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  • Liu Tsung-yüan (Chinese author)

    Liu Zongyuan, Chinese poet and prose writer who supported the movement to liberate writers from the highly formalized pianwen, the parallel prose style cultivated by the Chinese literati for nearly 1,000 years. A talented writer from his youth, Liu Zongyuan served as a government official for most

  • Liu Wuzhou (Chinese rebel)

    China: Early Tang (618–626): Liu Wuzhou in far northern Shanxi, who had been a constant threat since 619, was finally defeated and killed by his former Turkish allies in 622. In the south during the confusion at the end of the Sui, Xiao Xian had set himself up as…

  • Liu Xiang (Chinese athlete)

    Liu Xiang, hurdler who in 2004 brought China its first Olympic gold medal in a men’s track-and-field event. Liu enrolled in a junior sports school in fourth grade and initially succeeded at the high jump. He switched to the hurdles at age 15 and debuted internationally at the world junior

  • Liu Xiaobo (Chinese critic, professor, and activist)

    Liu Xiaobo, Chinese literary critic, professor, and human rights activist who called for democratic reforms and the end of one-party rule in China. In 2010 he became the first Chinese citizen to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Liu graduated from Jilin University in 1982, and he continued his

  • Liu Xie (Chinese writer)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …Dragon”), by the 6th-century writer Liu Xie.

  • Liu Xiu (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Guangwudi, posthumous name (shi) of the Chinese emperor (reigned ad 25–57) who restored the Han dynasty after the usurpation of Wang Mang, a former Han minister who established the Xin dynasty (ad 9–25). The restored Han dynasty is sometimes referred to as the Dong (Eastern), or the Hou (Later),

  • Liu Xuan (emperor of Han dynasty)

    China: Dong (Eastern) Han: …house—Liu Xuan, better known as Liu Gengshi—who had been actually enthroned for two years, until his death in the course of turbulent civil fighting. Chang’an had been virtually destroyed by warfare, and Guangwudi established his capital at Luoyang.

  • Liu Xun (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Xuandi, posthumous name (shi) of the eighth emperor (reigned 74–49/48 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), who ascended the throne when the designated heir apparent behaved indecorously during mourning ceremonies for his father. The Xuandi emperor strove to abate the harshness and widespread

  • Liu Yang (Chinese astronaut)

    Liu Yang, Chinese astronaut and the first Chinese woman in space. Liu joined the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in 1997 and learned to fly at Changchun No. 1 Flight College. She became a pilot of cargo planes. Liu attained the rank of major and became deputy head of her flight unit. She joined the

  • Liu Yichang (Chinese journalist and novelist)

    Hong Kong literature: Liu Yichang came to Hong Kong in 1948 and was editor of the influential newspaper supplement Qianshuiwan (“Repulse Bay”) and, later, the long-lasting literary magazine Xianggang Wenxue (“Hong Kong Literature”). He experimented in various fictional forms, ranging from a lengthy stream-of-consciousness novel (Jiutu [1963; Drunkard])…

  • Liu Yin (Chinese scholar)

    Confucianism: Confucian learning in Jin, Yuan, and Ming: The hermit-scholar Liu Yin (1249–93), on the other hand, allegedly refused Kublai Khan’s summons in order to maintain the dignity of the Confucian Way. To him education was for self-realization. Loyal to the Jin culture in which he was reared and faithful to the Confucian Way that…

  • Liu Ying (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Gaohou: …Gaohou’s young son, the emperor Huidi (reigned 195–188 bc), ascended the throne. Gaohou, whose ambition had spurred her husband’s rise to power, acted as regent and seized real power for herself. A cruel, vindictive woman, she consolidated her position by ignoring members of Gaozu’s family and promoting her own relatives…

  • Liu Yiqing (Chinese writer)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …Tales of the World”) by Liu Yiqing. Though prose writers as a whole continued to be most concerned with lyrical expression and rhetorical devices for artistic effect, there were notable deviations from the prevailing usage in the polyphonic pianwen (“parallel prose”). In this form, parallel construction of pairs of sentences…

  • Liu Yu (emperor of Liu-Song dynasty)

