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  • Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth (mammal)

    sloth: Two-toed sloths: Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth (C. hoffmanni) is found in Central and South America from Nicaragua to Peru and western Brazil. The two species can be distinguished by the colour of the fur on the throat. Hoffmann’s has a conspicuously pale throat, whereas Linnaeus’s is dark.

  • Hoffmann, August Heinrich (German poet)

    August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German patriotic poet, philologist, and literary historian whose poem “Deutschland, Deutschland über alles” was adopted as the German national anthem after World War I. (See Deutschlandlied.) His uncomplicated verses, expressing his deep love of country,

  • Hoffmann, Christoph (German religious leader)

    Christianity: The role of imminent expectation in missions and emigrations: …the Temple”—Swabians who went with Christoph Hoffmann to Palestine in 1866—and the Swabians, Franks, Hessians, and Bavarians, who after the Napoleonic Wars followed the call of Tsar Alexander I to Bessarabia, were all dominated by the idea of living in the end time and preparing themselves for the coming Kingdom…

  • Hoffmann, E. T. A. (German writer, composer, and painter)

    E.T.A. Hoffmann, German writer, composer, and painter known for his stories in which supernatural and sinister characters move in and out of men’s lives, ironically revealing tragic or grotesque sides of human nature. The product of a broken home, Hoffmann was reared by an uncle. He was educated in

  • Hoffmann, Erich (German dermatologist)

    Fritz Schaudinn: …zoologist who, with the dermatologist Erich Hoffmann, in 1905 discovered the causal organism of syphilis, Spirochaeta pallida, later called Treponema pallidum. He is known for his work in the development of protozoology as an experimental science.

  • Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (German writer, composer, and painter)

    E.T.A. Hoffmann, German writer, composer, and painter known for his stories in which supernatural and sinister characters move in and out of men’s lives, ironically revealing tragic or grotesque sides of human nature. The product of a broken home, Hoffmann was reared by an uncle. He was educated in

  • Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Wilhelm (German writer, composer, and painter)

    E.T.A. Hoffmann, German writer, composer, and painter known for his stories in which supernatural and sinister characters move in and out of men’s lives, ironically revealing tragic or grotesque sides of human nature. The product of a broken home, Hoffmann was reared by an uncle. He was educated in

  • Hoffmann, Felix (German chemist)

    Bayer: …chance invention of Bayer chemist Felix Hoffmann (1868–1946), was introduced by the company in 1899. In 1912 Carl Duisberg (1861–1935), a chemist, became Bayer’s general director and soon began spearheading the movement that would result in 1925 in the consolidation of Germany’s chemical industries known as IG Farben; Duisberg was…

  • Hoffmann, Ferenc (Israeli author)

    Ephraim Kishon, (Ferenc Hoffmann), Hungarian-born Israeli satirist (born Aug. 23, 1924, Budapest, Hung.—died Jan. 29, 2005, Appenzell, Switz.), after surviving the Holocaust and immigrating to Israel, wrote prolifically and gained a large and appreciative audience, notably in Israel and Germany. K

  • Hoffmann, Heinrich (German physician and writer)

    Heinrich Hoffmann, German physician and writer who is best known for his creation of Struwwelpeter (“Slovenly Peter”), a boy whose wild appearance is matched by his naughty behaviour. Peter appeared in Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit füntzehn schön kolorten Tafeln für Kinder von 3–6

  • Hoffmann, Josef (Austrian architect)

    Josef Hoffmann, German architect whose work was important in the early development of modern architecture in Europe. Hoffman studied under Otto Wagner in Vienna and in 1899 joined in the founding of the Vienna Sezession, which, although influenced by the Art Nouveau movement, was more modernist

  • Hoffmann, Jules (French immunologist)

    Jules Hoffmann, French immunologist and corecipient, with American immunologist Bruce A. Beutler and Canadian immunologist and cell biologist Ralph M. Steinman, of the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries relating to the activation of innate immunity (the first line of

