• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Lazenby, George (Australian actor)

    On Her Majesty's Secret Service: …movie opens with Bond (George Lazenby) in Portugal, where he is searching for Blofeld (Telly Savalas), head of the criminal organization SPECTRE. While there, Bond saves a young woman named Tracy (Diana Rigg) from committing suicide. That evening at a casino, she loses at baccarat, but Bond covers her…

  • Lazio (region, Italy)

    Lazio, regione, west-central Italy, fronting the Tyrrhenian Sea and comprising the provinces of Roma, Frosinone, Latina, Rieti, and Viterbo. In the east Lazio is dominated by the Reatini, Sabini, Simbruini, and Ernici ranges of the central Apennines, rising to 7,270 feet (2,216 m) at Mount

  • Lazninski, Tomasz (Polish landowner)

    Zamoyski Family: Tomasz Lazninski bought an estate there called Zamość, and his sons Florian (died 1510) and Maciej began to use the name Zamoyski. Florian’s grandson Stanisław was the first member of the family to serve as a senator. The Zamoyskis’ rise to power dates from the…

  • lazulite (mineral)

    Lazulite, phosphate mineral, a basic magnesium and aluminum phosphate [MgAl2 (PO4)2(OH)2], that often occurs as blue, glassy crystals, grains, or masses in granite pegmatites, aluminous metamorphic rocks and quartzites, and quartz veins. It is found in Werfen, Austria; Västarå, Sweden; Mocalno,

  • lazuri nena

    Laz language, unwritten language spoken along the coast of the Black Sea in Georgia and in the adjacent areas of Turkey. Some scholars believe Laz and the closely related Mingrelian language to be dialects of the Svan language rather than independent languages. Both Laz and Mingrelian have made a

  • lazurite (mineral)

    Lazurite, blue variety of the mineral sodalite (q.v.) that is responsible for the colour of lapis

  • lazy eye (disorder)

    amblyopia: …forcing the use of the weaker eye, often by carefully covering the stronger eye with a patch. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, amblyopia remains a major cause of childhood-onset reduced vision. Vision screening is an essential means of identifying children at risk of developing amblyopia.

  • Lazzarini, Gregorio (Italian painter)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Early life: His mother entrusted Giambattista to Gregorio Lazzarini, a painter of decorative, academic taste, who taught his young pupil the basic techniques of his profession. Tiepolo was drawn to a melancholic style with strong contrasts of light and shade, or chiaroscuro. Such strong shadings of light and dark, coupled with a…

  • Lazzaro, Sophia (Italian actress)

    Sophia Loren, Italian film actress who rose above her poverty-stricken origins in postwar Naples to become universally recognized as one of Italy’s most beautiful women and its most famous movie star. Before working in the cinema, Sofia Scicolone changed her last name to Lazzaro for work in the

  • lazzaroni (Neapolitan social class)

    Naples: Naples from the Angevins to the Risorgimento: …while the Neapolitan poor, the lazzaroni, abandoned by their sovereign, remained vigorously if incomprehensibly monarchist. The nobly conceived Parthenopean Republic collapsed in a welter of blood. A punitive return by the Bourbons and the execution or exile of the republicans make the year 1799 a tragic epoch in the Neapolitan…

  • Lazzeri, Tony (American baseball player)

    Grover Cleveland Alexander: …out future Hall of Famer Tony Lazzeri. He then pitched scoreless eighth and ninth innings to clinch the title for the Cardinals. Alexander spent three more seasons with the Cardinals and one with the Phillies before he was released in 1930. He then played for the House of David team…

  • lazzi (theatre)

    Lazzo, (Italian: “joke”, ) improvised comic dialogue or action in the commedia dell’arte. The word may have derived from lacci (Italian: “connecting link”), comic interludes performed by the character Arlecchino (Harlequin) between scenes, but is more likely a derivation of le azioni (“actions”).

  • lazzo (theatre)

    Lazzo, (Italian: “joke”, ) improvised comic dialogue or action in the commedia dell’arte. The word may have derived from lacci (Italian: “connecting link”), comic interludes performed by the character Arlecchino (Harlequin) between scenes, but is more likely a derivation of le azioni (“actions”).