    Jin dynasty: …who was soon overthrown by Liu Yu, a general whose victorious campaigns against the northern kingdoms had won him great popularity. Liu Yu had the reigning emperor killed and set up a puppet ruler, whom he also had killed, finally setting himself on the throne and founding the short-lived Liu-Song…

  • Liu Yuan (ruler of China)

    Liu Yuan, Xiongnu invader who took the title of king of Han in 304. Liu’s invasion is seen as the start of the “barbarian” inundation of China that continued until 589. Liu was the ruler of the Xiongnu people of northern Shanxi province. He entered China at the request of one of the princes of the

  • Liu Yüan (ruler of China)

    Liu Yuan, Xiongnu invader who took the title of king of Han in 304. Liu’s invasion is seen as the start of the “barbarian” inundation of China that continued until 589. Liu was the ruler of the Xiongnu people of northern Shanxi province. He entered China at the request of one of the princes of the

  • Liu Yung-fu (Chinese rebel)

    China: Vietnam: …were under the command of Liu Yung-fu, a confederate of the Taiping. After a small French force had occupied some key points in Tongkin in 1873, a treaty was signed at Saigon in March 1874 that stipulated the sovereignty and independence of Vietnam. Though this clause implied that China could…

  • Liu Zhiji (Chinese historian)

    historiography: China: By about 710 ce, however, Liu Zhiji (661–721) had produced the Shitong (“Historical Perspectives”), the first comprehensive work on historical criticism in any language. For him, the writing of history had an exalted—and very Confucian—mission:

  • Liu Zhiyuan (emperor of Later Han dynasty)

    Five Dynasties: …also bore the name of Gaozu (personal name Liu Zhiyuan) founded the Hou (Later) Han dynasty and pushed the Khitan back into Inner Asia. But this regime lasted only four years before still another general usurped the throne, founding the Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty. Although progress toward a more stable…

  • Liu Zhuang (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Mingdi, posthumous name (shi) of the second emperor of the Dong (Eastern) Han dynasty (ad 25–220), during whose reign (ad 57–75) Buddhism is thought to have been introduced into China. Legend recounts that Mingdi (“Enlightened Emperor”) was visited in a dream by a golden image of the Buddha

  • Liu Zihou (Chinese author)

    Liu Zongyuan, Chinese poet and prose writer who supported the movement to liberate writers from the highly formalized pianwen, the parallel prose style cultivated by the Chinese literati for nearly 1,000 years. A talented writer from his youth, Liu Zongyuan served as a government official for most

  • Liu Zongyuan (Chinese author)

    Liu Zongyuan, Chinese poet and prose writer who supported the movement to liberate writers from the highly formalized pianwen, the parallel prose style cultivated by the Chinese literati for nearly 1,000 years. A talented writer from his youth, Liu Zongyuan served as a government official for most

  • Liu Zongzhou (Chinese scholar)

    Confucianism: Confucian learning in Jin, Yuan, and Ming: Among Wang’s critics, Liu Zongzhou (1578–1645) was perhaps the most brilliant. His Human Schemata (Renpu) offered a rigorous phenomenological description of human mistakes as a corrective to Wang Yangming’s moral optimism. Liu’s student Huang Zongxi (1610–95) compiled a comprehensive biographical history of Ming Confucians based on Liu’s writings.…

  • Liu, Lin-Gun (Australian geophysicist)

    high-pressure phenomena: Earth science: …understanding of deep-earth mineralogy when Lin-gun Liu of the Australian National University used a diamond-anvil cell to synthesize silicate perovskite, a dense form of the common mineral enstatite, MgSiO3. Subsequent studies by Liu revealed that many of the minerals believed to constitute the deep interior of the Earth transform to…

  • Liu, Lucy (American actress)

    Chicago: Kitty Baxter (Lucy Liu), a wealthy heiress accused of murdering her husband and two women after catching all three in bed together, arrives at the jail, stealing the spotlight from Roxie. The attention-seeking Roxie improvises a pregnancy, regaining the interest of Flynn and the press. Flynn convinces…

  • Liu-chiu (archipelago, Taiwan)

    P’eng-hu Islands, archipelago and hsien (county) of Taiwan. It consists of about 64 small islands that lie approximately 30 miles (50 km) west of the coast of mainland Taiwan, from which it is separated by the P’eng-hu Channel. Of volcanic origin, many of the islands consist of weathered basalt,