  • Hoffmann, Jules Alphonse (French immunologist)

    Jules Hoffmann, French immunologist and corecipient, with American immunologist Bruce A. Beutler and Canadian immunologist and cell biologist Ralph M. Steinman, of the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries relating to the activation of innate immunity (the first line of

  • Hoffmann, Max (German general)

    Max Hoffmann, German officer who was primarily responsible for several striking German victories on the Eastern Front in World War I. Hoffmann joined the German army in 1887, studied at the Berlin War Academy, and eventually became the General Staff’s expert on the eastern sector (Russia and

  • Hoffmann, Melchior (German mystic)

    Melchior Hofmann, German mystic and lay preacher noted for contributing a zealous eschatology to the religious doctrine of the Anabaptists, a Reformation movement that advocated adult baptism. A furrier by trade, Hofmann worked as a Lutheran lay missionary in Livonia (modern Latvia and Estonia),

  • Hoffmann, Roald (American chemist)

    Roald Hoffmann, Polish-born American chemist, corecipient, with Fukui Kenichi of Japan, of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1981 for their independent investigations of the mechanisms of chemical reactions. Hoffmann immigrated to the United States with his family in 1949. He graduated from Columbia

  • Hoffmann-Donner, Heinrich (German physician and writer)

    Heinrich Hoffmann, German physician and writer who is best known for his creation of Struwwelpeter (“Slovenly Peter”), a boy whose wild appearance is matched by his naughty behaviour. Peter appeared in Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit füntzehn schön kolorten Tafeln für Kinder von 3–6

  • Hofgericht (German court)

    Reichskammergericht: …supreme court had been the Hofgericht, in which the emperor presided and a body of assessors sat in judgment. The Hofgericht ceased to act when the emperor was abroad and was dissolved upon his death. When the emperor ceased to command respect around the 15th century, his court lost the…

  • Hofheinz, Roy Mark (American politician)

    Astrodome: Conceived by Roy Mark Hofheinz (a former county judge and mayor of Houston, 1953–55) and designed by architects Hermon Lloyd and W.B. Morgan, in collaboration with the local firm Wilson, Morris, Crain and Anderson, the Astrodome is a prime example of late Modernist architecture, and its space-age…

  • höfische Dorfpoesie (literary genre)

    Neidhart von Reuenthal: …introduced a new genre called höfische Dorfpoesie (“courtly village poetry”). It celebrated, in dancing songs, the poet’s love of village maidens rather than noble ladies.

  • Hofkirche (cathedral, Lucerne, Switzerland)

    Lucerne: …Chapel (1178; altered 1750); the Hofkirche (an 8th-century cathedral and collegiate church of St. Leodegar); and the Mariahilf Church (1676–81). Other landmarks are Bertel Thorvaldsen’s “Lion of Lucerne” monument (1819–21), in memory of the Swiss guards slain while defending the Tuileries in Paris in 1792; the Glacier Garden, a relic…

  • Hofmann degradation

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: …among rearrangement reactions is the Hofmann reaction, in which an amide is treated with chlorine or bromine and an aqueous alkali (base).

  • Hofmann reaction

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: …among rearrangement reactions is the Hofmann reaction, in which an amide is treated with chlorine or bromine and an aqueous alkali (base).

