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  • Laurium (Greece)

    Laurium, industrial town, Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí) periféreia (region), on the Aegean Sea, famous in antiquity for its silver mines. Its port, sheltered by Makrónisos island, imports coal, loads ore, and handles coastal and insular shipping. The mines may have been worked as early as 1000 bce,

  • Lauriya Nandangarh (India)

    South Asian arts: Mauryan period (c. 3rd century bce): at Vaishali (Bakhra), Rampurva, and Lauriya Nandangarh. The Vaishali pillar is heavy and squat, and the animal lacks the verve of the other animals—features, according to some, designating it as an early work, executed before the Mauryan style attained its maturity. By contrast, the Rampurva lion, finished with painstaking and…

  • Laurocerasus officinalis (plant)

    Cherry laurel, either of two species of evergreen plants of the genus Prunus, in the rose family (Rosaceae). Cherry laurels are named for their similarity to the unrelated bay laurel (Laurus nobilis, of the family Lauraceae), and they are cultivated as ornamentals, particularly as hedge plants, in

  • Laurolavinium (Italy)

    Lavinium, an ancient town of Latium (modern Pratica di Mare, Italy), 19 miles (30 kilometres) south of Rome, regarded as the religious centre of the early Latin peoples. Roman tradition maintained that it had been founded by Aeneas and his followers from Troy and named after his wife, Lavinia. Here

  • Laurus (plant, Laurus genus)

    Laurel, any of several evergreen shrubs and small trees of the genus Laurus within the family Lauraceae; the name is chiefly applied to L. nobilis (also called bay, sweet bay, bay laurel, and bay tree), native to the Mediterranean region but now widely cultivated in other regions of the world. The

  • Laurus nobilis (plant, Laurus genus)

    Bay tree, any of several small trees with aromatic leaves, especially the sweet bay, or bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), source of the bay leaf used in cooking. The California laurel (Umbellularia californica) is an ornamental tree also called the bay tree. The bay rum tree, or simply bay (Pimenta

  • Laurus, Metropolitan (Carpatho-Russian religious leader)

    Metropolitan Laurus, (Vassily Mikhailovich Skurla), Carpatho-Russian (Rusyn) religious leader (born Jan. 1, 1928, Ladomirovo, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]—died March 16, 2008, Jordanville, N.Y.), was instrumental in reconciling the 80-year dispute between the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of

  • Laurussia (geological area)

    Carboniferous Period: Paleogeography: The principal landmass of Laurussia was made up of present-day North America, western Europe through the Urals, and Balto-Scandinavia. Much of Laurussia lay near the paleoequator, whereas the cratons of Siberia, Kazakhstania, and most of China existed as separate continents occupying positions at high latitudes. During this time, the…

  • laurustinus (plant)

    viburnum: Laurustinus (V. tinus), a 3-metre-tall evergreen with oblong leaves, is native to the Mediterranean area. Sweet viburnum (V. odoratissimum), from India and Japan, bears dark-green, shiny, evergreen leaves and large clusters of fragrant flowers.

  • Laus Vitae (work by D’Annunzio)

    Italian literature: Literary trends before World War I: …of words—were implied in D’Annunzio’s Laus Vitae (1903; “In Praise of Life”).

  • Lausanne (Switzerland)

    Lausanne, capital of Vaud canton, western Switzerland, on the northern shore of Lake Geneva (Lac Léman); built on the southern slopes of the Jorat heights, its altitude ranges from 1,240 ft (378 m) at Ouchy, its lake port, to 2,122 ft at Le Signal, its highest point. Two short streams, the Flon and

  • Lausanne Cathedral (cathedral, Lausanne, Switzerland)

    stained glass: France: The rose window (1231–35) of Lausanne Cathedral in Switzerland was made by a wandering artist from Picardy, Peter of Arras, and is related in style and iconography to the Laon workshop.

  • Lausanne Conference (1932)

    Lausanne Conference, (June–July 1932), conference that was held to liquidate the payment of reparations by Germany to the former Allied and Associated powers of World War I. Attended by representatives of the creditor powers (Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy) and of Germany, the conference

  • Lausanne Protocol (European history)

    Lausanne Conference: …a “gentleman’s agreement” that the Lausanne Protocol would not be ratified until they had reached a satisfactory agreement with respect to their own war debts to the United States. Although the agreement was never ratified, the Lausanne Protocol in effect put an end to attempts to exact reparations from Germany.

