• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Lavigerie, Charles (Roman Catholic archbishop)

    Charles Lavigerie, cardinal and archbishop of Algiers and Carthage (now Tunis, Tunisia) whose dream to convert Africa to Christianity prompted him to found the Society of Missionaries of Africa, popularly known as the White Fathers. He was ordained a priest in 1849 after studies at Saint-Sulpice,

  • Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand (Roman Catholic archbishop)

    Charles Lavigerie, cardinal and archbishop of Algiers and Carthage (now Tunis, Tunisia) whose dream to convert Africa to Christianity prompted him to found the Society of Missionaries of Africa, popularly known as the White Fathers. He was ordained a priest in 1849 after studies at Saint-Sulpice,

  • Lavigne, Avril (Canadian singer and songwriter)

    Avril Lavigne, Canadian singer and songwriter who achieved great success as a teenager. She was known for a grungy pop-rock sound. Lavigne grew up in Napanee, Ontario. Her natural singing ability was evident by age two, and she began singing at church and at local events. Christian tunes and

  • Lavin, Mary (Irish writer)

    Mary Lavin, U.S.-born Irish writer who was best known for her short stories that revealed the complexities and remarkableness of seemingly ordinary small-town Irish life (b. June 11, 1912--d. March 25,

  • Lavinde, Gabriele de (Italian cryptologist)

    cryptology: Early cryptographic systems and applications: …a compilation of ciphers by Gabriele de Lavinde of Parma, who served Pope Clement VII. This manual, now in the Vatican archives, contains a set of keys for 24 correspondents and embraces symbols for letters, nulls, and several two-character code equivalents for words and names. The first brief code vocabularies,…

  • Lavinia (fictional character)

    Titus Andronicus: …supposed to marry Titus’s daughter Lavinia; however, when his brother Bassianus runs away with her instead, Saturninus marries Tamora. Saturninus and Tamora then plot revenge against Titus. Lavinia is raped and mutilated by Tamora’s sadistic sons Demetrius and Chiron, who cut off her hands and cut out her tongue so…

  • Lavinia (Roman mythology)

    Turnus: …is the favourite suitor of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, eponymous king of the Latins. When Latinus engages Lavinia to marry Aeneas instead, the goddess Juno, who hates the Trojans, drives Turnus mad. He leads his people in a war against Aeneas and the Trojans. After many acts of courage…

  • Lavinium (Italy)

    Lavinium, an ancient town of Latium (modern Pratica di Mare, Italy), 19 miles (30 kilometres) south of Rome, regarded as the religious centre of the early Latin peoples. Roman tradition maintained that it had been founded by Aeneas and his followers from Troy and named after his wife, Lavinia. Here

  • Lavo (Thailand)

    Lop Buri, town, south-central Thailand, north of Bangkok. Lop Buri is a rice-collecting centre situated on the Lop Buri River and on the country’s main north-south highway and railway. Founded as Lavo in the 5th–7th century, it was incorporated into the Khmer empire of Angkor in the 10th or 11th

  • Lavoe, Hector (Puerto Rican singer)

    Willie Colón: …collaboration with Puerto Rican vocalist Hector Lavoe, a partnership that would endure through the mid-1970s and yield numerous hit songs, including “I Wish I Had a Watermelon” (1969) and “La murga” (c. 1970).

  • Lavoisier, Antoine (French chemist)

    Antoine Lavoisier, prominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances. Having also served as a leading financier and

  • Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent (French chemist)

    Antoine Lavoisier, prominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances. Having also served as a leading financier and

  • lavolta (dance)

    La volta, (Italian: “the turn,” or “turning”) 16th-century leaping and turning dance for couples, originating in Italy and popular at French and German court balls until about 1750. Performed with a notoriously intimate embrace, it became respectable, but never completely dignified, after Queen

  • Lavon Affair (Israeli history)

    David Ben-Gurion: …implications of the 1954 “Lavon Affair,” involving Israeli-inspired sabotage of U.S. and British property in Egypt. The affair led Ben-Gurion in 1965 to leave Mapai with a number of his supporters and to found a small opposition party, Rafi, at the head of which he fought, with little success,…