  • Hofmann, Albert (Swiss chemist)

    Albert Hofmann, Swiss chemist who discovered the psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which he first synthesized in 1938 by isolating compounds found in ergot (Claviceps purpurea), a fungus affecting rye. Despite his family’s lack of means, Hofmann spent an idyllic childhood exploring

  • Hofmann, August Wilhelm von (German chemist)

    August Wilhelm von Hofmann, German chemist whose research on aniline, with that of Sir William Henry Perkin, helped lay the basis of the aniline-dye industry. Hofmann studied under Justus von Liebig at the University of Giessen and received his doctorate in 1841. In 1845 he became the first

  • Hofmann, Gert (German author)

    Gert Hofmann, German novelist who examined morality and the resonances of Nazism in postwar Germany. Hofmann studied at the Universities of Leipzig and Freiburg and taught in Austria, England, and the United States. For years he wrote theatre and radio plays in which he introduced his moral and

  • Hofmann, Hans (German painter)

    Hans Hofmann, German painter who was one of the most influential art teachers of the 20th century. He was a pioneer in experimenting in the use of improvisatory techniques; his work opened the way for the first generation of post-World War II American painters to develop Abstract Expressionism.

  • Hofmann, Josef Casimir (American pianist and composer)

    Josef Casimir Hofmann, Polish-born American pianist, especially noted for his glittering performances of the music of Frédéric Chopin. He gave his first concert at the age of 6 and toured the United States at 11. Later he studied with two leading pianists of the late 19th century, Moritz Moszkowski

  • Hofmann, Melchior (German mystic)

    Melchior Hofmann, German mystic and lay preacher noted for contributing a zealous eschatology to the religious doctrine of the Anabaptists, a Reformation movement that advocated adult baptism. A furrier by trade, Hofmann worked as a Lutheran lay missionary in Livonia (modern Latvia and Estonia),

  • Hofmannsthal, Hugo von (Austrian author)

    Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian poet, dramatist, and essayist. He made his reputation with his lyrical poems and plays and became internationally famous for his collaboration with the German operatic composer Richard Strauss. The only child of a bank director, Hofmannsthal studied law at Vienna. At

  • Hofmannswaldau, Christian Hofmann von (German poet)

    Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau, poet who was the leading representative of the “Second Silesian School,” the German counterpart to the Baroque extravagance of the Italian poets Giambattista Marino and Giovanni Battista Guarini and the Spanish poet Luis de Góngora. While studying at Danzig, he

  • Hofmeister oder Vortheile der Privaterziehung, Der (work by Lenz)

    Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz: …years, an eccentric didactic comedy, Der Hofmeister oder Vortheile der Privaterziehung (published 1774, performed 1778, Berlin; “The Tutor, or the Advantages of Private Education”), and his best play, Die Soldaten (performed 1763, published 1776; “The Soldiers”). His plays have dramatic and comic effects arising from strong characters and the swift…

  • Hofmeister, Franz (German chemist)

    protein: Classification by solubility: …German chemists, Emil Fischer and Franz Hofmeister, independently stated in 1902 that proteins are essentially polypeptides consisting of many amino acids, an attempt was made to classify proteins according to their chemical and physical properties, because the biological function of proteins had not yet been established. (The protein character of…

  • Hofmeister, Sebastian (Swiss religious reformer)

    Sebastian Hofmeister, Swiss religious Reformer who was a prominent figure in the debates of the early Reformation. Hofmeister entered the Franciscan order at Schaffhausen, and he then studied for several years in Paris, where he received a doctorate in theology (1519). In 1520 he was sent as a

  • Hofmeister, Wilhelm (German botanist)

    Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanist whose investigations of plant structure made him a pioneer in the science of comparative plant morphology. Hofmeister entered his father’s publishing business at the age of 17. Although he was completely self-taught, in 1863 he was appointed professor of botany

  • Hofmeister, Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt (German botanist)

    Wilhelm Hofmeister, German botanist whose investigations of plant structure made him a pioneer in the science of comparative plant morphology. Hofmeister entered his father’s publishing business at the age of 17. Although he was completely self-taught, in 1863 he was appointed professor of botany

  • Hofmeyr (work by Paton)

    Alan Paton: Paton wrote a notable biography, Hofmeyr (1964), a massive study of the parliamentarian and cabinet minister Jan Hofmeyr. Towards the Mountain (1980) is an autobiography of Paton’s first 45 years. In Ah, But Your Land Is Beautiful (1981), Paton returned to a fictional account of events in South Africa. The…

