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  • History of the Conquest of Peru (work by Prescott)

    William H. Prescott: Life and works: …Conquest of Mexico and his History of the Conquest of Peru.

  • History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac (work by Parkman)

    Francis Parkman: Literary career.: Parkman’s History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, completed just before his marriage to Catherine Scollay Bigelow in 1851, was his first historical work, a comprehensive survey of Anglo-French history and Indian affairs in North America, culminating in the great Ottawa chief’s “conspiracy” and Indian war of…

  • History of the Corruptions of Christianity (work by Priestley)

    Joseph Priestley: Theology, teaching, and politics: In An History of the Corruptions of Christianity (1782), Priestley claimed that the doctrines of materialism, determinism, and Socinianism (Unitarianism) were consistent with a rational reading of the Bible. He insisted that Jesus Christ was a mere man who preached the resurrection of the body rather…

  • History of the Council of Trent (work by Sarpi)

    Paolo Sarpi: Sarpi’s writings.: …printed in his lifetime, the History of the Council of Trent, appeared in London in 1619, under the pseudonym Pietro Soave Polano. Though put on Rome’s Index of prohibited books, it went through several editions and five translations in 10 years.

  • History of the Criminal Law of England (work by Stephen)

    Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, 1st Baronet: Even more ambitious was his History of the Criminal Law of England (1883), an impressive work despite his dogmatism and occasionally uncritical use of sources. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (1873) elaborated his antidemocratic political philosophy in reply to John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (1859).

  • History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The (work by Gibbon)

    The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, historical work by Edward Gibbon, published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. A continuous narrative from the 2nd century ce to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, it is distinguished by its rigorous scholarship, its historical perspective, and its

  • History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon, The (religious work)

    Bel and the Dragon, Greek apocryphal addition to the biblical Book of Daniel. It is a deuterocanonical work in that it is accepted in the Roman canon but not by Jews or Protestants. It tells of the Jewish hero Daniel, who refuses to worship the god Bel and kills the dragon, thus being forced into a

  • History of the Dividing Line (work by Byrd)

    William Byrd, of Westover: His The History of the Dividing Line, a witty satirical account of a 1728 survey of the North Carolina–Virginia boundary, for which he was appointed one of the commissioners, is among the earliest colonial literary works, along with his accounts of similar expeditions, A Journey to…

  • History of the Early Kings of Persia (work by Mīrkhwānd)

    Mīrkhwānd: begun as History of the Early Kings of Persia, 1832; continued as The Rauzat-us-Safa; or, Garden of Purity, 1891–94). The work is composed of seven large volumes and a geographic appendix, sometimes considered an eighth volume. The history begins with the age of the pre-Islāmic Persian kings…

  • History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century, A (work by Halévy)

    Élie Halévy: (1913–47; A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century). This great work traces the political, economic, and religious developments in Britain after 1815.

  • History of the Fairchild Family, The (work by Sherwood)

    children's literature: From T.W. to Alice (1712?–1865): …of children; the author of The History of the Fairchild Family (1818–47) based her family chronicle on the proposition (which she later softened) that “all children are by nature evil.” Of all the members of the flourishing Rousseauist or quasi-Rousseauist school of the moral tale, only one was a true…

  • History of the Famous Preacher Friar Gerundio of Campazas, alias Zotes (work by Isla)

    José Francisco de Isla: …de Campazas, alias Zotes (1758; History of the Famous Preacher Friar Gerundio of Campazas, alias Zotes). This work is a brilliant satire on the vain and tastelessly bombastic preaching that predominated in Spanish churches. The book provoked a controversy that ended with its being banned by the Inquisition in 1760.…

  • History of the Former Han Dynasty, The (Chinese historical work)

    Ban Biao: …to have begun the famous Han shu (“Book of Han”), considered the Confucian historiographic model on which all later dynastic histories were patterned.