  • Lavon, Pinchas (Israeli politician)

    Pinhas Lavon, Israeli politician who held a number of government posts and was accused in 1954 of involvement in a plot to discredit Egypt by secretly attacking U.S. facilities in that country. Although he was cleared of all charges, the “Lavon Affair,” as it came to be known, effectively ended his

  • Lavon, Pinhas (Israeli politician)

    Pinhas Lavon, Israeli politician who held a number of government posts and was accused in 1954 of involvement in a plot to discredit Egypt by secretly attacking U.S. facilities in that country. Although he was cleared of all charges, the “Lavon Affair,” as it came to be known, effectively ended his

  • Lavorare stanca (work by Pavese)

    Cesare Pavese: …lyric poetry, Lavorare stanca (1936; Hard Labor, 1976), followed his release from prison. An initial novella, Paesi tuoi (1941; The Harvesters, 1961), recalled, as many of his works do, the sacred places of childhood. Between 1943 and 1945 he lived with partisans of the anti-Fascist Resistance in the hills of…

  • Lavoratore, Il (Italian Communist publication)

    Ignazio Silone: …the party’s paper in Trieste, Il Lavoratore (“The Worker”). He devoted all his time to foreign missions and underground organization for the party until the Fascists drove him into exile. In 1929–30 he was involved in internal debates over changes within the Communist Party, namely Stalin’s efforts to push the…

  • Lavoratori Italiani, Partito dei (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Lavr School (school, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Eastern Orthodoxy: Origin of the Muscovite patriarchate: …the modern period, the famous Academy of Kiev. Modelled after the Latin seminaries of Poland, with instruction given in Latin, this school served as the theological training centre for almost the entire Russian high clergy in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1686 Ukraine was finally reunited with Muscovy, and…

  • lavradore (Brazilian farmer)

    history of Latin America: The sugar age: …depended on cane growers called lavradores to produce cane for the mill. Under various kinds of leasing arrangements, the lavradores used their own African slave crews to cultivate the land, grow the cane, and transport it to the mill. Some of the cane growers were from mill-owning families, while others…

  • Lavrenov, Tsanko (Bulgarian artist)

    Bulgaria: The arts: …scenes of his native country; Tsanko Lavrenov, a noted graphic artist and art critic who also painted scenes of old Bulgarian towns; Zlatyo Boyadjiev, noted for his village portraits; and Ilya Petrov, who painted scenes and themes from Bulgarian history. After World War II, Socialist Realism dominated Bulgarian artistic circles.…

  • Lávrion (Greece)

    Laurium, industrial town, Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí) periféreia (region), on the Aegean Sea, famous in antiquity for its silver mines. Its port, sheltered by Makrónisos island, imports coal, loads ore, and handles coastal and insular shipping. The mines may have been worked as early as 1000 bce,

  • Lavrov, Pyotr Lavrovich (Russian philosopher)

    Pyotr Lavrov, Russian Socialist philosopher whose sociological thought provided a theoretical foundation for the activities of various Russian revolutionary organizations during the second half of the 19th century. A member of a landed family, he graduated from an artillery school in St. Petersburg

  • Lavrovsky, Leonid (Russian dancer, choreographer, and teacher)

    Leonid Lavrovsky, Russian dancer, choreographer, teacher, and Bolshoi Ballet director. He studied ballet in St. Petersburg until 1922 and soon was dancing leading roles with the Kirov Ballet (now called the Mariinsky Ballet), of which he became artistic director in 1938. During 1944–56 and 1960–64

  • Lavrovsky, Leonid Mikhaylovich (Russian dancer, choreographer, and teacher)

    Leonid Lavrovsky, Russian dancer, choreographer, teacher, and Bolshoi Ballet director. He studied ballet in St. Petersburg until 1922 and soon was dancing leading roles with the Kirov Ballet (now called the Mariinsky Ballet), of which he became artistic director in 1938. During 1944–56 and 1960–64

  • law

    Law, the discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. Enforcement of the body of rules is through a controlling authority. The law is treated in a number of articles. For a description of legal

  • LAW

    bazooka: …abandoned bazookas in favour of light antitank weapons, or LAWs, such as the M72, a one-shot disposable weapon that weighed 5 pounds (2.3 kg) fully loaded yet could launch its rocket with reasonable accuracy out to 350 yards (320 metres).