  • Hofmeyr, Jan (South African politician)

    Jan Hofmeyr, statesman and leader of the Afrikaner Bond, a political party supporting the agrarian interests of Dutch South Africans in the Cape Colony. Hofmeyr, the son of a viticulturist, was educated at the South African College, Cape Town, and rose to prominence as a journalist. In 1878 he

  • Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik (South African politician)

    Jan Hofmeyr, statesman and leader of the Afrikaner Bond, a political party supporting the agrarian interests of Dutch South Africans in the Cape Colony. Hofmeyr, the son of a viticulturist, was educated at the South African College, Cape Town, and rose to prominence as a journalist. In 1878 he

  • Hofrat (German council)

    Germany: The growth of central governments: …was the advisory council (Hofrat) of high nobles and ecclesiastics, whom the prince consulted at his discretion. Its business was not differentiated, and there was no division of labour among the councillors. It met at the summons of the prince and did not convene at regular intervals. Its membership…

  • Hofs Glacier (glacier, Iceland)

    Hofsjökull, large glacier in central Iceland that covers a circular area (384 square miles [994 square km]) nearly 25 miles (40 km) in diameter. It rises to a height of 5,791 feet (1,765 metres) in the centre, and its meltwaters feed several rivers, including the Héradhsvötn, Thjórsá, Ölfusá, and

  • Hofsjökull (glacier, Iceland)

    Hofsjökull, large glacier in central Iceland that covers a circular area (384 square miles [994 square km]) nearly 25 miles (40 km) in diameter. It rises to a height of 5,791 feet (1,765 metres) in the centre, and its meltwaters feed several rivers, including the Héradhsvötn, Thjórsá, Ölfusá, and

  • Hofstadter, Richard (American historian)

    Richard Hofstadter, U.S. historian whose popular books on the political, social, and intellectual trends in U.S. history garnered two Pulitzer Prizes. He studied at the University of Buffalo (B.A., 1937) and Columbia University (M.A., 1938; Ph.D., 1942). From 1942 to 1946 he taught at the

  • Hofstadter, Robert (American physicist)

    Robert Hofstadter, American scientist who was a joint recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1961 for his investigations of protons and neutrons, which revealed the hitherto unknown structure of these particles. He shared the prize with Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer of Germany. Hofstadter was

  • Hofstetter, Ernest (Swiss mountaineer)

    Ernest Hofstetter, Swiss mountaineer (born Aug. 14, 1911, Davos, Switz.—died June 1, 2007 , Argentière, France), was a member of the Swiss team of amateur climbers who in the spring of 1952 forged a passage up the South Face of Mt. Everest, across the treacherous Khumbu Icefall and the glacial

  • Hofstra University (university, Hempstead, New York, United States)

    Hofstra University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hempstead, New York, U.S. It consists of eight schools, including Hofstra College of Liberal Arts and Sciences; New College, an interdisciplinary liberal arts college; and the Frank G. Zarb School of Business. The

  • Hōfu (Japan)

    Hōfu, city, southern Yamaguchi ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It faces the Inland Sea and is located about 15 miles (24 km) west of Tokuyama. Numerous prehistoric remains and tombs of the Tumulus period indicate that it was an early cultural centre. During the Edo (Tokugawa) period

  • Hofuf, Al- (Saudi Arabia)

    Al-Hufūf, town, eastern Saudi Arabia. It lies in the large Al-Hasa oasis and on the railroad from Riyadh to Al-Dammām. The headquarters of the Ottoman administration from 1871, when the Ottoman Empire seized eastern Arabia, it was recaptured in 1913 by the Wahhābīs, a Muslim fundamentalist group,

  • Hofvijver (lake, Netherlands)

    The Hague: An artificial lake, the Hofvijver, just to the north of the Binnenhof, was dug about 1350 and still forms one of the many attractions of the city.

