buddhism, a two-year debate (c. 792–794 ce) between Indian and Chinese Buddhist teachers held at Samye, the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet. The debate centred on the question of whether enlightenment (bodhi) is attained gradually through activity or suddenly and without

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