  • Lausanne, Treaty of (Allies-Turkey [1923])

    Treaty of Lausanne, (1923), final treaty concluding World War I. It was signed by representatives of Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) on one side and by Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) on the other. The treaty was

  • Lausanne, Treaty of (Italy-Turkey [1912])

    Italo-Turkish War: By the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne (also called Treaty of Ouchy; Oct. 18, 1912), Turkey conceded its rights over Tripoli and Cyrenaica to Italy. Although Italy agreed to evacuate the Dodecanese, its forces continued to occupy the islands.

  • LAUSD (school district, Los Angeles, California, United States)

    Los Angeles: Education: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), the second largest public school district in the country, is run by an independent elected board working under state—rather than city—jurisdiction. Turmoil erupted in the 1970s over court-ordered busing to eliminate racial segregation. This litigation never gained full public…

  • Lausen, John Rhea (American musician)

    Yank Lawson, (JOHN RHEA LAUSEN), U.S. jazz trumpeter (b. May 3, 1911--d. Feb. 18,

  • Lausiac History (work by Palladius)

    Palladius: …monk, bishop, and chronicler whose Lausiac History, an account of early Egyptian and Middle Eastern Christian monasticism, provides the most valuable single source for the origins of Christian asceticism.

  • Lausitz (region, Germany)

    Lusatia, central European territory of the Sorbs (Lusatians, or Wends), called Sorben (or Wenden) by the Germans. Historic Lusatia was centred on the Neisse and upper Spree rivers, in what is now eastern Germany, between the present-day cities of Cottbus (north) and Dresden (south). In the 9th

  • Lausitzer Gebirge (mountains, Czech Republic)

    Lusatian Mountains, mountain group, situated in extreme northern Bohemia, Czech Republic; it is part of the Sudeten mountains (Czech: Sudety). The group extends from the Ještěd ridge in the east (3,320 feet [1,012 m]) to the gorge of the Elbe (Labe) River at Děčín in the west and also into Poland

  • Lausonium (Switzerland)

    Lausanne: The ancient Celtic Lausonium, or Lausonna, was originally on the shore of the lake southwest of the present city. During the invasion of the Alemanni (c. 379), the inhabitants took refuge in the hills above, building a settlement on the site of the present Cité district. In 590…

  • Lausonna (Switzerland)

    Lausanne: The ancient Celtic Lausonium, or Lausonna, was originally on the shore of the lake southwest of the present city. During the invasion of the Alemanni (c. 379), the inhabitants took refuge in the hills above, building a settlement on the site of the present Cité district. In 590…

  • Laut Flores (sea, Pacific Ocean)

    Flores Sea, portion of the western South Pacific Ocean, bounded on the north by the island of Celebes (Sulawesi) and on the south by the Lesser Sunda Islands of Flores and Sumbawa. Occupying a total surface area of 93,000 square miles (240,000 square km), it opens northwest through Makassar Strait

  • Laut Island (island, Indonesia)

    Laut Island, island off the southeastern coast of Borneo, Kalimantan Selatan provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Laut Island lies in the Makassar Strait, 105 miles (169 km) east of Banjarmasin city. It is 60 miles (100 km) long north to south and 20 miles (30 km) wide east to west, and it covers an

  • Lautaro (Mapuche leader)

    Lautaro, Mapuche Indian who led the native uprising against the Spanish conquerors in south-central Chile from 1553 to 1557. Lautaro was probably born in northern Chile; according to tradition, during his boyhood he was captured by the Spanish and forced to serve as a groom in the stables of the

  • Lautenberg, Frank (United States senator)

    Frank Raleigh Lautenberg, American businessman and politician (born Jan. 23, 1924, Paterson, N.J.—died June 3, 2013, New York, N.Y.), while serving (1982–2001 and 2003–13) as a liberal Democratic senator from New Jersey, championed measures that affected the safety and health of Americans. He was

  • Lautenberg, Frank Raleigh (United States senator)

    Frank Raleigh Lautenberg, American businessman and politician (born Jan. 23, 1924, Paterson, N.J.—died June 3, 2013, New York, N.Y.), while serving (1982–2001 and 2003–13) as a liberal Democratic senator from New Jersey, championed measures that affected the safety and health of Americans. He was