  • law (science)

    philosophy of science: Difficulties: …the notion of a scientific law. Laws are generalizations about a range of natural phenomena, sometimes universal (“Any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them”) and sometimes statistical (“The chance…

  • Law (sacred text)

    Torah, in Judaism, in the broadest sense, the substance of divine revelation to Israel, the Jewish people: God’s revealed teaching or guidance for humankind. The meaning of “Torah” is often restricted to signify the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), also called the Law (or the

  • Law & Order (American television series)

    Law & Order, longest-running law-enforcement series in American television. The show aired on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) network from 1990 to 2010 and enjoyed strong ratings throughout its run. It won the 1997 Emmy Award for best drama series. The hour-long Law & Order was set in New

  • Law & Order: Criminal Intent (American television series)

    J.K. Simmons: …Order: Special Victims Unit, and Law & Order: Criminal Intent. Simmons won praise for his portrayal of the vicious white supremacist Vern Schillinger in the prison drama TV series Oz (1997–2003), and he played the newspaper editor J. Jonah Jameson in Raimi’s Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004), and Spider-Man 3…

  • Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (American television series)

    Ellen Burstyn: …her guest appearance (2008) on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and for her supporting role (2012) in the miniseries Political Animals. In 2014 she played a crazed matriarch in a television adaptation of the melodramatic thriller Flowers in the Attic (1979), by V.C. Andrews, and two years later she…

  • Law & Order: Trial by Jury (American television series)

    Television in the United States: Prime time in the new century: …Order: Criminal Intent (NBC/USA, 2001–11), Law & Order: Trial by Jury (NBC, 2005–2006), and Law & Order: Los Angeles (NBC, 2010–11). The medical serial ER (NBC, 1994–2009) remained a hit, but it was eventually displaced in the top 10 by a new medical serial, Grey’s Anatomy (ABC, begun 2005). The…

  • Law Abiding Citizen (film by Gray [2009])

    Jamie Foxx: …prodigy, and in the thriller Law Abiding Citizen. He subsequently gave supporting performances in the comedies Valentine’s Day (2010), Due Date (2010), and Horrible Bosses (2011). He lent his voice to a canary in the computer-animated children’s comedies Rio (2011) and Rio 2 (2014).

  • Law and Jake Wade, The (film by Sturges [1958])

    John Sturges: Bad, Magnificent, and Great: In his next project, The Law and Jake Wade (1958), an outlaw (Widmark) forces an old friend (Robert Taylor) to lead him to the money they stole during a bank heist.

  • Law and Justice (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Poland in the 21st century: …fell to the centre-right party Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość; PiS), with its founders, identical twins Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński, attaining the posts of president (2005) and prime minister (2006), respectively. In 2007 the PiS abandoned its coalition partners—the scandal-plagued Self-Defense Party and the League of Polish Families—and called…

  • Law and the Profits, The (work by Parkinson)

    C. Northcote Parkinson: …to meet income,” detailed in The Law and the Profits (1960).

  • Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations, Convention on the (European Union [1980])

    conflict of laws: The nature of conflicts law: …(1980), commonly known as the Rome Convention, which applied in the member states of the European Union (EU) and whose interpretation lay within the scope of the European Court of Justice upon reference from national courts. The EU possesses lawmaking powers that enable it to establish uniform rules of substantive…

  • Law as a Means to an End (work by Jhering)

    Rudolf von Jhering: …the 20th century was his Law As a Means to an End, 2 vol. (1877–83; originally in German), which maintained that the purpose of law was the protection of individual and societal interests by coordinating them and thus minimizing occasions for conflict. Where conflict was unavoidable, he assigned greater weight…

  • law code (law)

    Law code, a more or less systematic and comprehensive written statement of laws. Law codes were compiled by the most ancient peoples. The oldest extant evidence for a code is tablets from the ancient archives of the city of Ebla (now at Tell Mardikh, Syria), which date to about 2400 bc. The best

