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  • Lander, Harald (Danish dancer)

    Harald Lander, Danish dancer and choreographer who was primarily responsible for rebuilding the faltering Royal Danish Ballet into a superb performing organization. Lander studied under the great ballet master and reformer Michel Fokine in 1926–27 and danced in leading roles until 1945. As ballet

  • Lander, John (British explorer)

    Niger River: Study and exploration: …explorers, John and Richard Lander, established the lower course of the Niger by canoeing down the river from Yauri (now also covered by Lake Kainji), to the Atlantic Ocean, via the Nun River passage. In the second half of the 19th century two German explorers, Heinrich Barth and Eduard…

  • Lander, Richard Lemon (British explorer)

    Richard Lemon Lander, British explorer of West Africa who traced the course of the lower Niger River to its delta. He accompanied the Scottish explorer Hugh Clapperton as a servant on his second expedition to the region now lying within northern Nigeria. After Clapperton’s death near Sokoto (April

  • Landers, Ann (American advice columnist)

    Ann Landers, (Esther [“Eppie”] Pauline Friedman Lederer), American advice columnist (born July 4, 1918, Sioux City, Iowa—died June 22, 2002, Chicago, Ill.), gave down-to-earth commonsense—and sometimes wisecracking—counsel to readers with a variety of problems that ranged from everyday family, f

  • Landerziehungsheim (German school)

    Hermann Lietz: …1904 he had founded three Landerziehungsheime (country boarding schools), based on Reddie’s model, for boys of different ages, in Ilsenburg, Haubinda, and Bieberstein. Lietz eventually succeeded in establishing five more Landerziehungsheime.

  • Landes (region, France)

    Landes, forest region bordering the Bay of Biscay in the Aquitaine Basin of southwestern France, extending northward to the Garonne Estuary and southward to the Adour River. With an area of 5,400 square miles (14,000 square km), Landes occupies three-quarters of the Landes département, half of

  • Landesadel (German nobility)

    Germany: The nobility: The provincial nobility (Landesadel) had lost direct contact with the crown and were being compelled by degrees to acknowledge the suzerainty of the local prince. The imperial knights had been extensively employed by the Hohenstaufen emperors in military and administrative capacities and were chiefly concentrated in the former…

  • Landesbühne (theatre, Hannover, Germany)

    Lower Saxony: National parks and cultural life: …other theatres, among them the Landesbühne, which gives performances in dozens of towns in the region. Other notable theatres are, in Wilhelmshaven, the Landesbühne Niedersachsen Nord; in Göttingen, the Deutsches Theater; in Hildesheim, the Stadttheater; and in Celle, the Schlosstheater, whose plays are performed in a fine Baroque building dating…

  • Landesmuseum (museum, Hanover, Germany)

    museum of modern art: History: Dorner, director (1925–37) of the Landesmuseum in Hanover, was deeply interested in the work of contemporary artists such as Piet Mondrian, László Moholy-Nagy, and Kazimir Malevich and sought to integrate their ideas into the Landesmuseum by inviting several of them to design displays for modern art that would fit the…

  • Landestopographie (Swiss population institution)

    map: The rise of national surveys: …National of France, and the Landestopographie of Switzerland are examples.

  • Landfall (album by Anderson and Kronos Quartet)

    Laurie Anderson: …with the Kronos Quartet on Landfall, which was inspired by Hurricane Sandy, and it won a Grammy Award for best chamber music/small ensemble performance. Anderson also collaborated on the opening ceremony for the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.

  • landfarming (waste management)

    hazardous-waste management: Treatment: …hazardous waste biologically is called landfarming. In this technique the waste is carefully mixed with surface soil on a suitable tract of land. Microbes that can metabolize the waste may be added, along with nutrients. In some cases a genetically engineered species of bacteria is used. Food or forage crops…

  • landfast ice

    sea ice: …is also landfast ice, or fast ice, which is immobile, since it is either attached directly to the coast or seafloor or locked in place between grounded icebergs. Fast ice grows in place by freezing of seawater or by pack ice becoming attached to the shore, seafloor, or icebergs. Fast…