  • Liu-chou (China)

    Liuzhou, city, central Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southern China. Liuzhou, the second largest city in Guangxi, is a natural communication centre, being situated at the confluence of several tributaries that form the Liu River, which flows southward into a tributary of the Xi River. In

  • Liu-p’an Shan (mountains, China)

    Liupan Mountains, mountain range in northern China extending southward from the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia across the eastern panhandle of Gansu province and into western Shaanxi province. The range is formed by the uplifted western edge of the structural basin that underlies the Loess

  • Liu-Song dynasty (Chinese history)

    Daoism: The great Southern masters: …portents in favour of the Liu-Song dynasty (420–479), in whose rulers Daoists complacently agreed to recognize the fulfillment of the old messianic prophesies and the legitimate continuation of the Han dynasty. Lu was frequently invited to the capital (present-day Nanjing), where the Chongxuguan (Abbey) was founded for him and served…

  • Liu-t’iao Pien (wall, China)

    Willow Palisade, ditch and embankment built across parts of southern Northeast China (historically called Manchuria) and planted with willows during the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). Possibly from as early as 1000 bce, the Chinese (Han) inhabiting Manchuria primarily occupied a triangular area

  • Liu-Tsu tan-ching (Chinese Buddhism)

    Platform Sutra, important text from the Ch’an (Zen) school of Chinese Buddhism, most likely composed in the 8th century ce. It is attributed to the sixth patriarch of the Ch’an tradition, Hui-neng (638–713), although it is most likely the work of subsequent disciples who sought to legitimate their

  • Liubech (Ukraine)

    Russia: The rise of Kiev: …their Turkic allies, met at Liubech, north of Kiev, and agreed to divide the Kievan territory among themselves and their descendants; later, however, Vladimir II Monomakh made a briefly successful attempt (1113–25) to reunite the land of Rus.

  • Liubertsy (Russia)

    Lyubertsy, city, Moscow oblast (region), Russia. It lies in the greenbelt, southeast of Moscow city. Before the October Revolution in 1917 it was an agricultural centre, but its position at an important railway junction made it an attractive site for industry. In the early Soviet period, the

  • Liubimov, Yury Petrovich (Soviet theatrical director)

    Yury Petrovich Lyubimov, Soviet theatre director and actor noted for his two decades of somewhat experimental productions for the Taganka Theatre in Moscow. Lyubimov served in the Soviet army during World War II, and upon his release in 1946, he joined the company of the Yevgeny Vakhtangov Theatre.

  • Liudolf (duke of Swabia)

    Liudolf, duke of Swabia and son of the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, against whom he led a revolt. Liudolf, Otto’s son by his marriage to the English princess Eadgyth, was made duke of Swabia by his father in 950. In 952, feeling his inheritance rights threatened by Otto’s second marriage (to A

  • Liudolfing dynasty (German history)

    Saxon Dynasty, ruling house of German kings (Holy Roman emperors) from 919 to 1024. It came to power when the Liudolfing duke of Saxony was elected German king as Henry I (later called the Fowler), in 919. Henry I’s son and successor, Otto I the Great (king 936–973, western emperor from 962), won a

  • Liudprand (Lombard king)

    Liutprand, Lombard king of Italy whose long and prosperous reign was a period of expansion and consolidation for the Lombards. From his position as a Lombard chief, Liutprand gained the throne in 712, when revolution ended a succession of weak kings. He used to his advantage the Iconoclastic C

  • Liudprand of Cremona (Lombard bishop)

    Liutprand of Cremona, Lombard diplomat, historian, and bishop of Cremona whose chronicles are a major source for the history of the 10th century. A member of an aristocratic family, Liutprand grew up in Pavia, at the court of Hugh of Provence, king of Italy. When Hugh died in exile in 947, leaving

  • liufa (philosophy of painting)

    art criticism: …century), who offered the “Six Principles” for great art—a major principle being the qi yun sheng dong (“spirit resonance, life-motion”)—and to literati, who wrote biographies of great artists. For these and other regional approaches to art evaluation and historiography, see art, African; arts, Central Asian; arts, East Asian; arts,…