  • Hofzinser, Johann Nepomuk (Austrian magician)

    Johann Nepomuk Hofzinser, Austrian amateur conjurer who was one of the most brilliant inventors of small manipulative tricks, especially with playing cards. Hofzinser, who never appeared outside Austria, was one of the first to advocate simplicity of performance, eliminating elaborate costumes and

  • hog (drug)

    PCP, hallucinogenic drug with anesthetic properties, having the chemical name 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine. PCP was first developed in 1956 by Parke Davis Laboratories of Detroit for use as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine, though it is no longer used in this capacity. Used for a brief time

  • hog (pig)

    Hog, Heavy, fat-producing domesticated pig developed in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th century. As the growing use of cheaper vegetable oils decreased the importance of lard as a source of fat, meatpackers sought hogs yielding more lean meat and less fat, and breeders (mostly European)

  • hog badger (mammal)

    badger: The hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), also called the hog-nosed, or sand, badger, is a pale-clawed species of both lowland and mountainous regions in a range similar to that of ferret badgers. It is gray to black, with a black-and-white-striped head pattern and white throat, ears, and…

  • hog bristle

    brush: Hog bristles, for example, have long been used for paintbrushes and art brushes because such animal fibres are flexible and resilient and display an excellent capacity for holding paint. Each individual bristle has a broad, sturdy base and a tapered tip that splits into several…

  • hog cholera (animal disease)

    Hog cholera, serious and often fatal viral disease of swine. Characterized by high fever and exhaustion, the disease is transmitted from infected pigs via numerous carrier agents, including vehicles in which pigs are conveyed from place to place, dealers who journey from farm to farm, and farm

  • hog flu (disease)

    Swine flu, a respiratory disease of pigs that is caused by an influenza virus. The first flu virus isolated from pigs was influenza A H1N1 in 1930. This virus is a subtype of influenza that is named for the composition of the proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) that form its viral

  • hog house (agriculture)

    Hog house, building for housing swine, particularly one with facilities for housing a number of hogs under one roof. Typical housing protects against extremes of heat and cold and provides draft-free ventilation, sanitary bedding, and feeding. Simple hog houses are sometimes called sties. Movable

  • hog plum (plant)

    Hog plum, (Spondias mombin), ornamental tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae), native to the tropical Americas. The hog plum and several other species of the genus Spondias are cultivated for their edible plumlike fruits. The young leaves can also be eaten, and various parts of the plant are

  • hog’s fennel (plant)

    fennel: Hog’s fennel, or sulfurweed (Peucedanum officinale), is another member of the Apiaceae family and is used in traditional medicine in parts of Europe. Fennel flower, or black cumin (Nigella sativa), is an unrelated plant of the family Ranunculaceae; its seeds are used as a spice.

  • hog’s-bean (plant)

    Henbane, (Hyoscyamus niger), highly toxic plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout much of the world. The dried leaves of henbane, and sometimes those of Egyptian henbane (H. muticus) and white henbane (H. albus), yield three medicinal

  • hog-nosed badger (mammal)

    badger: The hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), also called the hog-nosed, or sand, badger, is a pale-clawed species of both lowland and mountainous regions in a range similar to that of ferret badgers. It is gray to black, with a black-and-white-striped head pattern and white throat, ears, and…

  • hog-nosed bat (mammal)

    bat: Annotated classification: Family Craseonycteridae (hog-nosed, or bumblebee, bat) 1 tiny species of Thailand, Craseonycteris thonglongyai, perhaps the smallest living mammal. Family Myzopodidae (Old World sucker-footed bat) 1 species in 1 genus (Myzopoda) endemic to Madagascar. Small, plain muzzle; large ears with peculiar mushroom-shaped lobe. Thumb and sole