  • Lautenwerck (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Related stringed keyboard instruments: Bach, were called in German Lautenwerck. The 18th-century tangent piano dispensed with pivoted hammers and instead had loose slips of wood or metal supported vertically in a rack above the backs of the keys; as a bar abruptly halted the motion of a key, its slip, or tangent, continued to…

  • lauter tun (vessel)

    beer: Separating the wort: …a separation vessel called the lauter tun, where a shallow filter bed is formed, allowing a more rapid runoff time of about 2.5 hours. Large modern breweries use either lauter tuns or special mash filters to speed up the runoff and conduct 10 or 12 mashes a day. As much…

  • Lauterbourg, Philip James de (artist)

    Philip James de Loutherbourg, early Romantic painter, illustrator, printmaker, and scenographer, especially known for his paintings of landscapes and battles and for his innovative scenery designs and special effects for the theatre. First trained under his father, a miniature painter from

  • Lauterbur, Paul (American chemist)

    Paul Lauterbur, American chemist who, with English physicist Sir Peter Mansfield, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2003 for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a computerized scanning technology that produces images of internal body structures, especially those

  • Lauterbur, Paul Christian (American chemist)

    Paul Lauterbur, American chemist who, with English physicist Sir Peter Mansfield, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2003 for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a computerized scanning technology that produces images of internal body structures, especially those

  • Lautgesetz und Analogie (work by Hermann)

    Eduard Hermann: In 1931 Hermann published Lautgesetz und Analogie (“Sound Law and Analogy”), which discussed, in part, children’s acquisition of language. He made a useful contribution to German historical linguistics in Herkunft unserer Fragefürwörter (1943; “Origin of Our Interrogative Pronouns”). He also did a significant follow-up study on sound change in…

  • Lautner, Georges (French filmmaker)

    Georges Marion Lautner, French filmmaker (born Jan. 24, 1926, Nice, France—died Nov. 22, 2013, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), directed more than 40 films, many of which delivered an appealing mixture of crime and comedy and accrued cult status in France, particularly Les Tontons flingueurs (1963;

  • Lautner, Georges Marion (French filmmaker)

    Georges Marion Lautner, French filmmaker (born Jan. 24, 1926, Nice, France—died Nov. 22, 2013, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), directed more than 40 films, many of which delivered an appealing mixture of crime and comedy and accrued cult status in France, particularly Les Tontons flingueurs (1963;

  • Lautoka (Fiji)

    Lautoka, city on the northwest coast of the island of Viti Levu, Fiji, South Pacific Ocean. Situated on the dry side of the island, Lautoka (originally called Namoli) serves an important sugarcane-growing district and is Fiji’s leading sugar export port. The Lautoka Sugar Mill is supplied with cane

  • Lautréamont, comte de (French author)

    Comte de Lautréamont, poet, a strange and enigmatic figure in French literature, who is recognized as a major influence on the Surrealists. The son of a chancellor in the French consulate, Lautréamont was sent to France for schooling; he studied at the imperial lycées in Tarbes (1859–62) and Pau

  • Lauzun, Antonin-Nompar de Caumont, comte et duc de (French military officer)

    Antonin-Nompar de Caumont, count and duke de Lauzun, French military officer who was imprisoned by King Louis XIV to prevent him from marrying the Duchesse de Montpensier (known as La Grande Mademoiselle), the wealthiest heiress in Europe. The son of Gabriel de Caumont, comte de Lauzun, he was at

  • Lauzun, Duc de (French military commander)

    Armand-Louis de Gontaut, duke de Biron, military commander with the French forces in the American Revolution, and one of the peers of France who supported the French Revolution, only to be sacrificed to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror. In his youth, as Duke de Lauzun, he dissipated his

  • Lauzun, Hôtel de (building, Paris, France)

    Paris: Île Saint-Louis: Another, the Hôtel de Lauzun, a few yards upstream on the Quai d’Anjou, was completed in 1657. The Marie Bridge to the Right Bank, which was completed as part of the contract, is the original span, although it has been modified for modern traffic. The Île Saint-Louis…

  • LAV-25 (armoured vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Wheeled armoured vehicles: Marine Corps fielded the LAV-25, a wheeled light armoured vehicle with all-terrain capabilities. The LAV-25 weighs 12.8 tons, has a three-man crew, can carry six infantrymen, and is armed with a turret-mounted 25-mm chain gun and two 7.62-mm machine guns.