  • lb (unit of weight)

    Pound, unit of avoirdupois weight, equal to 16 ounces, 7,000 grains, or 0.45359237 kg, and of troy and apothecaries’ weight, equal to 12 ounces, 5,760 grains, or 0.3732417216 kg. The Roman ancestor of the modern pound, the libra, is the source of the abbreviation lb. In medieval England several

  • LBG (English bank)

    Lloyds Banking Group, one of the largest comprehensive commercial banks in the United Kingdom, with subsidiary banks in other countries. It is also a major insurance company. Lloyds Banking Group is headquartered in London. The bank was established as Taylor and Lloyd in 1765 and renamed Lloyds and

  • LBJ (president of United States)

    Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th president of the United States (1963–69). A moderate Democrat and vigorous leader in the United States Senate, Johnson was elected vice president in 1960 and acceded to the presidency in 1963 upon the assassination of Pres. John F. Kennedy. During his administration he

  • LBK culture (prehistory)

    LBK culture, Neolithic culture that expanded over large areas of Europe north and west of the Danube River (from Slovakia to the Netherlands) about the 5th millennium bc. Farmers probably practiced a form of shifting cultivation on the loess soil. Emmer wheat and barley were grown, and domestic

  • LBO (business)

    Leveraged buyout (LBO), acquisition strategy whereby a company is purchased by another company using borrowed money such as bonds or loans. In numerous cases, leveraged buyouts (LBOs) have been used by managers to buy out shareholders to gain control over the company, and the strategy played an

  • LBOD (waterway, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The Indus River plain: …the World Bank, constructed the Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) in the 1980s and ’90s. The intent was to build a large artificial waterway roughly east of and parallel to the Indus to carry salt water from the plains of Punjab and Sind (Sindh) provinces to the Arabian Sea coast…

  • LBTO (observatory, Arizona, United States)

    Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), observatory consisting of two 8.4-metre (28-foot) telescopes located on Mount Graham (3,221 metres [10,567 feet]) in Arizona, U.S. The two telescopes combined have the resolution of a telescope with a mirror 22.8 metres (74.8 feet) across. Construction

  • lbw (cricket)

    cricket: Methods of dismissal: The batsman is out “leg before wicket” (lbw) if he intercepts with any part of his person (except his hand) that is in line between wicket and wicket a ball that has not first touched his bat or his hand and that has or would have pitched (hit the…

  • LC (IUCN species status)

    endangered species: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: …status in the near future Least Concern (LC), a category containing species that are pervasive and abundant after careful assessment Data Deficient (DD), a condition applied to species in which the amount of available data related to its risk of extinction is lacking in some way. Consequently, a complete assessment…

  • LC (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: Chromatography: …a liquid, the technique is liquid chromatography; if it is a gas, the technique is gas chromatography.

  • LC Classification (library science)

    Library of Congress Classification, system of library organization developed during the reorganization of the U.S. Library of Congress. It consists of separate, mutually exclusive, special classifications, often having no connection save the accidental one of alphabetical notation. Unlike the D

  • LCA (chemical compound)

    vitamin D: …a component of bile called lithocholic acid (LCA)—a substance implicated in colorectal cancer that is produced during the breakdown of fats in the digestive tract—bind to the same cellular receptor. Binding of either substance to the receptor results in increased production of an enzyme that facilitates the metabolism and detoxification…

  • LCA (church, United States)

    Lutheran Church in America, Lutheran church in North America that in 1988 merged with two other Lutheran churches to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

  • LCAC (naval amphibious craft)

    amphibious vehicle: … took delivery of its first LCAC (“landing craft, air cushion”) in 1984, and 90 more would enter service over subsequent years. Although boasting lighter armament than the LVT and its descendants—its twin gun mounts could support light or heavy machine guns or 40-mm grenade launchers—the LCAC’s range and versatility made…

  • LCAO approximation

    chemical bonding: Molecular orbital theory: …which is known as the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation, each MO is constructed from a superposition of atomic orbitals belonging to the atoms in the molecule. The size of the contribution of an orbital from a particular atom indicates the probability that the electron will be found…

  • LCC (British government body)

    London: The City Corporation: …London as a whole, the London County Council (LCC). However, the City Corporation successfully lobbied to preserve its autonomy and secured the creation of a second tier of elected local governments, the metropolitan boroughs, to function as a political counterweight to the LCC.