  • hog-nosed skunk (mammal)

    skunk: The hog-nosed skunks (genus Conepatus) of North America can be larger than striped skunks, but those of Chile and Argentina are smaller. In the northern part of their range, they have a single solid white stripe starting at the top of the head that covers the…

  • hōgaku (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Traditional styles: …traditional music, known generically as hōgaku vis-à-vis Western music (yōgaku), was generally strong. It has been noted that certain styles of samisen music had been able to create concert repertoires disconnected from dance or party accompaniment. Koto teachers and composers also flourished, and biwa music began to return along with…

  • hogan (Navajo dwelling)

    Hogan, traditional dwelling and ceremonial structure of the Navajo Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. Early hogans were dome-shaped buildings with log, or occasionally stone, frameworks. Once framed, the structure was then covered with mud, dirt, or sometimes sod. The entrance generally faced

  • Hogan’s Heroes (American television series)

    Television in the United States: Escapism: …of the 1965–66 season, perhaps Hogan’s Heroes (CBS, 1965–71) best exemplified the bizarre new direction TV entertainment was taking. Debuting in the top 10 of the Nielsen ratings, Hogan’s Heroes was a situation comedy set in a Nazi prison camp during World War II.

  • Hogan, Ben (American golfer)

    Ben Hogan, American professional golfer who became supreme in the decade after World War II. His exceptional will and rigorous practice routine enabled him to play winning golf after an automobile accident (1949) in which he was injured so severely that he was not expected to walk again. Hogan

  • Hogan, Joe (American nurse)

    Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan: Facts of the case: Five years later the plaintiff, Joe Hogan, applied for admission. The plaintiff, a registered nurse in Columbus, Mississippi, did not possess a bachelor’s degree. Although he otherwise met enrollment requirements, the plaintiff was denied admission to the nursing program on the basis of his gender. Officials at MUW informed the…

  • Hogan, Linda (Native American poet and novelist)

    Linda Hogan, Chickasaw poet and novelist whose works often revolve around environmental concerns. Hogan spent most of her youth in Oklahoma and Colorado, although her family moved regularly because her father was in the military. She completed an undergraduate degree at the University of Colorado,

  • Hogan, Paul (Australian comedian and actor)

    Australia: Film: …Crocodile Dundee, starring popular comedian Paul Hogan as a bushranger displaced to New York City, also became a major worldwide hit. As Australian cinema continued to mature, it produced such notable films as Proof (1991), Muriel’s Wedding (1994), Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994), Shine (1996), and Moulin Rouge (2001).…

  • Hogan, Vickie Lynn (American celebrity)

    Anna Nicole Smith, (Vickie Lynn Hogan), American celebrity (born Nov. 28, 1967 , Mexia, Texas—died Feb. 8, 2007, Hollywood, Fla.), engaged in a lifestyle that frequently captured tabloid headlines, especially when she married 89-year-old Texas oil billionaire J. Howard Marshall II in 1994, at the

  • Hogan, William Benjamin (American golfer)

    Ben Hogan, American professional golfer who became supreme in the decade after World War II. His exceptional will and rigorous practice routine enabled him to play winning golf after an automobile accident (1949) in which he was injured so severely that he was not expected to walk again. Hogan

  • Hogarth Act (Great Britain [1735])

    William Hogarth: Reputation and success: …that nature, known as the Hogarth Act, was passed in 1735. In the following year Hogarth moved into the house in Leicester Fields that he was to occupy until his death.