  • landfill gas (chemistry)

    biogas: Landfill gas: …biogas produced (also known as landfill gas) can be collected from a series of interconnected pipes located at various depths across the landfill. The composition of this gas changes over the life span of the landfill. Generally, after one year, the gas is composed of about 60 percent methane and…

  • landfill, sanitary

    Sanitary landfill, method of controlled disposal of municipal solid waste (refuse) on land. The method was introduced in England in 1912 (where it is called controlled tipping). Waste is deposited in thin layers (up to 1 metre, or 3 feet) and promptly compacted by heavy machinery (e.g.,

  • landform

    Landform, any conspicuous topographic feature on the Earth or a similar planetary body or satellite. Familiar examples are mountains (including volcanic cones), plateaus, and valleys. Comparable structures have been detected on Mars, Venus, the Moon, and certain satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  • landform evolution

    continental landform: Basic concepts and considerations: Landform evolution is an expression that implies progressive changes in topography from an initial designated morphology toward or to some altered form. The changes can only occur in response to energy available to do work within the geomorphic system in question, and it necessarily follows…

  • landform, continental (geology)

    Continental landform, any conspicuous topographic feature on the largest land areas of the Earth. Familiar examples are mountains (including volcanic cones), plateaus, and valleys. (The term landform also can be applied to related features that occur on the floor of the Earth’s ocean basins, as,

  • landgrave (title of nobility)

    Landgrave, a title of nobility in Germany and Scandinavia, dating from the 12th century, when the kings of Germany attempted to strengthen their position in relation to that of the dukes (Herzoge). The kings set up “provincial counts” (Landgrafen) over whom the dukes would have no control and who

  • landgravine (title of nobility)

    Landgrave, a title of nobility in Germany and Scandinavia, dating from the 12th century, when the kings of Germany attempted to strengthen their position in relation to that of the dukes (Herzoge). The kings set up “provincial counts” (Landgrafen) over whom the dukes would have no control and who

  • Landgrebe, Ludwig (German philosopher)

    phenomenology: Other developments: Ludwig Landgrebe, who was Husserl’s personal assistant for many years, published in 1939 Erfahrung und Urteil (Experience and Judgment), the first of Husserl’s posthumous works devoted to the genealogy of logic. Among German-language scholars, Landgrebe remained closest to Husserl’s original views and developed them consistently…

  • Landi, Gaspare (Italian painter)

    Western painting: Italy: …the next generation: Giuseppe Cades, Gaspare Landi, and Vincenzo Camuccini. These artists worked mostly in Rome, the first two making reputations as portraitists, Landi especially being noted for good contemporary groups.

  • landing (aircraft)

    airplane: …ground and during takeoff and landing. Most planes feature an enclosed body (fuselage) to house the crew, passengers, and cargo; the cockpit is the area from which the pilot operates the controls and instruments to fly the plane.

  • landing craft (naval craft)

    Landing craft, small naval vessel used primarily to transport and tactically deploy soldiers, equipment, vehicles, and supplies from ship to shore for the conduct of offensive military operations. During World War II the British and Americans mass-produced landing craft, modifying them throughout

  • Landing Craft, Air Cushion (naval amphibious craft)

    amphibious vehicle: … took delivery of its first LCAC (“landing craft, air cushion”) in 1984, and 90 more would enter service over subsequent years. Although boasting lighter armament than the LVT and its descendants—its twin gun mounts could support light or heavy machine guns or 40-mm grenade launchers—the LCAC’s range and versatility made…

  • Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) (naval craft)

    landing craft: The resulting Landing Craft, Infantry (Large), called the LCI, was a 158-foot (48-metre) vessel with the capacity to carry 200 infantrymen on a 48-hour passage—more than enough time to cross small bodies of water such as the English Channel. The LCI did not have the standard bow…

  • Landing Craft, Tank (naval craft)

    naval ship: Amphibians: Navy called the LCT (landing craft, tank), was carried over oceanic distances and launched at the time of assault. The LCT was too large to fit the davit of a conventional transport, so a new type of ship, the LSD (landing ship, dock), was created specifically to carry it.…

  • Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (naval craft)

    landing craft: …the basic design for the Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP), often simply called the Higgins boat. The LCVP could carry 36 combat-equipped infantrymen or 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of cargo from ship to shore. During World War II the United States produced 23,398 of the craft. The British version of…