  • Liukin, Anastasiya Valeryevna (American gymnast)

    Nastia Liukin, American gymnast who won five medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, more than any other gymnast at the Games. Liukin was born into a family of extraordinary gymnasts. Her Kazakh-born father and coach, Valery Lyukin, won four medals for the Soviet Union at the 1988 Olympic

  • Liukin, Nastia (American gymnast)

    Nastia Liukin, American gymnast who won five medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, more than any other gymnast at the Games. Liukin was born into a family of extraordinary gymnasts. Her Kazakh-born father and coach, Valery Lyukin, won four medals for the Soviet Union at the 1988 Olympic

  • Liulichang Market (market, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Commerce and finance: The restored Liulichang Market is located just south of the Heping Gate in the old outer city. The area acquired its name (which means “Glazier’s Shop”) from the colourful glazed tiles that were made there during the Ming dynasty, but in the latter part of the 18th…

  • Liulin (ancient site, China)

    China: 4th and 3rd millennia bce: In east China the Liulin and Huating sites in northern Jiangsu (first half of 4th millennium) represent regional cultures that derived in large part from that of Qingliangang. Upper strata also show strong affinities with contemporary Dawenkou sites in southern Shandong, northern Anhui, and northern Jiangsu. Dawenkou culture (mid-5th…

  • Liupan Mountains (mountains, China)

    Liupan Mountains, mountain range in northern China extending southward from the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia across the eastern panhandle of Gansu province and into western Shaanxi province. The range is formed by the uplifted western edge of the structural basin that underlies the Loess

  • Liupan Shan (mountains, China)

    Liupan Mountains, mountain range in northern China extending southward from the Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia across the eastern panhandle of Gansu province and into western Shaanxi province. The range is formed by the uplifted western edge of the structural basin that underlies the Loess

  • Liupanshui (China)

    Guizhou: Settlement patterns: …larger and more populous is Liupanshui, a municipality created by combining the Liuzhi, Panxian, and Shuicheng special districts in Guizhou’s coal-rich western area. Most of the other cities are the seats of government and are the economic and communications centres for the various regions of the province.

  • Liutiaobian (wall, China)

    Willow Palisade, ditch and embankment built across parts of southern Northeast China (historically called Manchuria) and planted with willows during the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). Possibly from as early as 1000 bce, the Chinese (Han) inhabiting Manchuria primarily occupied a triangular area

  • Liutici (people)

    Henry II: …made a pact with the Liutitian tribe against the Christian Bolesław, and he allowed the Liutitians to resist German missionaries east of the Elbe River. Henry was more interested in consolidating his own political power than in spreading Christianity. Supported by his tribal allies, he waged several campaigns against Poland,…

  • Liutprand (Lombard king)

    Liutprand, Lombard king of Italy whose long and prosperous reign was a period of expansion and consolidation for the Lombards. From his position as a Lombard chief, Liutprand gained the throne in 712, when revolution ended a succession of weak kings. He used to his advantage the Iconoclastic C

  • Liutprand of Cremona (Lombard bishop)

    Liutprand of Cremona, Lombard diplomat, historian, and bishop of Cremona whose chronicles are a major source for the history of the 10th century. A member of an aristocratic family, Liutprand grew up in Pavia, at the court of Hugh of Provence, king of Italy. When Hugh died in exile in 947, leaving

  • Liutprando (Lombard king)

    Liutprand, Lombard king of Italy whose long and prosperous reign was a period of expansion and consolidation for the Lombards. From his position as a Lombard chief, Liutprand gained the throne in 712, when revolution ended a succession of weak kings. He used to his advantage the Iconoclastic C

  • Liuva (Visigoth king)

    Leovigild: Another brother, Liuva, ruled in Septimania, but after his death (572) Leovigild became sole king. Throughout his reign he was constantly at war. He took (569) Leon and Zamora from the Suebi in the northwest and Córdoba (571–572) from the Greeks in the south. One of Leovigild’s…

  • Liuyi Jushi (Chinese author and statesman)

    Ouyang Xiu, Chinese poet, historian, and statesman of the Song dynasty who reintroduced the simple “ancient style” in Chinese literature and sought to reform Chinese political life through principles of classical Confucianism. Ouyang Xiu’s father, a judge in Mianyang, died when Ouyang was three,