  • Law Commission (English law)

    crime: Common law: In addition, the Law Commission, also a permanent body, was established in 1965 with the goal of continually reviewing the entire law, not just the criminal law. In 1981 the commission undertook a new attempt at codification of the criminal law, and a draft code was published in…

  • law court (law)

    Court, a person or body of persons having judicial authority to hear and resolve disputes in civil, criminal, ecclesiastical, or military cases. The word court, which originally meant simply an enclosed place, also denotes the chamber, hall, building, or other place where judicial proceedings are

  • Law Courts (building, London, United Kingdom)

    Royal Courts of Justice, in London, complex of courtrooms, halls, and offices concerned primarily with civil (noncriminal) litigation. It lies in the Greater London borough of Westminster, on the boundary with the City of London. Within its confines are held sessions of the Court of Appeal, the

  • Law Dome (ice cap, Antarctica)

    Wilkes Land: A local ice cap, the Law Dome, is partially attached to the ice sheet and has been heavily studied by Australian glaciologists.

  • Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour (German history)

    Nürnberg Laws: ” The other, the Gesetz zum Schutze des Deutschen Blutes und der Deutschen Ehre (“Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour”), usually called simply the Blutschutzgesetz (“Blood Protection Law”), forbade marriage or sexual relations between Jews and “citizens of German or kindred blood.” These measures were…

  • Law is a Bottom-less Pit; or, The History of John Bull (work by Arbuthnot)

    John Arbuthnot: …1727 under the composite title Law is a Bottom-less Pit; or, The History of John Bull, and it established and popularized for the first time the character who was to become the permanent symbol of England in cartoon and literature. An edition by A.W. Bower and R.A. Erickson was published…

  • law merchant (medieval European law)

    Law merchant, during the Middle Ages, the body of customary rules and principles relating to merchants and mercantile transactions and adopted by traders themselves for the purpose of regulating their dealings. Initially, it was administered for the most part in special quasi-judicial courts, such

  • Law of Civilization and Decay (work by Adams)

    Brooks Adams: In 1895 he published his Law of Civilization and Decay, in which he expounded his theory of history. It held that the centre of trade had consistently followed a westward movement from the ancient crossroads in the East to Constantinople, Venice, Amsterdam, and finally to London, in accord with a…

  • law of conservation (physics)

    Conservation law, in physics, several principles that state that certain physical properties (i.e., measurable quantities) do not change in the course of time within an isolated physical system. In classical physics, laws of this type govern energy, momentum, angular momentum, mass, and electric

  • law of cosines (mathematics)

    Law of cosines, Generalization of the Pythagorean theorem relating the lengths of the sides of any triangle. If a, b, and c are the lengths of the sides and C is the angle opposite side c, then c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos

  • Law of Desire (film by Almodóvar [1987])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …La ley del deseo (1987; Law of Desire), deal with the intersection between violence and sexual desire. A dizzying farce called Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (1988; Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) won international acclaim, including an Academy Award nomination for best foreign-language film.…

  • law of diminishing returns (economics)

    Diminishing returns, economic law stating that if one input in the production of a commodity is increased while all other inputs are held fixed, a point will eventually be reached at which additions of the input yield progressively smaller, or diminishing, increases in output. In the classic

  • Law of Freedom in a Platform, The (work by Winstanley)

    Gerrard Winstanley: The Law of Freedom in a Platform (1652), his sketch of a communist society, was dedicated to Oliver Cromwell. Winstanley believed that the English Civil War had been fought against the king, landlords, lawyers, and all who bought and sold, these being enemies of the…

  • Law of Nations, The (work by Briggs [1952])

    insurgency: Briggs in The Law of Nations (1952) described the traditional point of view as follows:

  • Law of Nature (work by Locke)

    John Locke: Oxford: The resulting Essays on the Law of Nature (first published in 1954) constitutes an early statement of his philosophical views, many of which he retained more or less unchanged for the rest of his life. Of these probably the two most important were, first, his commitment to…

  • Law of Population (work by Sadler)

    Michael Thomas Sadler: …Macaulay, who had criticized Sadler’s Law of Population (1830), a massive treatise attacking the pessimistic theories of the economist-demographer Thomas Robert Malthus.