  • Lava (Hindu mythology)

    Sita: …their two children, Kusha and Lava. After they reached maturity and were acknowledged by Rama to be his sons, she called upon her mother, Earth, to swallow her up.

  • lava (volcanic ejecta)

    Lava, magma (molten rock) emerging as a liquid onto Earth’s surface. The term lava is also used for the solidified rock formed by the cooling of a molten lava flow. The temperatures of molten lava range from about 700 to 1,200 °C (1,300 to 2,200 °F). The material can be very fluid, flowing almost

  • Lava (Jaina leader)

    Sthanakavasi: …in the 17th century by Lava of Surat, a member of an earlier non-image-worshipping sect called the Lumpaka, or Lonka Gaccha. Both groups based their belief on the argument that the Jain canon makes no mention of idol worship. The Sthanakavasis themselves gave rise to another group, the Terapanthi (“those…

  • Lava Beds National Monument (geological feature, California, United States)

    Lava Beds National Monument, region of lava flows and related volcanic formations in far northern California, U.S., located on the Medicine Lake volcano, south of the city of Tulelake. The monument, established in 1925, has an area of 73 square miles (189 square km). Tule Lake National Wildlife

  • lava cave (geology)

    Lava cave, cave or cavity formed as a result of surface solidification of a lava flow during the last stages of its activity. A frozen crust may form over still mobile and actively flowing liquid rock as a result of surface cooling. A dwindling supply of lava may then cause the molten material to

  • lava dome (geology)

    Volcanic dome, any steep-sided mound that is formed when lava reaching the Earth’s surface is so viscous that it cannot flow away readily and accumulates around the vent. Sometimes domes are produced by repeated outpourings of short flows from a summit vent, and, occasionally, extremely viscous

  • lava flow (geology)

    volcano: Lava flows: The root zone of volcanoes is found some 70 to 200 km (40 to 120 miles) below the surface of the Earth. There, in the Earth’s upper mantle, temperatures are high enough to melt rock and form magma. At these depths, magma is…

  • lava fountain (geology)

    volcano: Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1984: Lava fountains along the fissure formed a curtain of fire that illuminated the clouds and volcanic fumes into a red glow backlighting the black profile of the volcano’s huge but gently sloping summit. Lava from the summit fissure ponded in the caldera, and the first…

  • Lava Jato (Brazilian history)

    Aldemir Bendine: …wide-ranging federal investigation (known as Lava Jato [“Car Wash”]) alleged that Petrobras executives and dozens of Brazilian politicians—most of them members of the ruling Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores; PT) and its allies—had received millions of dollars in bribes and kickback payments for contracts with Petrobras, principally from large construction…

  • lava plateau (geology)

    plateau: Formative processes: …plateau can form where extensive lava flows (called flood basalts or traps) and volcanic ash bury preexisting terrain, as exemplified by the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States. The volcanism involved in such situations is commonly associated with hot spots. The lavas and ash are generally carried long

  • lava tube (geology)

    cave: Lava tubes: These are the longest and most complicated of volcanic caves. They are the channels of rivers of lava that at some earlier time flowed downslope from a volcanic vent or fissure. Lava tubes develop best in highly fluid lava, notably a basaltic type…

  • lava tube cave (geology)

    Lava cave, cave or cavity formed as a result of surface solidification of a lava flow during the last stages of its activity. A frozen crust may form over still mobile and actively flowing liquid rock as a result of surface cooling. A dwindling supply of lava may then cause the molten material to

  • Lava’iḥ (work by Jāmī)

    Jāmī: …his mystical treatise Lava’iḥ (Flashes of Light), a clear and precise exposition of the Ṣūfī doctrines of waḥdat al-wujūd (the existential unity of Being), together with a commentary on the experiences of other famous mystics.

  • lavage (therapeutics)

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: …out of the lungs (lavage). One lung at a time is rinsed with a saltwater solution introduced through the windpipe. The fluids drawn back out of the lungs have been found to have a high content of fat. Sometimes the lesions totally clear up after one procedure, but subsequent…

  • Lavagh More (mountain, Ireland)

    Donegal: …Stack, whose highest peak is Lavagh More (2,218 feet [676 metres]), and Derryveagh, which reaches 2,467 feet (752 metres) at Errigal. Evidence of extensive glaciation exists. The climate is temperate, with warm summers and mild, moist winters.