  • Liuzhou (China)

    Liuzhou, city, central Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southern China. Liuzhou, the second largest city in Guangxi, is a natural communication centre, being situated at the confluence of several tributaries that form the Liu River, which flows southward into a tributary of the Xi River. In

  • Liv (people)

    Baltic states: Early Middle Ages: Their kinsmen, the Livs, inhabited four major areas in northern Latvia and northern Courland. The western Balts were divided into at least eight recognizable groupings. The westernmost, the Prussians, formed 10 principalities in what subsequently became East Prussia. The Jotvingians and Galindians inhabited an area to the south

  • Livadia, Treaty of (China-Russia [1879])

    Ili crisis: …was duped into signing the Treaty of Livadia (October 1879), which returned Ili in name but actually allowed almost three-quarters of it to remain in Russian hands. In addition, the Russians were given the right to establish consulates in seven key places and were promised an indemnity of 5,000,000 rubles.

  • Livadiya Palace (building, Yalta, Ukraine)

    Yalta: …met at Yalta in the Livadiya Palace in what became known as the Yalta Conference. Pop. (2001) 81,654; (2005 est.) 80,140.

  • Live a Little, Love a Little (film by Taurog [1968])

    Norman Taurog: Elvis movies: Trouble (1967), Speedway (1968), and Live a Little, Love a Little (1968).

  • Live Aid (benefit concert [1985])

    Live Aid, benefit concert held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London and JFK Stadium in Philadelphia on July 13, 1985. Organized by Boomtown Rats front man Bob Geldof and Ultravox vocalist Midge Ure, the event drew an estimated 1.5 billion television viewers and raised millions of dollars for

  • Live at the Apollo (album by Brown)

    James Brown: …and in concert” albums—his landmark Live at the Apollo (1963), which stayed on the charts for 66 weeks, and his 1964 follow-up, Pure Dynamite! Live at the Royal, which charted for 22 weeks.

  • Live at the Old Waldorf (album by Television)

    Television: …catalog were released, along with Live at the Old Waldorf, a concert album that captured the group at the end of its 1978 tour. Verlaine also pursued a solo career.

  • live birth (biology)

    Viviparity, retention and growth of the fertilized egg within the maternal body until the young animal, as a larva or newborn, is capable of independent existence. The growing embryo derives continuous nourishment from the mother, usually through a placenta or similar structure. This is the case in

  • Live Bullet (album by Seger)

    Bob Seger: …in Seger’s record sales, with Live Bullet (1976) staying on the Billboard charts for more than three years and commencing a string of seven consecutive Top Ten albums, including Night Moves (1976), Against the Wind (1980), and Like a Rock (1986).

  • Live by Night (film by Affleck [2016])

    Ben Affleck: Film directing: …to the director’s chair for Live by Night (2016), a Prohibition-era drama that he adapted from a Lehane novel. Affleck also starred in the film, playing a gangster.

  • Live Flesh (film by Almodóvar [1997])

    Pedro Almodóvar: Carne trémula (1997; Live Flesh), based on a Ruth Rendell novel and starring Javier Bardem, examines the tangled consequences of an accidental gunshot. It was also the first of numerous Almodóvar’s films to feature Penélope Cruz.

  • Live for Life (film by Lelouch [1967])

    Claude Lelouch: …directed Vivre pour vivre (1967; Live for Life), Mariage (1974; Marriage), Robert et Robert (1978; “Robert and Robert”), and À nous deux (1979; Us Two). For Toute une vie (1974; And Now My Love), he and Uytterhoeven received Oscar nominations for their original screenplay. Lelouch’s later notable movies included the…

  • Live Free or Die Hard (film by Wiseman [2007])

    Bruce Willis: …Hard with a Vengeance (1995), Live Free or Die Hard (2007), and A Good Day to Die Hard (2013).

  • Live in London (album by Cohen)

    Leonard Cohen: …was recorded for the album Live in London (2009), a two-disc set which proved that at age 73 Cohen was as vibrant and vital as ever. The aptly titled Old Ideas (2012) was a bluesy exploration of familiar Cohen themes—spirituality, love, and loss—that eschewed the synthesized melodies of much of…

  • Live Like Pigs (play by Arden)

    John Arden: His next play, Live Like Pigs (1958), was set on a housing estate. This was followed by his best-known work, Serjeant Musgrave’s Dance (1959), set in a colliery town in 1860–80. Both plays caused controversy.