  • Hogarth Press (British publishing house)

    Virginia Woolf: Early fiction: …printing press and founded the Hogarth Press, named for Hogarth House, their home in the London suburbs. The Woolfs themselves (she was the compositor while he worked the press) published their own Two Stories in the summer of 1917. It consisted of Leonard’s Three Jews and Virginia’s The Mark on…

  • Hogarth, Ann (British puppeteer)

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …his animal friends, manipulated by Ann Hogarth, appeared from 1946 on the top of a piano at which Annette Mills played and sang. In the United States a series featuring the Kuklapolitans, created by Burr Tillstrom, began airing in 1947; Kukla, a small boy, had a host of friends, including…

  • Hogarth, David George (British archaeologist)

    David George Hogarth, English archaeologist, director of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1909–27), and diplomat who was associated with the excavation of several important archaeological sites. Around 1900 Hogarth assisted in Sir Arthur Evans’ excavation of Knossos, Crete; in 1904–05 he led an

  • Hogarth, William (English artist)

    William Hogarth, the first great English-born artist to attract admiration abroad, best known for his moral and satirical engravings and paintings—e.g., A Rake’s Progress (eight scenes,1733). His attempts to build a reputation as a history painter and portraitist, however, met with financial

  • hogback ridge (geology)

    cuesta: …of 40°–45° are usually called hogback ridges.

  • Hogben, Lancelot Thomas (English scientist)

    Lancelot Thomas Hogben, English zoologist, geneticist, medical statistician, and linguist, known especially for his many contributions to the study of social biology. Hogben’s birth was premature by two months, an event that convinced his evangelical family that he should become a medical

  • Hogbom, Jan (Swedish physicist)

    radio telescope: Radio interferometry and aperture synthesis: …the 1960s the Swedish physicist Jan Hogbom developed a technique called CLEAN, which is used to remove the spurious responses from a celestial radio image caused by the use of discrete, rather than continuous, spacings in deriving the radio image. Further developments, based on a technique introduced in the early…

  • hogbrake (plant)

    ragweed: The common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia), also called Roman wormwood, hogweed, hogbrake, and bitterweed, is found across the North American continent. It typically grows about 1 metre (3.5 feet) high and has thin, alternate or opposite, much-divided leaves. The great, or giant, ragweed (A. trifida), also called…

  • hogchoker (fish)

    Hogchoker, North American fish, a species of sole

  • Hoge Raad (Dutch court)

    Netherlands: Justice: The Supreme Court (Hoge Raad) ensures a uniform application of the law, but it cannot determine constitutionality. In the legislative process itself, the government and the parliament together pass judgment on the constitutionality of a bill under consideration. Laws that are at variance with the country’s international agreements…

  • Hoge, Jane Currie Blaikie (American social worker)

    Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge, American welfare worker and fund-raiser, best remembered for her impressive organizational efforts to provide medical supplies and other material relief to Union soldiers during the Civil War. Jane Blaikie was educated at the Young Ladies’ College in Philadelphia. In 1831

  • Hōgen Disturbance (Japanese history)

    Hōgen Disturbance, (July 1156), in Japan, conflict in the Hōgen era between the Taira and Minamoto clans that marked the end of the Fujiwara family’s dominance of the monarchy and the start of a prolonged period of feudal warfare. The conflict began as a dispute over control of the Imperial court b

  • Hōgen no ran (Japanese history)

    Hōgen Disturbance, (July 1156), in Japan, conflict in the Hōgen era between the Taira and Minamoto clans that marked the end of the Fujiwara family’s dominance of the monarchy and the start of a prolonged period of feudal warfare. The conflict began as a dispute over control of the Imperial court b

  • Hogendorp, Dirk van (Dutch statesman)

    Dirk van Hogendorp, Dutch statesman and official of the Dutch East India Company who tried to incorporate the liberal ideas of the French Revolution into Dutch colonial policy and thereby stimulated wide controversy. Trained as a soldier, van Hogendorp went to the Indies in 1783 on a naval

  • Hogendorp, Gijsbert Karel van (Dutch politician)

    Netherlands: The Kingdom of Holland and the French Empire (1806–13): …led by a remarkable figure, Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp, a man of firm political principle who had refused to serve any of the governments that ruled in Holland after 1795 yet accepted the necessity for a reestablished prince of Orange to govern the country as a limited constitutional sovereign.