  • Laval (Quebec, Canada)

    Laval, city, seat of Laval region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It occupies the whole of Île Jésus (Jesus Island), just north of Île de Montréal from which it is separated to the south by the Rivière des Prairies and from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles; both rivers are

  • Laval (France)

    Laval, town, capital of Mayenne département, Pays de la Loire région, northwestern France, east of Rennes. The old quarters of the town, which have fine 16th- and 18th-century houses and two châteaus, are located on the west bank slopes of the Mayenne River and are surrounded by the modern town on

  • Laval University (university, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada)

    Laval University, a French-language university located on the outskirts of the city of Quebec. Laval’s predecessor institution, the Seminary of Quebec, considered the first Canadian institution of higher learning, was founded by François de Montmorency Laval, first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec,

  • Laval, Carl Gustaf Patrik de (Swedish scientist and engineer)

    Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval, Swedish scientist, engineer, and inventor who pioneered in the development of high-speed turbines. After 1872 he was an engineer with the Klosters-Bruck Steel Works. In 1878 he invented the centrifugal cream separator, and later he applied the principle of rotation to

  • Laval, François de Montmorency (French bishop)

    François de Montmorency Laval, the first Roman Catholic bishop in Canada, who laid the foundations of church organization in France’s North American possessions. Born into one of the greatest families of France, Laval was ordained priest in 1647. After taking a degree in canon law at the Sorbonne,

  • Laval, Pierre (French politician and statesman)

    Pierre Laval, French politician and statesman who led the Vichy government in policies of collaboration with Germany during World War II, for which he was ultimately executed as a traitor to France. A member of the Socialist Party from 1903, Laval became a lawyer in Paris in 1909 and promptly made

  • Laval-Mussolini agreements (European history)

    20th-century international relations: European responses to Nazism: The Laval–Mussolini agreements of Jan. 7, 1935, declared France’s disinterest in the fate of Abyssinia in implicit exchange for Italian support of Austria. Mussolini took this to mean that he had French support for his plan to conquer that independent African country. Just six days later…

  • Lavalas Family (political party, Haiti)

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide: …a new political party, the Lavalas Family, and in 2000 he was again elected president. Although the opposition boycotted the election and charges of electoral fraud led to international calls for new or runoff elections, the results were declared official, and Aristide was inaugurated in February 2001.

  • Lavalette Gay, Marie-Françoise-Sophie Nichault de (French author)

    Sophie Gay, French writer and grande dame who wrote romantic novels and plays about upper-class French society during the early 19th century. Gay was the daughter of a bursar to the comte de Provence (later King Louis XVIII). Her first published writings, in 1802, yielded a novel, Laure d’Estell,

  • lavaliere (ornament)

    Lavaliere, ornament hung from a chain worn around the neck. The lavaliere, which came into fashion in the 17th century, was usually a small, jewelled gold locket, though it could also be an enamelled locket or pendant. The lavaliere was named for the Duchesse de La Vallière, the mistress of Louis

  • Lavalle, Juan (president of Argentina)

    Juan Manuel de Rosas: …Rosas opposed the new governor, Juan Lavalle. Rosas reconvened the former legislature, which elected him governor on Dec. 5, 1829. As head of the Federalist Party, Rosas was opposed by Lavalle’s unitarios (centralists). Although it appeared that he could remain in office after his three-year term, he decided to leave…

  • Lavallée, Calixa (Canadian composer)

    O Canada: The music, written by Calixa Lavallée (1842–91), a concert pianist and native of Verchères, Quebec, was commissioned in 1880 on the occasion of a visit to Quebec by John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, marquess of Lorne (later 9th duke of Argyll), then governor-general of Canada, and his wife, Queen Victoria’s…

  • Lavalleja, Juan Antonio (Uruguayan political leader)

    Uruguay: The struggle for national identity: …government was compelled to support Juan Antonio Lavalleja, one of Artigas’s exiled officers, and his “33 orientales” when they crossed the river to free their homeland in 1825. The ensuing war was a stalemate, but British diplomats mediated a settlement in 1827, and in 1828 a treaty was ratified creating…