  • LCD (electronics)

    Liquid crystal display (LCD), electronic display device that operates by applying a varying electric voltage to a layer of liquid crystal, thereby inducing changes in its optical properties. LCDs are commonly used for portable electronic games, as viewfinders for digital cameras and camcorders, in

  • LCD (political party, Lesotho)

    Lesotho: Political crisis: …formed his own party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD). The LCD overwhelmingly won the general elections of May 1998, and, upon Mokhehle’s resignation, Pakalitha Mosisili became prime minister. Although claims of voting fraud were raised, the election was declared free and fair by many international observers. Opposition parties protesting…

  • LCG(L) (naval craft)

    landing craft: …Tank, mounted with rockets, and LCG(L) designated a Landing Craft, Gun (Large), a craft equipped with two 4.7-inch (119-mm) naval guns to engage fortified beach defenses with direct fire.

  • LCHAD deficiency (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Fatty acid oxidation defects: Long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency may present with heart failure, hypoglycemia, multi-organ system failure, and retinal pigmentary changes. A fetus with LCHAD deficiency can induce liver disease during pregnancy in a mother who is a heterozygous carrier for the condition. This appears to be due…

  • LCI (naval craft)

    landing craft: The resulting Landing Craft, Infantry (Large), called the LCI, was a 158-foot (48-metre) vessel with the capacity to carry 200 infantrymen on a 48-hour passage—more than enough time to cross small bodies of water such as the English Channel. The LCI did not have the standard bow…

  • LCL (French bank)

    Crédit Lyonnais, Le (LCL), major French commercial bank noted for providing financial services throughout the world and for aggressive acquisitions in the late 20th century. The bank is headquartered in Paris. Originally called Crédit Lyonnais, it was founded by Henri Germain on July 6, 1863, in

  • LCM (mathematics)

    arithmetic: Fundamental theory: …of the numbers, called their least common multiple (LCM).

  • LCO (observatory, Chile)

    Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), astronomical observatory established in 1969 in the Atacama desert of Chile at an altitude of 2,282 metres (7,487 feet). It is owned by the Carnegie Institution for Science, an American private research centre. The region is well known for its remarkably clear skies

  • LCOE (energy)

    nuclear power: Economics: …industry is known as the levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, which is the cost of generating one kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity averaged over the lifetime of the power plant. The LCOE is also known as the “busbar cost,” as it represents the cost of the electricity up to the…

  • LCROSS (United States spacecraft)

    LCROSS, U.S. spacecraft that was deliberately crashed into the Moon on October 9, 2009, resulting in the discovery of subsurface water. LCROSS was launched on June 18, 2009, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on an Atlas rocket that also carried the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft

  • LCT (naval craft)

    naval ship: Amphibians: Navy called the LCT (landing craft, tank), was carried over oceanic distances and launched at the time of assault. The LCT was too large to fit the davit of a conventional transport, so a new type of ship, the LSD (landing ship, dock), was created specifically to carry it.…

  • LCT Mk4 (naval craft)

    landing craft: The LCT Mk4 was capable of carrying and deploying six medium tanks. This vessel was used extensively at Normandy.

  • LCT(R) (naval craft)

    landing craft: For example, LCT(R) designated a Landing Craft, Tank, mounted with rockets, and LCG(L) designated a Landing Craft, Gun (Large), a craft equipped with two 4.7-inch (119-mm) naval guns to engage fortified beach defenses with direct fire.

  • LCUSA (council of churches, United States)

    Lutheran Council in the United States of America (LCUSA), cooperative agency for four Lutheran churches whose membership included about 95 percent of all Lutherans in the U.S., established Jan. 1, 1967, as a successor to the National Lutheran Council (NLC). The member churches were the Lutheran

  • LCVP (naval craft)

    landing craft: …the basic design for the Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP), often simply called the Higgins boat. The LCVP could carry 36 combat-equipped infantrymen or 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of cargo from ship to shore. During World War II the United States produced 23,398 of the craft. The British version of…

  • LCWR (American organization)

    Sister Simone Campbell: …though informal role in the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR), a coalition representing the majority of American sisters. Campbell was also active on international issues and took part in religious delegations to Chiapas, Mexico (1996), Iraq (2002), Syria (2008), and Lebanon (2008).