  • hogfish (fish)

    Hogfish, any of certain species of fishes in the wrasse family, Labridae (order Perciformes). Although representatives of the family are found in tropical to temperate oceans throughout the world, the hogfishes occur only in the Atlantic, predominantly in the West Indies. One hogfish, Lachnolaimus

  • Hogg, Douglas McGarel, 1st Viscount Hailsham (British lawyer and politician)

    Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham of Hailsham, British lawyer and politician, a prominent member of the Conservative Party in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Hogg was the son of Quintin Hogg, founder of the Polytechnic in Regent Street, London. On leaving Eton, Hogg

  • Hogg, Douglas McGarel, 1st Viscount Hailsham of Hailsham (British lawyer and politician)

    Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham of Hailsham, British lawyer and politician, a prominent member of the Conservative Party in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Hogg was the son of Quintin Hogg, founder of the Polytechnic in Regent Street, London. On leaving Eton, Hogg

  • Hogg, James (Scottish poet)

    James Hogg, Scottish poet, known as the “Ettrick Shepherd,” who enjoyed a vogue during the ballad revival that accompanied the Romantic movement. Hogg spent most of his youth and early manhood as a shepherd and was almost entirely self-educated. His talent was discovered early by Sir Walter Scott,

  • Hogg, Kathleen Erin (American novelist)

    Kathleen Woodiwiss, (Kathleen Erin Hogg), American romance novelist (born June 3, 1939, Alexandria, La.—died July 6, 2007, Princeton, Minn.), was the author of 14 hefty bodice rippers, and she was credited with being the first to salt historical fiction with steamy sex scenes. Her paperbacks,

  • Hogg, Quintin (British educator)

    Quintin Hogg, English philanthropist, social reformer, and founder of the Polytechnic, which became a model for later social and educational centres for underprivileged youth. For more than three decades, Hogg and his wife devoted their time and fortune to working among poor young people in London.

  • Hogg, Quintin McGarel (British politician)

    Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St. Marylebone, British politician (born Oct. 9, 1907, London, Eng.—died Oct. 12, 2001, London), between 1938 and 1987 served six Conservative governments in a variety of posts, most notably 12 years (1970–74, 1979–87) as lord high chancellor (head of the B

  • Hogg, Thomas Jefferson (English biographer)

    Thomas Jefferson Hogg, English writer best known as the first biographer of his friend Percy Bysshe Shelley. Hogg first met Shelley at Oxford and was expelled with him in 1811 for his share in writing a pamphlet called “The Necessity of Atheism.” He later studied law at London’s Middle Temple and

  • Hogg-Priestly, Helen Battles Sawyer (Canadian astronomer)

    Helen Battles Sawyer Hogg-Priestly, U.S.-born Canadian astronomer (born Aug. 1, 1905, Lowell, Mass.—died Jan. 28, 1993, Toronto, Ont.), was an internationally recognized expert in the field of variable stars within globular star clusters, and she spent her entire professional career cataloging t

  • Hoggar (plateau, Africa)

    Ahaggar, large plateau in the north centre of the Sahara, on the Tropic of Cancer, North Africa. Its height is above 3,000 feet (900 m), culminating in Mount Tahat (9,573 feet [2,918 m]) in southeastern Algeria. The plateau, about 965 miles (1,550 km) north to south and 1,300 miles (2,100 km) east

  • Hoggart, Richard Herbert (British scholar)

    Richard Herbert Hoggart, British scholar (born Sept. 24, 1918, Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng.—died April 10, 2014, London, Eng.), was the author of The Uses of Literacy: Aspects of Working Class Life (1957), a semiautobiographical sociological examination of urban working-class society, and the founding

  • hoggie (food)

    Hoagie, a submarine sandwich filled with Italian meats, cheeses, and other toppings. The name likely comes from the Philadelphia area where, during World War I, Italian immigrants who worked at the Hog Island shipyard began making sandwiches; they were originally called “hoggies” before the name

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