  • Law of Property Act (United Kingdom [1922])

    Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st earl of Birkenhead: His greatest accomplishments were the Law of Property Act (1922) and subsequent real-property statutes (1925) that replaced a convoluted, largely medieval system of land law. Although enacted after he had left office (Oct. 24, 1922), the County Courts Act (1924) and the Supreme Court of Judicature (Consolidation) Act (1925), which…

  • law of segregation (genetics)

    heredity: Discovery and rediscovery of Mendel’s laws: …first law of Mendel, the law of segregation of unit genes. Equal numbers of gametes, ovules, or pollen grains are formed that contain the genes R and r. Now, if the gametes unite at random, then the F2 generation should contain about 14 white-flowered and 34 purple-flowered plants. The white-flowered

  • law of sines (mathematics)

    Law of sines, Principle of trigonometry stating that the lengths of the sides of any triangle are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles. That is, when a, b, and c are the sides and A, B, and C are the opposite

  • Law of the Sea, Convention on the (international law [1982])

    Law of the Sea, branch of international law concerned with public order at sea. Much of this law is codified in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed Dec. 10, 1982. The convention, described as a “constitution for the oceans,” represents an attempt to codify international law

  • Law on Associated Labour (Yugoslavia [1976])

    Serbia: Economy: …socialism, was codified in the Law on Associated Labour of 1976. Each Yugoslav worker belonged to a Basic Organization of Associated Labour (BOAL) that was based on the precise role played by the worker in the production process. The BOALs elected representatives to workers’ councils, which in turn created management…

  • Law on Culture (Mongolia [1996])

    Mongolia: Daily life and social customs: ” In the Law on Culture, adopted in April 1996, the legislature decided to revert to the earlier practice of keeping family trees and using clan names, and regulations for this were issued in January 1997. Clan names are now recorded on identity cards and other official documents…

  • law report (common law)

    Law report, in common law, published record of a judicial decision that is cited by lawyers and judges for their use as precedent in subsequent cases. The report of a decision ordinarily contains the title of the case, a statement of the facts giving rise to the litigation, and its history in the

  • Law Society (British legal organization)

    solicitor: …organization of solicitors was the Law Society, a voluntary group, incorporated by Parliament. The society’s Regulation Board, which had extensive authority in setting and enforcing standards for solicitors, was replaced by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) in 2007. See also Inns of Court.

  • Law XII (Austria [1867])

    Austria: Ausgleich of 1867: …May 1867 the diet approved Law XII, legalizing what became known as the Ausgleich (“Compromise”). This was a compromise between the Hungarian nation and the dynasty, not between Hungary and the rest of the empire, and it is symptomatic of the Hungarian attitude that led Hungarians to refer to Franz…

  • Law, Andrew Bonar (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Bonar Law, prime minister of Great Britain from October 23, 1922, to May 20, 1923, the first holder of that office to come from a British overseas possession. He was the leader of the Conservative Party during the periods 1911–21 and 1922–23. The son of a Presbyterian minister of Ulster ancestry,

  • Law, ark of the (Judaism)

    Ark, (“holy ark”), in Jewish synagogues, an ornate cabinet that enshrines the sacred Torah scrolls used for public worship. Because it symbolizes the Holy of Holies of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, it is the holiest place in the synagogue and the focal point of prayer. The ark is reached by

  • Law, Bernard Cardinal (American prelate)

    Bernard Cardinal Law, American prelate who was head (1984–2002) of the archdiocese of Boston before he resigned in disgrace after it was revealed that he had protected sexually abusive priests for years. Law’s father was a U.S. Army colonel and his mother a concert pianist. He attended high school

  • Law, Bernard Francis (American prelate)

    Bernard Cardinal Law, American prelate who was head (1984–2002) of the archdiocese of Boston before he resigned in disgrace after it was revealed that he had protected sexually abusive priests for years. Law’s father was a U.S. Army colonel and his mother a concert pianist. He attended high school