  • LD process (metallurgy)

    Austria: Manufacturing: …the basic oxygen process, or LD process, originally named for the cities of Linz and Donawitz (the latter now part of Leoben); it is used under license by steelworks throughout the world. A considerable portion of Austria’s iron and steel industry is involved with construction abroad. Iron and steel firms…

  • LD50 (pharmacology)

    drug: Dose-response relationship: …result being expressed as the median lethal dose (LD50), which is defined as the dose causing mortality in 50 percent of a group of animals.

  • LD50:ED50 (pharmacology)

    Therapeutic index, margin of safety that exists between the dose of a drug that produces the desired effect and the dose that produces unwanted and possibly dangerous side effects. This relationship is defined as the ratio LD50:ED50, where LD50 is the dose at which a drug kills 50 percent of a test

  • LDC (economics)

    marketing: Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel: …is, shorter and simpler—in the less industrialized nations. There are notable exceptions, however. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity. Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale…

  • LDDP (political party, Lithuania)

    Lithuania: Independence restored: …Party, which renamed itself the Lithuanian Democratic Labour Party (LDLP), won 73 of 141 seats. Despite its victory, the LDLP did not seek to reverse policies. Instead, the government liberalized the economy, joined the Council of Europe, became an associate member of the Western European Union, and pursued membership in…

  • LDK (political party, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Political process: …main Kosovar Albanian parties, the Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës; LDK) and the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosovës; PDK), formed independent Kosovo’s first coalition government, with Hashim Thaçi of the PDK as prime minister and Fatmir Sejdiu of the LDK as president. The LDK…

  • LDL (physiology)

    atherosclerosis: …more and more fatty materials—primarily low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), protein-lipid complexes that serve as a vehicle for delivering cholesterol to the body—immune cells called macrophages are drawn to the site to scavenge the materials. When filled with lipids the macrophages become known as “foam cells,” which later die and accumulate in…

  • LDLP (political party, Lithuania)

    Lithuania: Independence restored: …Party, which renamed itself the Lithuanian Democratic Labour Party (LDLP), won 73 of 141 seats. Despite its victory, the LDLP did not seek to reverse policies. Instead, the government liberalized the economy, joined the Council of Europe, became an associate member of the Western European Union, and pursued membership in…

  • LDP (political party, Japan)

    Liberal-Democratic Party of Japan (LDP), Japan’s largest political party, which has held power almost continuously since its formation in 1955. The party has generally worked closely with business interests and followed a pro-U.S. foreign policy. During nearly four decades of uninterrupted power

  • LDP (political party, Lithuania)

    Rolandas Paksas: Paksas founded the centre-right Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalų Demokratų Partija; LDP) in March 2002. Under its banner, he won the presidency of Lithuania in the second round of elections on Jan. 5, 2003, with 54.7 percent of the vote. His success came as a surprise to many. All the…

  • LDP (political party, Kenya)

    Raila Odinga: Political maneuvers: …left KANU and formed the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).

  • LDP (political party, Russia)

    neofascism: …Marine Le Pen, and the Liberal-Democratic Party in Russia, led from 1991 by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, are often cited as neofascist.

  • LDPE (chemical compound)

    polyethylene: Low-density polyethylene: LDPE is prepared from gaseous ethylene under very high pressures (up to about 350 megapascals, or 50,000 pounds per square inch) and high temperatures (up to about 350 °C [660 °F]) in the presence of oxide initiators. These processes yield a polymer structure…

  • LDPR (political party, Russia)

    neofascism: …Marine Le Pen, and the Liberal-Democratic Party in Russia, led from 1991 by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, are often cited as neofascist.

  • Le avventure di Pinocchio: storie di un burattino (novel by Collodi)

    The Adventures of Pinocchio, classic children’s novel written by C. Collodi that first appeared in serial form in 1881 in the Giornale dei bambini (“Children’s Magazine”) and was published as a book in 1883. It tells the story of the little marionette who wants to be a real boy, and it is perhaps

  • Le Bayon, Abbé J. (French writer)

    Celtic literature: Prose: …as Toussaint Le Garrec and Abbé J. Le Bayon, who revived several great mystery plays—Nicolazig, Boeh er goed (“The Voice of the Blood”), Ar hent en Hadour (“In the Steps of the Sower”), and Ar en hent de Vethleem (“On the Way to Bethlehem”).