  • landing field

    Airport, site and installation for the takeoff and landing of aircraft. An airport usually has paved runways and maintenance facilities and serves as a terminal for passengers and cargo. The requirements for airports have increased in complexity and scale since the earliest days of flying. Before

  • landing gear (aviation)

    airplane: Takeoff and landing gear: Another means of categorizing aircraft is by the type of gear used for takeoff and landing. In a conventional aircraft the gear consists of two primary wheels under the forward part of the fuselage and a tailwheel. The opposite configuration is called a…

  • landing hook (fishing device)

    fishing: Early history: …of a landing hook, or gaff, for lifting large hooked fish from the water was noted by Thomas Barker in 1667. Improved methods of fishhook making were devised in the 1650s by Charles Kirby, who later invented the Kirby bend, a distinctive shape of hook with an offset point that…

  • landing ship, dock (naval vessel)

    naval ship: Amphibians: …of ship, the LSD (landing ship, dock), was created specifically to carry it. The LSD had a floodable well deck aft, like a miniature dry dock. It could carry tank-laden LCTs over oceanic distances then flood its well deck off a landing beach and launch the craft.

  • landing ship, tank (naval ship)

    Landing ship, tank (LST), naval ship specially designed to transport and deploy troops, vehicles, and supplies onto foreign shores for the conduct of offensive military operations. LSTs were designed during World War II to disembark military forces without the use of dock facilities or the various

  • landing vehicle, tracked

    amphibious vehicle: The LVT resembled a tank, whereas the DUKW moved on rubber tires ashore and was propeller-driven when afloat. Each began its operational life as little more than a floating truck. The rigours of combat demonstrated the need for armour plating, however, and the LVT, with the…

  • Landini cadence (musical formula)

    Francesco Landini: …Landini, is known as the Landini cadence, in which the leading tone drops to the sixth of the scale before approaching the final tonic note.

  • Landini, Francesco (Italian composer)

    Francesco Landini, leading composer of 14th-century Italy, famed during his lifetime for his musical memory, his skill in improvisation, and his virtuosity on the organetto, or portative organ, as well as for his compositions. He also played the flute and the rebec. The son of Jacopo the Painter,

  • Landino, Cristoforo (Italian educator)

    Platonic Academy: …the University of Florence, Cristofero Landino; and the scholars and philosophers Pico della Mirandola and Gentile de’ Becchi.

  • Landino, Francesco (Italian composer)

    Francesco Landini, leading composer of 14th-century Italy, famed during his lifetime for his musical memory, his skill in improvisation, and his virtuosity on the organetto, or portative organ, as well as for his compositions. He also played the flute and the rebec. The son of Jacopo the Painter,

  • Landis, Floyd (American cyclist)

    Lance Armstrong: Doping investigations and ban: In April 2010 Floyd Landis sent an e-mail to a USA Cycling official, admitting that he and other former teammates, most notably Armstrong, were guilty of doping. The following month a U.S. federal grand jury investigation into doping allegations against Armstrong was initiated. That year Armstrong finished 23rd…

  • Landis, Kenesaw Mountain (American baseball commissioner)

    Kenesaw Mountain Landis, American federal judge who, as the first commissioner of organized professional baseball, was noted for his uncompromising measures against persons guilty of dishonesty or other conduct he regarded as damaging to the sport. He was named for a mountain near Atlanta, Ga.,

  • Landívar, Rafael (Guatemalan poet)
  • Ländler (dance)

    Ländler, traditional couple dance of Bavaria and Alpine Austria. To lively music in 34 time, the dancers turn under each other’s arms using complicated arm and hand holds, dance back to back, and grasp each other firmly to turn around and around. These figures and the triple rhythm have appeared in

  • Landless Movement (Brazilian social movement)

    Landless Workers Movement (MST), Brazilian social movement seeking agrarian reform through land expropriation. The Landless Workers Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra; MST) is one of the largest and most-influential social movements in Latin America. Thousands of Brazilian

  • Landless Workers Movement (Brazilian social movement)

    Landless Workers Movement (MST), Brazilian social movement seeking agrarian reform through land expropriation. The Landless Workers Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra; MST) is one of the largest and most-influential social movements in Latin America. Thousands of Brazilian