  • Law, Bonar (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Bonar Law, prime minister of Great Britain from October 23, 1922, to May 20, 1923, the first holder of that office to come from a British overseas possession. He was the leader of the Conservative Party during the periods 1911–21 and 1922–23. The son of a Presbyterian minister of Ulster ancestry,

  • law, court of (law)

    Court, a person or body of persons having judicial authority to hear and resolve disputes in civil, criminal, ecclesiastical, or military cases. The word court, which originally meant simply an enclosed place, also denotes the chamber, hall, building, or other place where judicial proceedings are

  • Law, Denis (Scottish football player)

    Manchester United: George Best, and Denis Law. In 1968 this team became the first English club to win the European Cup (now known as the Champions League) with a 4–1 victory over Benfica of Portugal in the final.

  • law, divine

    Benedict de Spinoza: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus: …emerges in his discussion of divine law and scripture. According to Spinoza, divine law is necessary and eternal; it cannot be changed by any human or divine action. Hence, miracles, which by definition are violations of divinely created laws of nature, are impossible. Alleged miracles must have a rational, scientific…

  • Law, Edward, earl of Ellenborough (British governor of India)

    Edward Law, earl of Ellenborough, British governor-general of India (1842–44), who also served four times as president of the Board of Control for India and was first lord of the British Admiralty. He was recalled from India for being out of control and later resigned another office under pressure.

  • Law, John (Scottish economist)

    John Law, Scottish monetary reformer and originator of the “Mississippi scheme” for the development of French territories in America. Law studied mathematics, commerce, and political economy in London. After killing an adversary in a duel, he fled to Amsterdam, where he studied banking operations.

  • Law, Jude (British actor)

    Angelina Jolie: Film roles: …starred opposite Gwyneth Paltrow and Jude Law in Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, a sci-fi thriller set in 1930s New York City. Both films were box-office disappointments, but Jolie scored a hit with Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005), in which she played an assassin pretending to be a…

  • Law, Legislation and Liberty (work by Hayek)

    F.A. Hayek: Life and major works: …what would become the three-part Law, Legislation and Liberty (1973–79), a critique of efforts to redistribute incomes in the name of “social justice.” Later in the 1970s Hayek’s monograph The Denationalization of Money was published by the Institute of Economic Affairs in London, one of the many classical liberal think…

  • Law, Liberty and Morality (work by Hart)

    H.L.A. Hart: Later work: …1963, with the publication of Law, Liberty, and Morality. He wrote in the liberal tradition of English philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill in arguing that homosexual intercourse between consenting adults should not be legally proscribed. Invoking and defending Mill’s “harm principle,” which maintains that no activity can legitimately be…

  • Law, Phillip Garth (Australian polar explorer)

    Phillip Garth Law, Australian polar explorer (born April 21, 1912, Tallangatta, Vic., Australia—died Feb. 28, 2010, Melbourne, Australia), earned the nickname “Mr. Antarctica” for his devotion to the scientific study of that continent, which he visited 28 times, and to the expansion of the

  • law, philosophy of

    Philosophy of law, branch of philosophy that investigates the nature of law, especially in its relation to human values, attitudes, practices, and political communities. Traditionally, philosophy of law proceeds by articulating and defending propositions about law that are general and

  • law, pure theory of

    Hans Kelsen: …of positivism known as the “pure theory” of law.

  • law, rule of (political philosophy)

    Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a nonarbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism,

  • law, wager of (law)

    Compurgation, in early English law, method of settling issues of fact by appeal to a type of character witness. Compurgation was practiced until the 16th century in criminal matters and into the 19th century in civil matters. The essence of the procedure lay in oath making. The party responsible f

  • law, wheel of the (Buddhism)

    religious symbolism and iconography: Concepts of symbolization: , the dharmachakra, or wheel of the law, of Buddhism). Other nonreligious types of symbols achieved increasing significance in the 19th and 20th centuries, especially those dealing with human beings’ relationship to and conceptualization of the material world. Rational, scientific-technical symbols have assumed an ever increasing importance…

  • Law, William (British author)