  • History of the Franks, The (work by Gregory of Tours)

    biography: Middle Ages: Bishop Gregory of Tours’s History of the Franks depicts artlessly but vividly, from firsthand observation, the lives and personalities of the four grandsons of Clovis and their fierce queens in Merovingian Gaul of the 6th century. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, of the 8th century, though lacking…

  • History of the House of Artsruni (work by Artsruni)

    Armenian literature: Medieval decline: …century, Thomas (Thovma) Artsruni wrote History of the House of Artsruni, which, in spite of its family bias, is the chief source of information on the history of Armenia to 936; an anonymous writer continued the work to 1121. The History of Armenia by the catholicos (patriarch) John VI Draskhanakertzi…

  • History of the House of Lords and All Its Members From the Earliest Times, A (British publication)

    The Complete Peerage, exhaustive 14-volume (in 15 books) guide to the peerage families (titled aristocracy) of the British Isles, recognized as the greatest British achievement in the field of genealogy. The first edition in eight volumes was published in London (1887–98) by George Edward Cokayne,

  • History of the Indies (work by Las Casas)

    Bartolomé de Las Casas: The Apologética and the Destrucción: …introduction to his masterpiece, the Historia de las Indias. The Historia, which by his request was not published until after his death, is an account of all that had happened in the Indies just as he had seen or heard of it. But, rather than a chronicle, it is a…

  • History of the Introduction of Christianity in China (work by Ricci)

    Matteo Ricci: Mission to China: In his History of the Introduction of Christianity in China, Ricci described their work as follows:

  • History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages (work by Simonde de Sismondi)

    J.-C.-L. Simonde de Sismondi: …italiennes du moyen âge (1809–18; History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages), which regarded the free cities of medieval Italy as the origin of modern Europe, inspired the leaders of that country’s Risorgimento (nationalist unification movement).

  • History of the Jewish War (work by Josephus)

    death: Judaism: …recorded in Bellum Judaicum (History of the Jewish War) how doctrinal disputes about death, the existence of an afterlife, and the “fate of the soul” were embodied in the views of various factions. The Sadducees (who spoke for a conservative, sacerdotal aristocracy) were still talking in terms of the…

  • History of the Jews (work by Dubnow)

    Simon Markovich Dubnow: …historical studies is his monumental Die Weltgeschichte des jüdischen Volkes, 10 vol. (1925–30; “The World History of the Jewish People”; Eng. trans. History of the Jews), which was translated into several languages. The work is notable for its scholarship, impartiality, and cognizance of social and economic currents in Jewish history.…

  • History of the Jews (work by Graetz)

    Heinrich Graetz: …English version was published as History of the Jews, 6 vol. (1891–98).

  • History of the Kings of Britain (work by Geoffrey of Monmouth)

    Historia regum Britanniae, (Latin: “History of the Kings of Britain”) fictional history of Britain written by Geoffrey of Monmouth sometime between 1135 and 1139. The Historia regum Britanniae was one of the most popular books of the Middle Ages. The story begins with the settlement of Britain by

  • History of the Kirk of Scotland (work by Calderwood)

    David Calderwood: …his last years writing his History of the Kirk of Scotland, the only published edition of which was made in digest form by the Wodrow society (1842–49).

  • History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations from 1494 to 1514 (work by Ranke)

    Leopold von Ranke: Early career.: …produced his maiden work, the Geschichte der romanischen und germanischen Völker von 1494 bis 1514 (History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations from 1494 to 1514), which treats the struggle waged between the French and the Habsburgs for Italy as the phase that ushered in the new era. The appended…

  • History of the Lombards (work by Paul the Deacon)

    Italy: Literature and art: …this period: Paul the Deacon’s History of the Lombards, dating from the 790s, is far shorter than Gregory of Tours’s history of the Franks or Bede’s of the English, and it had few parallels except for episcopal histories in Rome, Ravenna, and Naples. Nor did the Rule of St. Benedict,…

  • History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880 (work by Williams)

    George Washington Williams: …copious research he had his History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880 published in 1882. There had been several previous works written on this subject by black historians, but Williams’ work was the first relatively objective account that strove for historical accuracy rather than functioning as…

  • History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion, A (work by Williams)

    George Washington Williams: …research for his next work, A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion (1888), involved the gathering of oral histories from black Civil War veterans and the culling of newspaper accounts, both techniques which subsequently became basic resources in American historiography.

  • History of the New Testament Canon (work by Westcott)

    Brooke Foss Westcott: John, and his History of the New Testament Canon (1855) was for many years a standard work in biblical scholarship.