  • Le Beauf, Sabrina (American actress)

    The Cosby Show: …show, were 20-something Sondra (Sabrina Le Beauf), teenagers Denise (Lisa Bonet) and Theo (Malcolm-Jamal Warner), preteen Vanessa (Tempestt Bledsoe), and young Rudy (Keshia Knight Pulliam). Grandparents Anna and Russell Huxtable (Clarice Taylor and Earle Hyman) frequently appeared, and the irresistible Olivia (Raven Symone, who later starred

  • Le Bel, Joseph-Achille (French chemist)

    Joseph-Achille Le Bel, French chemist whose explanation of why some organic compounds rotate the plane of polarized light helped to advance stereochemistry. Le Bel studied at the École Polytechnique in Paris and was an assistant to A.-J. Balard and C.-A. Wurtz. He perceived that a molecule in which

  • Le Blon, Jacob Christoph (painter and engraver)

    Jakob Christof Le Blon, German-born painter and engraver who was the first to make use of several metal plates (each for an individual colour) for making prints with continuous gradations of colour. His colour theory formed the foundation for modern colour printing. Le Blon lived in Rome,

  • Le Blon, Jakob Christof (painter and engraver)

    Jakob Christof Le Blon, German-born painter and engraver who was the first to make use of several metal plates (each for an individual colour) for making prints with continuous gradations of colour. His colour theory formed the foundation for modern colour printing. Le Blon lived in Rome,

  • Le Blond, Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste (French landscape designer)

    Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, French landscape designer who designed the gardens for the palace of Peter I (the Great), at Peterhof, Russia. Le Blond was brought up among the great French gardening families. He collaborated with André Le Nôtre in designs of parterres, which were published in an

  • Le Blond, Jacques-Christophe (painter and engraver)

    Jakob Christof Le Blon, German-born painter and engraver who was the first to make use of several metal plates (each for an individual colour) for making prints with continuous gradations of colour. His colour theory formed the foundation for modern colour printing. Le Blon lived in Rome,

  • Le Blond, Jean-Baptiste-Alexandre (French landscape designer)

    Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, French landscape designer who designed the gardens for the palace of Peter I (the Great), at Peterhof, Russia. Le Blond was brought up among the great French gardening families. He collaborated with André Le Nôtre in designs of parterres, which were published in an

  • Le Bon, Gustave (French psychologist)

    Gustave Le Bon, French social psychologist best known for his study of the psychological characteristics of crowds. After receiving a doctorate of medicine, Le Bon traveled in Europe, North Africa, and Asia and wrote several books on anthropology and archaeology. His interests later shifted to

  • Le Bossu, René (French critic)

    tragedy: The English heroic play: … (following the contemporary French critic, René Le Bossu) in his preface to his Troilus and Cressida (1679), is “to make the moral of the work; that is, to lay down to yourself what that precept of morality shall be, which you would insinuate into the people.” In All for Love…

  • Le Bourget Airport (airport, Paris, France)

    airport: Evolution of airports: (Croydon), Paris (Le Bourget), and Berlin (Tempelhof) were laid out on sites close to the city centres. Because even transport aircraft of the period were relatively light, paved runways were a rarity. Croydon, Tempelhof, and Le Bourget, for example, all operated from grass strips only. Early airports…

  • Le Bovier, Bernard (French author and scientist)

    Bernard Le Bovier, sieur de Fontenelle, French scientist and man of letters, described by Voltaire as the most universal mind produced by the era of Louis XIV. Many of the characteristic ideas of the Enlightenment are found in embryonic form in his works. Fontenelle was educated at the Jesuit

  • Le Braz, Anatole (Breton folklorist and author)

    Anatole Le Braz, French folklorist, novelist, and poet who collected and edited the legends and popular beliefs of his native province, Brittany. Educated in Paris, Le Braz was professor of philosophy at several schools and, later, professor of French literature at the University of Rennes

  • Le Breton, André (French publisher)

    Denis Diderot: The Encyclopédie: André Le Breton approached Diderot with a view to bringing out a French translation of Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopaedia, after two other translators had withdrawn from the project. Diderot undertook the task with the distinguished mathematician Jean Le Rond d’Alembert as coeditor but soon profoundly changed…