  • landlord (law)

    Landlord and tenant, the parties to the leasing of real estate, whose relationship is bound by contract. The landlord, or lessor, as owner or possessor of a property—whether corporeal, such as lands or buildings, or incorporeal, such as rights of common or of way—agrees through a lease, an a

  • Landlord’s Game (board game)

    Monopoly: Most were based on the Landlord’s Game, a board game designed and patented by Lizzie G. Magie in 1904. She revised and renewed the patent on her game in 1924. Notably, the version Magie originated did not involve the concept of a monopoly; for her, the point of the game…

  • Landlord, The (novel by Lattany)

    Kristin Hunter Lattany: The Landlord (1966; film 1970) presents a misanthropic white landlord transformed by his new black tenants. After her second marriage in 1968, she published variously as Kristin Hunter, Kristin Hunter Lattany, and Kristin Lattany. In The Survivors (1975), a lonely, prosperous, middle-aged dressmaker befriends a…

  • Landlord, The (film by Ashby [1970])

    Louis Gossett, Jr.: …was in the social comedy The Landlord (1970), directed by Hal Ashby. He costarred in the short-lived TV series The Young Rebels (1970–71), set during the American Revolution. After that he appeared in a series of minor films, the most notable of which was George Cukor’s Travels with My Aunt…

  • Landman, Ada Louise (American architecture critic)

    Ada Louise Huxtable, (Ada Louise Landman), American architecture critic (born March 14, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 7, 2013, New York City), praised the construction and preservation of Manhattan buildings that complied with her vision of respecting societal needs and maintaining civic history

  • Landmark Tower (building, Yokohama, Japan)

    Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area: Building styles: …building in Japan: the 70-story Landmark Tower, completed in 1993.

  • Landmarker (religion)

    American Baptist Association: …was a development of the Landmarker (or Landmarkist) teaching of some Southern Baptists in the mid-19th century. They believed that early Christians were Baptists who baptized only adult believers by immersion and who were organized in local autonomous congregations. The Landmarkers wished to retain what they considered the “old landmarks”…

  • Landmarkist (religion)

    American Baptist Association: …was a development of the Landmarker (or Landmarkist) teaching of some Southern Baptists in the mid-19th century. They believed that early Christians were Baptists who baptized only adult believers by immersion and who were organized in local autonomous congregations. The Landmarkers wished to retain what they considered the “old landmarks”…

  • Landmarks Preservation Commission (American government agency)

    New York City: Planning the modern metropolis: …to the creation of the Landmarks Preservation Commission (1965), whose purview was soon extended to interiors and to scenic landmarks. The commission has established historic districts, designated more than 1,000 individual landmarks, and preserved a past that has become increasingly important to New Yorkers. Restoration, preservation, and walking tours have…

  • landmine (weapon)

    Land mine, stationary explosive charge used against military troops or vehicles. See

  • Landnáma (work by Ari Thorgilsson)

    Landnámabók, (Icelandic: “Book of Settlements”) unique Icelandic genealogical record, probably originally compiled in the early 12th century by, at least in part, Ari Thorgilsson the Learned, though it exists in several versions of a later date. It lists the names of nearly 400 prominent original

  • Landnámabók (work by Ari Thorgilsson)

    Landnámabók, (Icelandic: “Book of Settlements”) unique Icelandic genealogical record, probably originally compiled in the early 12th century by, at least in part, Ari Thorgilsson the Learned, though it exists in several versions of a later date. It lists the names of nearly 400 prominent original

  • Lando (pope)

    Lando, pope from July/August 913 to early 914. He reigned during one of the most difficult periods in papal history—from c. 900 to 950. The Holy See was then dominated by the relatives and dependents of the senior

  • Lando di Sezze (antipope)

    Innocent (III), last of four antipopes (1179–80) during the pontificate of Alexander III. A member of a family of German origin, he was a cardinal when elected on Sept. 29, 1179, by a faction opposing Alexander, who, in January 1180, relegated Innocent to the southern Italian abbey of SS. Trinità

  • Landois, Leonard (German physiologist)

    blood group: Historical background: In 1875 German physiologist Leonard Landois showed that, if the red blood cells of an animal belonging to one species are mixed with serum taken from an animal of another species, the red cells usually clump and sometimes burst—i.e., hemolyze. He attributed the appearance of black urine after transfusion…