  • live load

    bridge: Live load and dead load: The primary function of a bridge is to carry traffic loads: heavy trucks, cars, and trains. Engineers must estimate the traffic loading. On short spans, it is possible that the maximum conceivable load will be achieved—that is to say, on…

  • Live Nation Entertainment (American corporation)

    rock: Rock in the early 21st century: …music corporation emerged, led by Live Nation, the live-music division of Clear Channel.

  • live oak (plant)

    Live oak, any of several species of North American ornamental and timber trees belonging to the red oak group of the genus Quercus in the beech family (Fagaceae). Specifically, the term refers to the southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), a massive evergreen tree native to Cuba and the Atlantic

  • Live or Die (poetry by Sexton)

    Anne Sexton: Live or Die (1966), a further record of emotional illness, won a Pulitzer Prize and was followed by, among others, Love Poems (1969), Transformations (1971), The Book of Folly (1972), and The Death Notebooks (1974). Sexton taught at Boston University in 1970–71 and at Colgate…

  • Live Through This (album by Hole)

    Courtney Love: …release of Hole’s second album, Live Through This (1994). Two months later Pfaff died of a heroin overdose. In 1998 Hole released Celebrity Skin, a commercial and critical success, but the group disbanded in May 2002.

  • Live! With Regis and Kathie Lee (American television program)

    Regis Philbin: …program was nationally syndicated as Live! With Regis and Kathie Lee. Focusing on celebrity interviews and home-oriented advice, Live! attracted one of the fastest-growing American talk-show audiences in the early 1990s. After Gifford left the program in July 2000, Philbin continued to host the popular morning talk show. It was…

  • live-ball era (baseball history)

    baseball: League formation: …1920, ushering in the “live-ball era” (the period of inside-game dominance was also known as the “dead-ball era”). The inside game was a style of play that emphasized pitching, speed, and batsmanship. Bunting was very common, and doubles and triples were more heralded than home runs (which during this…

  • live-bearer (fish)

    Live-bearer, any of the numerous live-bearing topminnows of the family Poeciliidae (order Atheriniformes), found only in the New World and most abundantly in Mexico and Central America. Most of the many species are rather elongated, and all are small, the largest growing to only about 15

  • live-bearing mammal (mammal subclass)

    mammal: Classification: Subclass Theria (live-bearing mammals) Metatheria (marsupials) More than 330 species in 7 orders. Order Diprotodontia (kangaroos, koalas, wombats, possums, and kin)

  • live-forever (plant)

    Houseleek, (genus Sempervivum), genus of about 30 species of low-growing succulent plants in the stonecrop family (Crassulaceae), native to Europe, Morocco, and western Asia. The name houseleek refers to the growth of some species on thatched roofs in Europe; live-forever indicates their hardiness

  • live-roller conveyor (mechanical device)

    conveyor: Live-roller conveyors are gravity-roller conveyors that are power driven by means of a belt snubbed against the underpart of the rolls or by a chain driving sprockets attached to the rolls.

  • Lively, Blake (American actress)

    Ryan Reynolds: Personal life: …and his Green Lantern costar Blake Lively began dating, and they were married on September 9, 2012. Reynolds was inducted into Canada’s Walk of Fame in 2014.

  • Lively, Dame Penelope Margaret (British author)

    Penelope Lively, British writer of well-plotted novels and short stories that stress the significance of memory and historical continuity. After spending her childhood in Egypt, Lively was sent to London at the age of 12 when her parents were divorced. She graduated from St. Anne’s College, Oxford,

  • Lively, Penelope (British author)

    Penelope Lively, British writer of well-plotted novels and short stories that stress the significance of memory and historical continuity. After spending her childhood in Egypt, Lively was sent to London at the age of 12 when her parents were divorced. She graduated from St. Anne’s College, Oxford,

  • liveness (acoustics)

    acoustics: Acoustic criteria: “Liveness” refers directly to reverberation time. A live room has a long reverberation time and a dead room a short reverberation time. “Intimacy” refers to the feeling that listeners have of being physically close to the performing group. A room is generally judged intimate when…