  • Le Breton, Emilie Charlotte (British actress)

    Lillie Langtry, British beauty and actress, known as the Jersey Lily. She was the daughter of the dean of Jersey. In 1874 she married Edward Langtry, who died in 1897, and in 1899 she married Hugo de Bathe, who became a baronet in 1907. In 1881 Langtry caused a sensation by being the first society

  • Le Brun, Charles (French painter)

    Charles Le Brun, painter and designer who became the arbiter of artistic production in France during the last half of the 17th century. Possessing both technical facility and the capacity to organize and carry out many vast projects, Le Brun personally created or supervised the production of most

  • Le Cap (Haiti)

    Cap-Haïtien, city, northern Haiti. Founded in 1670 by the French, the city was then known as Cap-Français and gained early renown as the “Paris of the Antilles.” It served as capital of the colony (then known as Saint-Domingue) until 1770 and was the scene of slave uprisings in 1791. U.S. ships

  • le Carré, John (British writer)

    John le Carré, English writer of suspenseful, realistic spy novels based on a wide knowledge of international espionage. Educated abroad and at the University of Oxford, le Carré taught French and Latin at Eton College from 1956 to 1958. In 1959 he became a member of the British foreign service in

  • Le Chapelier, Jean (French revolutionary leader)

    Jean Le Chapelier, French Revolutionary leader who in 1791 introduced in the National Assembly the Loi (“Law”) Le Chapelier, which made any association of workers or of employers illegal. In force until 1884, the law actually affected only workers, who found it much more difficult to conceal their

  • Le Chapelier, Loi (French history)

    France: Restructuring France: …economic marketplace as individuals, the Le Chapelier Law of June 1791 (named after reformer Jean Le Chapelier) banned workers’ associations and strikes. The precepts of economic individualism extended to rural life as well. In theory, peasants and landlords were now free to cultivate their fields as they wished, regardless of…

  • Le Chatelier’s principle (chemistry)

    Henry-Louis Le Chatelier: …who is best known for Le Chatelier’s principle, which makes it possible to predict the effect a change of conditions (such as temperature, pressure, or concentration of reaction components) will have on a chemical reaction. His principle proved invaluable in the chemical industry for developing the most-efficient chemical processes.

  • Le Chatelier, Henry-Louis (French chemist)

    Henry-Louis Le Chatelier, French chemist who is best known for Le Chatelier’s principle, which makes it possible to predict the effect a change of conditions (such as temperature, pressure, or concentration of reaction components) will have on a chemical reaction. His principle proved invaluable in

  • Le Chiffre (fictional character)

    Casino Royale: …is a rich gambler named Le Chiffre (Orson Welles), who is actually a top operative in a crime syndicate known as SMERSH. Bond decides to confuse his enemies by enlisting numerous agents to adopt the name James Bond. He utilizes the services of agent Vesper Lynd (Ursula Andress) to seduce…

  • Le Clézio, Jean-Marie Gustave (French author)

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio, French author known for his intricate, seductive fiction and distinctive works of nonfiction that mediated between the past and the present, juxtaposing the modern world with a primordial landscape of ambiguity and mystery. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in

  • Le cosmicomiche (work by Calvino)

    Italo Calvino: …fantasy is Le cosmicomiche (1965; Cosmicomics), a stream-of-consciousness narrative that treats the creation and evolution of the universe. In the later novels Le città invisibili (1972; Invisible Cities), Il castello dei destini incrociate (1973; The Castle of Crossed Destinies), and Se una notte d’inverno un viaggiatore (1979; If on a…

  • Le Creusot (France)

    Le Creusot, industrial town, Saône-et-Loire département, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, east-central France. It is located about 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Dijon. In 1782 a foundry and blast furnaces, using coal instead of wood for the first time in France, were built at Le Creusot. Shortly

  • Le Crime de M. Lange (film by Renoir)

    Jean Renoir: Early years: Lange (1936; The Crime of Monsieur Lange), which, in contrast to the rather stilted manner of the first years of sound films, foretells a reconquest of the true moving-picture style, especially in use of improvisation and of montage—the art of editing, or cutting, to achieve certain associations…

  • Le Despenser, Thomas Wentworth, 4th Lord (English noble)