  • Landolt rings (medical instrument)

    human eye: Measurement: …acuity is measured by the Landolt C, which is a circle with a break in it. The subject is asked to state where the break is when the figure is rotated to successive random positions. The size of the C, and thus of its break, is reduced until the subject…

  • Landoma (people)

    Landuma, group of some 20,000 people located principally in Guinea, 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 km) inland along the border of Guinea-Bissau. Their language, also called Landuma or Tyapi, belongs to the Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family and is related to Baga. The Landuma are

  • Landon, Alf (American politician)

    Alf Landon, governor of Kansas (1933–37) and unsuccessful U.S. Republican presidential candidate in 1936. Landon went with his parents to Independence, Kan., in 1904. He received a law degree from the University of Kansas in 1908 and entered the oil business in 1912. He attended the Bull Moose

  • Landon, Alfred Mossman (American politician)

    Alf Landon, governor of Kansas (1933–37) and unsuccessful U.S. Republican presidential candidate in 1936. Landon went with his parents to Independence, Kan., in 1904. He received a law degree from the University of Kansas in 1908 and entered the oil business in 1912. He attended the Bull Moose

  • Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (British author)

    Letitia Elizabeth Landon, English poet and novelist who, at a time when women were conventionally restricted in their themes, wrote of passionate love. She is remembered for her high-spirited social life and mysterious death and for verse that reveals her lively intelligence and emotional

  • Landon, Michael (American actor, director, and producer)

    Michael Landon, American television actor, director, and producer who was best known for his work on the series Bonanza and Little House on the Prairie. Landon won a track-and-field scholarship (for javelin throwing) to the University of Southern California, but a torn ligament cut short his

  • Landon, Nancy (United States senator)

    Nancy Landon Kassebaum, U.S. Republican politician who was the first woman to represent Kansas in the U.S. Senate. She served from 1978 to 1997. Nancy Landon was the daughter of Alfred M. Landon, governor of Kansas and Republican candidate for president in 1936. She studied political science at the

  • Landor Associates (American company)

    industrial design: American hegemony and challenges from abroad: …designer Walter Landor, who established Landor Associates (1941), a design consultancy renowned for creating brand identity and corporate imagery; industrial designer Charles Butler, a protégé of Raymond Loewy who in the 1950s and ’60s designed British airliner interiors, from Viscounts for Capital Airlines (1955) to the Concorde (1969 and later);…

  • Landor, Walter Savage (British author)

    Walter Savage Landor, English poet and writer best remembered for Imaginary Conversations, prose dialogues between historical personages. Educated at Rugby School and at Trinity College, Oxford, Landor spent a lifetime quarreling with his father, neighbours, wife, and any authorities at hand who

  • Landowska, Wanda (Polish musician)

    Wanda Landowska, Polish-born harpsichordist who helped initiate the revival of the harpsichord in the 20th century. Landowska studied composition in Berlin in 1896, and in 1900 she went to Paris. There, influenced by her husband, Henry Lew, an authority on folklore, she researched early music and

  • Landowska, Wanda Louise (Polish musician)

    Wanda Landowska, Polish-born harpsichordist who helped initiate the revival of the harpsichord in the 20th century. Landowska studied composition in Berlin in 1896, and in 1900 she went to Paris. There, influenced by her husband, Henry Lew, an authority on folklore, she researched early music and

  • Landowski, Paul (French sculptor)

    Christ the Redeemer: The French sculptor Paul Landowski, who collaborated with Silva Costa on the final design, has been credited as the primary designer of the figure’s head and hands. Funds were raised privately, principally by the church. Under Silva Costa’s supervision, construction began in 1926 and continued for five years.…

  • Landrace (breed of pig)

    livestock farming: Breeds: The Landrace is a white, lop-eared pig found in most countries in central and eastern Europe, with local varieties in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. World attention was first drawn to the Landrace by Denmark, where since 1895 a superior pig has been produced, designed…

  • Landrieu, Mary (United States senator)

    Bill Cassidy: …Cassidy ran against Democratic incumbent Mary Landrieu for a seat in the U.S. Senate. Landrieu received 42.1 percent of the vote to Cassidy’s 41, forcing a runoff election, which Cassidy won decisively, aided by voters who had supported the Libertarian candidate in the general election. His victory marked the first…