  • Lavalléville (work by Paiement)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution of French Canadian minorities: …success with his musical comedy Lavalléville (1975). Continuing the theatrical tradition into the 1980s and 1990s, both Jean Marc Dalpé (Le Chien [1987; “The Dog”]) and Michel Ouellette (French Town [1994]) won Canada’s Governor General’s Award for drama in French. Poet Patrice Desbiens explored the alienation of the Francophone minority…

  • Lavandula (plant)

    Lavender, (genus Lavandula), genus of about 30 species of the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to countries bordering the Mediterranean. Lavender species are common in herb gardens for their fragrant leaves and attractive flowers. The plants are widely cultivated for their essential oils, which are

  • Lavandula angustifolia (plant)

    Lamiaceae: Also Mediterranean is lavender (Lavandula officinalis), with fragrant blue to lavender flowers in leafless spikes. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) was once used as a curative herb.

  • Lavandula officinalis (plant)

    Lamiaceae: Also Mediterranean is lavender (Lavandula officinalis), with fragrant blue to lavender flowers in leafless spikes. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) was once used as a curative herb.

  • Lavandula stoechas (plant)

    lavender: English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), French lavender (L. stoechas), and woolly lavender (L. lanata) are among the most widely cultivated species.

  • Lavater, Johann Kaspar (Swiss writer)

    Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss writer, Protestant pastor, and founder of physiognomics, an antirational, religious, and literary movement. Lavater served as pastor of St. Peter’s Church in Zürich. In 1799 he was deported to Basel for a time because of his protest against the violence of the French

  • Lavatera arborea (plant)

    Tree mallow, (Lavatera arborea), biennial, herbaceous plant, of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), native to Europe. It grows 1.2–3 metres (4–10 feet) tall and bears downy, lobed leaves 10–25 cm (4–10 inches) long. Purplish-red flowers about 5 cm (2 inches) wide are borne in profuse,

  • lavatoe (dance)

    La volta, (Italian: “the turn,” or “turning”) 16th-century leaping and turning dance for couples, originating in Italy and popular at French and German court balls until about 1750. Performed with a notoriously intimate embrace, it became respectable, but never completely dignified, after Queen

  • lavatory

    construction: Improvements in building services: …Bramah invented the metal valve-type water closet as early as 1778, and other early lavatories, sinks, and bathtubs were of metal also; lead, copper, and zinc were all tried. The metal fixtures proved difficult to clean, however, and in England during the 1870s Thomas Twyford developed the first large one-piece…

  • Laveau, Marie (American Vodou queen)

    Marie Laveau, Vodou queen of New Orleans. Laveau’s powers reportedly included healing the sick, extending altruistic gifts to the poor, and overseeing spiritual rites. There is some confusion regarding Laveau’s year of birth. Some documents indicate that she was born in 1794, while other research

  • Laveaux, Étienne (French colonial governor)

    Toussaint Louverture: Rise to power: …decisive: the governor of Saint-Domingue, Étienne Laveaux, made Toussaint lieutenant governor; the British suffered severe reverses; and the Spaniards were expelled.

  • Laveaux, Marie (American Vodou queen)

    Marie Laveau, Vodou queen of New Orleans. Laveau’s powers reportedly included healing the sick, extending altruistic gifts to the poor, and overseeing spiritual rites. There is some confusion regarding Laveau’s year of birth. Some documents indicate that she was born in 1794, while other research

  • Lavelle, Louis (French philosopher)

    Louis Lavelle, French philosopher recognized as a forerunner of the psychometaphysic movement, which teaches that self-actualization and ultimate freedom develop from seeking one’s “inward” being and relating it to the Absolute. Much of his thought drew upon the writings of Nicolas Malebranche and

  • Lavelli, Dante Bert Joseph (American football player)

    Dante Bert Joseph Lavelli, (“Gluefingers”), American football player (born Feb. 23, 1923, Hudson, Ohio—died Jan. 20, 2009, Cleveland, Ohio), was a star wide receiver (1946–56) for the Cleveland Browns professional football team, helping the Browns capture four All-America Football Conference

  • lavender (plant)

    Lavender, (genus Lavandula), genus of about 30 species of the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to countries bordering the Mediterranean. Lavender species are common in herb gardens for their fragrant leaves and attractive flowers. The plants are widely cultivated for their essential oils, which are