    William Law, English author of influential works on Christian ethics and mysticism. He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1705 and in 1711 was elected a fellow there and was ordained. Upon the accession of George I in 1714, however, he was dismissed from Cambridge as a nonjuror (refusing to

  • Lawa (people)

    Wa, peoples of the upland areas of eastern Myanmar (Burma) and southwestern Yunnan province of China. They speak a variety of Austroasiatic languages related to those spoken by upland-dwelling groups in northern Thailand and Laos. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Wa numbered approximately

  • Lawa River (river, South America)

    Maroni River: …gold mining, is called the Lawa, or Aoua. Shallow-draft vessels can penetrate 60 miles (100 km) upstream from the river’s mouth; beyond that point there are many waterfalls and rapids. The river’s chief tributary is the Tapanahoni, in Suriname, from the southwest.

  • Lawamon (English poet)

    Lawamon, early Middle English poet, author of the romance-chronicle the Brut (c. 1200), one of the most notable English poems of the 12th century. It is the first work in English to treat of the “matter of Britain”—i.e., the legends surrounding Arthur and the knights of the Round Table—and was

  • Lawarai Pass (mountain pass, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …region, then continues to the Lawarai Pass (12,100 feet [3,688 metres]) and beyond to the Kābul River. If this chain is considered part of the Hindu Kush, then the outlying mountains of the Swat Kohistan region of Pakistan to the south also form part of the complex.

  • Lawes, Henry (English composer)

    Henry Lawes, English composer noted for his continuo songs. Henry Lawes became a gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1626 and a royal musician for lutes and voices in 1631. In 1634 he may have written the music for Thomas Carew’s masque Coelum Britannicum, and he did write music for John Milton’s

  • Lawes, Lewis Edward (American penologist)

    Lewis Edward Lawes, U.S. penologist whose introduction of novel penal administrative policies helped to emphasize a rehabilitative role for prisons. Assuming the office of warden of Sing Sing State Prison (now Ossining Correctional Facility), Ossining, N.Y., in 1920, Lawes instituted such reforms

  • Lawes, Sir John Bennet, 1st Baronet (English agronomist)

    Sir John Bennet Lawes, 1st Baronet, English agronomist who founded the artificial fertilizer industry and Rothamsted Experimental Station, the oldest agricultural research station in the world. Lawes inherited his father’s estate, Rothamsted, in 1822. In 1842, after long experimentation with the

  • Lawes, William (English composer)

    William Lawes, English composer, prominent during the early Baroque period, noted for his highly original instrumental music. The brother of the composer Henry Lawes, he entered the household of the earl of Hertford about 1612 and in 1635 became a musician to Charles I. Lawes fought with the

  • Lawford, Peter (American actor)

    Ocean's Eleven: Cast: Assorted References

  • Lawgiver, The (novel by Wouk)

    Herman Wouk: …Hole in Texas (2004) and The Lawgiver (2012). The memoir Sailor and Fiddler: Reflections of a 100-Year-old Author was published in 2015.

  • Lawler, Ray (Australian dramatist)

    Ray Lawler, actor, producer, and playwright whose Summer of the Seventeenth Doll is credited with changing the direction of modern Australian drama. Lawler left school at 13 and worked in a variety of jobs before joining the National Theatre Company in Melbourne as an actor, writer, and producer.

  • Lawler, Raymond Evenor (Australian dramatist)

    Ray Lawler, actor, producer, and playwright whose Summer of the Seventeenth Doll is credited with changing the direction of modern Australian drama. Lawler left school at 13 and worked in a variety of jobs before joining the National Theatre Company in Melbourne as an actor, writer, and producer.

  • Lawless (motion picture [2012])

    Gary Oldman: …appeared as a gangster in Lawless, a Prohibition-era drama about bootlegging.

  • Lawless, Lucy (New Zealand-born actress)

    Lucy Lawless, New Zealand-born actress who became famous for her portrayal of the title character in the popular television show Xena: Warrior Princess (1995–2001). As a youth, Lawless performed in school productions, and in college she studied opera singing. However, she later dropped her studies

  • Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!