  • Landrum-Griffin Act (United States history)

    Landrum-Griffin Act, a legislative response to widespread publicity about corruption and autocratic methods in certain American labour unions during the 1950s. Even though the AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations) expelled three of the worst offenders (the

  • Landry, Bernard (Canadian politician)

    Bernard Landry , Canadian politician who served as premier of Quebec (2001–03) and leader of the Parti Québécois (PQ; 2001–05). Landry studied law at the University of Montreal and economics at the Institut d’Études Politiques (Institute for Political Studies) in Paris. In 1968 he helped found the

  • Landry, Jean-Bernard (Canadian politician)

    Bernard Landry , Canadian politician who served as premier of Quebec (2001–03) and leader of the Parti Québécois (PQ; 2001–05). Landry studied law at the University of Montreal and economics at the Institut d’Études Politiques (Institute for Political Studies) in Paris. In 1968 he helped found the

  • Landry, Thomas Wade (American football coach)

    Tom Landry, American professional gridiron football coach, notably with the National Football League (NFL) Dallas Cowboys from 1960 to 1989. He molded the Cowboys into a dominant team from the late 1960s to the early ’80s. Landry began his professional career as a player with the All-America

  • Landry, Tom (American football coach)

    Tom Landry, American professional gridiron football coach, notably with the National Football League (NFL) Dallas Cowboys from 1960 to 1989. He molded the Cowboys into a dominant team from the late 1960s to the early ’80s. Landry began his professional career as a player with the All-America

  • Lands for Settlement Act (New Zealand history)

    Sir John McKenzie: …McKenzie won passage of the Lands for Settlement Act that opened up crown land for leasing and, when amended in 1894, compelled owners of large estates to sell portions of their holdings. Also in 1894 he introduced the Government Advances to Settlers Act, which greatly expanded the supply of credit…

  • Landsat (satellite)

    Landsat, any of a series of unmanned U.S. scientific satellites. The first three Landsat satellites were launched in 1972, 1975, and 1978. These satellites were primarily designed to collect information about the Earth’s natural resources, including the location of mineral deposits and the

  • Landsbanki (Icelandic bank)

    Iceland: Financial boom and bust: …of the three large banks, Landsbanki, sent shock waves abroad as the British and Dutch governments stepped in to compensate their citizens whose deposits in the bank had been lost. Initially, the Althing voted to compensate Britain and the Netherlands, but in 2011 Pres. Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson refused to sign…

  • Landsberg an der Warthe (Poland)

    Gorzów Wielkopolski, city, one of two capitals (with Zielona Góra) of Lubuskie województwo (province), northwestern Poland, on the Warta River. Gorzów Wielkopolski began as a castle in the Wielkopolska, or Great Poland, region that was overcome by the margraves of Brandenburg in 1257. The town

  • Landsberger, Benno (Assyriologist)

    history of Mesopotamia: The character and influence of ancient Mesopotamia: …an article by the Assyriologist Benno Landsberger on “Die Eigenbegrifflichkeit der babylonischen Welt” (1926; “The Distinctive Conceptuality of the Babylonian World”), it has become almost a commonplace to call attention to the necessity of viewing ancient Mesopotamia and its civilization as an independent entity.

  • landscape (ecosystem)

    patch dynamics: The role of scale: Landscapes and regions are made up of groups of distinct terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that interact with one another. The ecological dynamics between the different patches within these broad scales often are driven by geomorphology (landforms), climate, and changes in land use that surround and…

  • landscape (art)

    painting: Landscape: Idealized landscapes were common subjects for fresco decoration in Roman villas. Landscape painting (as exemplified by a Chinese landscape scroll by Gu Kaizhi dating from the 4th century) was an established tradition in East Asia, where themes such as the seasons and the elements held a…

  • Landscape Arch (geological formation, Utah, United States)

    Arches National Park: Landscape Arch, measuring about 290 feet (88 metres) long from base to base, is one of the longest natural freestanding spans of rock in the world; since 1991 large pieces of the formation have fallen, though the arch remains intact. In 2008 Wall Arch, one…