  • Lavender Hill Mob, The (film by Crichton [1951])

    The Lavender Hill Mob, British comedy film, released in 1951, highlighted by a much-praised performance by Alec Guinness. Henry Holland (played by Guinness) is a meek British bank clerk from Lavender Hill, a street in South London, who has masterminded a meticulous plan to steal gold bullion from

  • lavender oil (plant substance)

    lavender: Lavender oil, or lavender flower oil, is obtained by distillation of the flowers and is used chiefly in fine perfumes and cosmetics. It is a colourless or yellow liquid, the fragrant constituents of which are linalyl acetate, linalool, pinene, limonene, geraniol, and cineole. Lavender water,…

  • lavender water (plant product)

    lavender: Lavender water, a solution of the essential oil in alcohol with other added scents, is used in a variety of toilet preparations.

  • Lavengro (work by Borrow)

    George Borrow: …memorable passages in his masterpiece, Lavengro (1851). Between 1815 and 1818 he attended grammar school at Norwich, and it was here that he began to acquire a smattering of many languages. An attempt to apprentice him to the law proved unsuccessful, and early in 1824 he decided to try his…

  • laver (red algae)

    Laver, (genus Porphyra), genus of 60–70 species of marine red algae (family Bangiaceae). Laver grows near the high-water mark of the intertidal zone in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It grows best in cold nitrogen-rich water. Laver is harvested, dried, and used as food in greater

  • Laver, Rod (Australian tennis player)

    Rod Laver, Australian tennis player, the second male player in the history of the game (after Don Budge in 1938) to win the four major singles championships—Australian, French, British (Wimbledon), and U.S.—in one year (1962) and the first to repeat this Grand Slam (1969). Laver is considered one

  • Laver, Rodney George (Australian tennis player)

    Rod Laver, Australian tennis player, the second male player in the history of the game (after Don Budge in 1938) to win the four major singles championships—Australian, French, British (Wimbledon), and U.S.—in one year (1962) and the first to repeat this Grand Slam (1969). Laver is considered one

  • Lavéra (France)

    Marseille: Industry: …building of an outport at Lavéra capable of receiving large oil tankers. This trend was accelerated from the late 1960s with the opening of the Fos port-industrial complex and with the addition of more petrochemical plants as well as steelworks. The majority of these installations use raw materials that enter…

  • Laverack setter (breed of dog)

    English setter, breed of sporting dog that has served as a gun dog in England for more than 400 years and has been bred in its present form since about 1825. It is sometimes called the Llewellin setter or the Laverack setter for the developers of two strains of the breed. Like the other setters, it

  • Laveran, Alphonse (French physician and pathologist)

    Alphonse Laveran, French physician, pathologist, and parasitologist who discovered the parasite that causes human malaria. For this and later work on protozoal diseases he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1907. Educated at the Strasbourg faculty of medicine, he served as an

  • Laveran, Charles-Louis-Alphonse (French physician and pathologist)

    Alphonse Laveran, French physician, pathologist, and parasitologist who discovered the parasite that causes human malaria. For this and later work on protozoal diseases he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1907. Educated at the Strasbourg faculty of medicine, he served as an

  • Laverne & Shirley (American television program)

    Happy Days: … (1979), Joanie Loves Chachi (1982–83), Laverne and Shirley (1976–83), and Mork and Mindy (1978–82), the last two of which, like Happy Days, were produced by Gary Marshall, who went on to direct motion pictures such as Pretty Woman (1990). Howard, who had received his start in television on The Andy…

  • LaVey, Anton (American author)

    Anton LaVey, American author and counterculture figure who founded the Church of Satan. Many details of LaVey’s early life are disputed or unknown. Soon after he was born, his family moved to the San Francisco Bay area. According to some accounts, he left high school to join a circus. He

  • LaVey, Anton Szandor (American author)

    Anton LaVey, American author and counterculture figure who founded the Church of Satan. Many details of LaVey’s early life are disputed or unknown. Soon after he was born, his family moved to the San Francisco Bay area. According to some accounts, he left high school to join a circus. He

  • Lavia frons (mammal)

    bat: Activity patterns: …flying fox (Pteropus samoensis), the yellow-winged bat (Lavia frons), and the greater sac-winged bat Saccopteryx bilineata, may forage actively during the day, but little is yet known of their special adaptations.

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