  • Livens, Johannis (Dutch painter)

    Jan Lievens, versatile painter and printmaker whose style derived from both the Dutch and Flemish schools of Baroque art. A contemporary of Rembrandt, he was a pupil of Joris van Schooten (1616–18) and of Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam (1618–20). After residing in Leiden for a

  • liver (anatomy)

    Liver, the largest gland in the body, a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes that has many metabolic and secretory functions. The liver secretes bile, a digestive fluid; metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; stores glycogen, vitamins, and other substances; synthesizes blood-clotting factors;

  • liver cancer (pathology)

    Liver cancer, any of several forms of disease characterized by tumours in the liver; benign liver tumours remain in the liver, whereas malignant tumours are, by definition, cancerous. Most malignant liver tumours are hepatomas, also called hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). HCCs are relatively rare

  • liver cell (anatomy)

    digestive system disease: Liver: …the three functional components: the hepatocyte (liver cell), the bile secretory (cholangiolar) apparatus, or the blood vascular system. Although an agent tends to cause initial damage in only one of these areas, the resulting disease may in time also involve other components. Thus, although viral hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)…

  • liver disease

    metabolic disease: Fatty acid oxidation defects: …with LCHAD deficiency can induce liver disease during pregnancy in a mother who is a heterozygous carrier for the condition. This appears to be due to a combination of the metabolic demands of pregnancy, the lack of enzyme activity in the fetus, and the reduced activity of the enzyme in…

  • liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)

    fascioliasis: …caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, a small parasitic flatworm that lives in the bile ducts and causes a condition known as liver rot.

  • liver fluke (trematode group)

    Liver fluke, any of certain parasitic flatworms that invade the liver of the host animal. See

  • liver function test (medicine)

    Liver function test, any laboratory procedure that measures and assesses various aspects of liver function. Because of the diversity of liver function and the varied and complicated metabolic processes that may be affected by disease states, more than 100 tests have been devised to test liver

  • Liver Is the Cock’s Comb, The (painting by Gorky)

    Arshile Gorky: In such works as The Liver Is the Cock’s Comb (1944) and How My Mother’s Embroidered Apron Unfolds in My Life (1944), biomorphic forms that suggest plants or human viscera float over an indeterminate background of melting colours. The erotic significance of the loosely painted forms and elegant, fine…

  • liver rot (disease)

    fascioliasis: …causes a condition known as liver rot.

  • liver sinusoid (anatomy)

    portal vein: In the liver the blood from the portal vein flows through a network of microscopic vessels called sinusoids in which the blood is relieved of worn-out red cells, bacteria, and other debris and in which nutrients are added to the blood or removed from it for storage.…

  • liver transplant (medicine)

    transplant: The liver: The liver is a complicated organ that produces clotting factors and many other vital substances in the blood and that removes many wastes and toxic by-products from the circulation. It is, in effect, a chemical factory. The two categories of fatal liver disease that…

  • Liverdun, Treaty of (France [1632])

    Charles III (or IV): …and Bar-le-Duc and to the Treaty of Liverdun (1632), by which Louis XIII occupied Stenay, Jometz, and Clermont. In 1633 Charles was forced to cede his capital, Nancy, to France for four years. He then abdicated in the name of his brother, Cardinal Francis (1634), and joined the Germans fighting…

  • liverleaf (plant)

    Hepatica, (genus Hepatica), any of about seven species of small herbaceous plants of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) that grow in shady wooded areas of the north temperate zone. The plants are stemless low perennials with three-lobed leaves that remain green over winter. The flowers are

  • Livermore (California, United States)

    Livermore, city, Alameda county, western California, U.S. It is situated on the eastern edge of the Livermore-Amador Valley, 33 miles (53 km) southeast of Oakland. The area was originally inhabited by Costanoan Indians. Located partly on the site of the Rancho Las Positas (granted to Robert

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    Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, American suffragist and reformer who saw the vote for women as integral to ameliorating many social ills. Mary Rice attended the Female Seminary in Charlestown, Massachusetts, where she remained to teach for two years after her graduation in 1836. From 1839 to 1842 she

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