  • landscape architecture

    Landscape architecture, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other planned green outdoor spaces. Landscape gardening is used to enhance nature and to create a natural setting for buildings, towns, and cities. It is one of the decorative arts and is allied

  • Landscape at the Bois d’Amour at Pont-Aven (painting by Sérusier)

    Paul Sérusier: Formally called Landscape at the Bois d’Amour at Pont-Aven (1888), it was known to the Nabis as The Talisman, and it is considered the first Nabi painting. Although by the summer of 1889 Sérusier’s enthusiasm for Gauguin’s work had begun to subside, he joined Gauguin at Pont-Aven…

  • landscape design

    Garden and landscape design, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other types of areas. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the settings for buildings and public areas and in recreational areas and parks. It is one of the decorative arts and is

  • landscape gardening

    Garden and landscape design, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other types of areas. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the settings for buildings and public areas and in recreational areas and parks. It is one of the decorative arts and is

  • landscape horticulture

    horticulture: …plants for ornament (floriculture and landscape horticulture). Pomology deals with fruit and nut crops. Olericulture deals with herbaceous plants for the kitchen, including, for example, carrots (edible root), asparagus (edible stem), lettuce (edible leaf), cauliflower (edible flower buds), tomatoes (edible fruit), and peas (edible seed).

  • Landscape of the Four Seasons (work by Sesshū)

    Sesshū: Mature years and works: …or “Sansui chōkan” (formally titled Landscape of Four Seasons, 1486), is generally considered Sesshū’s masterpiece and is often regarded as the greatest Japanese ink painting. Depicting the four seasons, beginning with spring and ending with winter, it extends more than 50 feet (15 metres). Though based in both theme and…

  • landscape painting (art)

    Landscape painting, the depiction of natural scenery in art. Landscape paintings may capture mountains, valleys, bodies of water, fields, forests, and coasts and may or may not include man-made structures as well as people. Although paintings from the earliest ancient and Classical periods included

  • Landscape with a Rainbow (painting by Rubens)

    Peter Paul Rubens: Later career: …1635, Rubens painted his glowing Landscape with a Rainbow (1636) and its pendant Landscape with Het Steen (1636). These complementary views of a countryside teeming with life celebrate the natural order of creation and present an Arcadian vision of humankind in harmony with nature. Such pictures alone, permeated with shimmering…

  • Landscape with Cattle and Peasants (painting by Lorrain)

    Claude Lorrain: Life and works: His first dated work is Landscape with Cattle and Peasants. Painted in 1629, it hangs in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Soon after, in the early 1630s, he rose to fame. He did this partly on the basis of two or three series of landscape frescoes (all but one, a…

  • Landscape with Christ and the Apostles at the Sea of Tiberias (painting by Bruegel)

    Pieter Bruegel, the Elder: Life: …earliest signed and dated painting, Landscape with Christ and the Apostles at the Sea of Tiberias. The holy figures in this painting were probably done by Maarten de Vos, a painter from Antwerp then working in Italy.

  • Landscape with Het Steen (painting by Rubens)

    Peter Paul Rubens: Later career: …Rainbow (1636) and its pendant Landscape with Het Steen (1636). These complementary views of a countryside teeming with life celebrate the natural order of creation and present an Arcadian vision of humankind in harmony with nature. Such pictures alone, permeated with shimmering colour and light, would ensure Rubens’s fame as…

  • Landscape with St. Jerome (work by Patinir)

    Joachim Patinir: 1515–24), and Landscape with St. Jerome (1516–17) was much reduced in scale and immersed in the phenomena of the natural world.

  • Landscape with Steeple (painting by Kandinsky)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Munich period: In Landscape with Steeple (1909) similar tendencies are evident, together with the beginning of what might be called an explosion in the composition. By 1910 Improvisation XIV is already, as its somewhat musical title suggests, practically abstract; with the 1911 Encircled, there has definitely developed a…

  • Landscape with the Body of Phocion Carried out of Athens (painting by Poussin)

    Nicolas Poussin: The Raphael of our century: …Poussin portrays the body of Phocion being carried out of Athens in a landscape of unparalleled grandeur and majesty, elevating that traditionally “inferior” genre of painting to the level of his most exalted history pictures.

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