    Thomas Wentworth, earl of Cleveland, prominent Royalist during the English Civil Wars. The eldest son of Henry Wentworth (whom he succeeded as 4th Baron Wentworth and Lord le Despenser in infancy), he was created earl of Cleveland in 1626 by Charles I. Adhering to the king’s cause in the

  • Le Duan (Vietnamese politician)

    Le Duan, Vietnamese communist politician. Le Duan was a founding member of the Indochina Communist Party in 1930. Twice imprisoned by the French, he joined the Viet Minh, Ho Chi Minh’s anti-French communist-led front, and attained an influential position on the Central Committee of Ho’s new

  • Le Duc Tho (Vietnamese politician)

    Le Duc Tho, Vietnamese politician who, acting as an adviser to North Vietnam, negotiated a cease-fire agreement with U.S. official Henry Kissinger during the Vietnam War. The two men were jointly awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize for Peace, but Tho declined it. Le Duc Tho was one of the founders of the

  • Le Dung (Vietnamese politician)

    Le Duan, Vietnamese communist politician. Le Duan was a founding member of the Indochina Communist Party in 1930. Twice imprisoned by the French, he joined the Viet Minh, Ho Chi Minh’s anti-French communist-led front, and attained an influential position on the Central Committee of Ho’s new

  • Le Duo (painting by Braque)

    Georges Braque: International acclaim: …of figure paintings—first-rate examples are Le Duo and The Painter and His Model—and in 1937 he won the Carnegie Prize. During World War II he produced a collection of small, generally flat, decorative pieces of sculpture in a style recalling again ancient Greece and centring on vaguely mythological themes.

  • Le dynasty (Vietnamese history)

    Later Le Dynasty, (1428–1788), the greatest and longest lasting dynasty of traditional Vietnam. Its predecessor, the Earlier Le, was founded by Le Hoan and lasted from 980 to 1009. The Later Le was established when its founder, Le Loi, began a resistance movement against the Chinese armies then

  • Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan (Irish writer)

    Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer of ghost stories and mystery novels, celebrated for his ability to evoke the ominous atmosphere of a haunted house. Le Fanu belonged to an old Dublin Huguenot family and was related on his mother’s side to Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Educated at Trinity College,

  • Le Fanu, Sheridan (Irish writer)

    Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer of ghost stories and mystery novels, celebrated for his ability to evoke the ominous atmosphere of a haunted house. Le Fanu belonged to an old Dublin Huguenot family and was related on his mother’s side to Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Educated at Trinity College,

  • Le Fauconnier, Henri (French painter)

    Albert Gleizes: In 1909 Gleizes met painter Henri Le Fauconnier, whose Cubist portrait of the poet Pierre Jean Jouve had a profound effect on the direction Gleizes would take with his own painting. Gleizes’s full-length portrait of Arcos painted the next year shows Le Fauconnier’s influence and Gleizes’s first experimentation with Cubism…

  • Le Fleur’s Bluff (Mississippi, United States)

    Jackson, city, capital of Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Pearl River, in the west-central part of the state, about 180 miles (290 km) north of New Orleans, Louisiana. Jackson is also the coseat (with nearby Raymond) of Hinds county. Settled (1792) by Louis LeFleur, a French-Canadian trader,

  • Le Gallienne, Eva (American actress)

    Eva Le Gallienne, actress, director, and producer, one of the outstanding figures of the 20th-century American stage. The daughter of the British poet Richard Le Gallienne, Eva Le Gallienne felt a vocation for the theatre from the age of seven, when she saw Sarah Bernhardt perform. She made her

  • Le Garrec, Toussaint (French writer)

    Celtic literature: Prose: …and religious lessons, such as Toussaint Le Garrec and Abbé J. Le Bayon, who revived several great mystery plays—Nicolazig, Boeh er goed (“The Voice of the Blood”), Ar hent en Hadour (“In the Steps of the Sower”), and Ar en hent de Vethleem (“On the Way to Bethlehem”).

  • Le Goff, Jacques (French historian)

    Jacques Louis Le Goff, French historian (born Jan. 1, 1924, Toulon, France—died April 1, 2014, Paris, France), as a leading practitioner of the Annales school of historiography, emphasized the cultural, intellectual, and social aspects of Europe during the Middle Ages, including the everyday l

  • Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!