  • History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal (work by Herculano)

    Alexandre Herculano: …da inquisição em Portugal (1854–59; History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal). Based on hitherto unknown documents, it attempted to demonstrate that royal absolutism and clerical power had been allies in the confiscation of the property of the “New Christians” (converted Jews) through the Inquisition. He…

  • History of the Origin and Progress of the Working Men’s Party (work by Evans)

    George Henry Evans: …and later in his book History of the Origin and Progress of the Working Men’s Party (1840), Evans elucidated his reform program while opposing other reform philosophies. Wages would stay high, he asserted, as long as there was a “safety valve” (i.e., cheap farmland) to draw off excess workers. Believing…

  • History of the Origins of Christianity (work by Renan)

    Ernest Renan: Religious controversies: …des origines du christianisme (The History of the Origins of Christianity). Both these volumes, containing brilliant descriptions of how Christianity spread among the rootless proletariat of the cities of Asia Minor, illustrate his preoccupation with a question, Would the intellectuals of the 19th century lead the masses toward a new…

  • History of the Peloponnesian War (work by Thucydides)

    Antiphon: …but Thucydides’ judgment in his History, when describing the revolution of the Four Hundred, is that it was Antiphon “who conceived the whole matter and the means by which it was brought to pass.” He was reluctant to put himself forward in public debate because, says Thucydides, he realized that…

  • History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, A (work by McMaster)

    John Bach McMaster: …of the first chapter of A History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, 8 vol. (1883–1913). Almost immediately after publication of this first extremely popular volume in 1883, he accepted an offer to teach at the Wharton School of Finance and Economy…

  • History of the Pleas of the Crown (work by Hale)

    Sir Matthew Hale: …perhaps best known is his History of the Pleas of the Crown (the House of Commons directed in 1680 that it be printed, though it was not published until 1736). This work remains one of the principal authorities on the common law of criminal offenses. But he also wrote widely…

  • History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (work by Pastor)

    Ludwig Pastor, baron von Campersfelden: (1886–1933; History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages).

  • History of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, The (work by Harnack)

    Adolf von Harnack: …Harnack was asked to write The History of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in connection with the celebration of its 200th anniversary in 1900. Harnack retired from his position at the University of Berlin in 1921.

  • History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England (work by Clarendon)

    Edward Hyde, 1st earl of Clarendon: Early life and career.: …began a draft of his History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England in the hope that his interpretation of recent errors might instruct the king for the future.

  • History of the Reformation in Europe at the Time of Calvin (book by Merle d’Aubigné)

    Jean-Henri Merle d'Aubigné: …au temps de Calvin (1863–78; History of the Reformation in Europe at the Time of Calvin). Although considered partisan toward the Presbyterian church organization, he revitalized Protestant church historical scholarship and assembled more source documents than any other historian up to his time.

  • History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century (book by Merle d’Aubigné)

    Jean-Henri Merle d'Aubigné: …Réformation du seizième siècle (1835–53; History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, 1838–41) and the more scholarly Histoire de la Réformation en Europe au temps de Calvin (1863–78; History of the Reformation in Europe at the Time of Calvin). Although considered partisan toward the Presbyterian church organization, he revitalized…

  • History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic (work by Prescott)

    William H. Prescott: Life and works: …in 1838 of his three-volume History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic, the product of some 10 years of work, was an agreeable surprise to Boston’s literary world. This work launched Prescott’s career as a historian of 16th-century Spain and its colonies. In another such work, A…

  • History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh, The (work by Bacon)

    Francis Bacon: Human philosophy: His Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh is explanatory, interpretative history, making sense of the king’s policies by tracing them to his cautious, economical, and secretive character. Similarly his reflections on law, in De Augmentis Scientiarum and in Maxims of the Law (Part…

  • History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King of Spain (work by Prescott)

    William H. Prescott: Life and works: In another such work, A History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King of Spain, 3 vol. (1855–58), Prescott produced graceful, authoritative narratives of Spanish military, diplomatic, and political history that had no equal in their time. Prescott’s modern popularity, however, rests with his epic History of the Conquest…

  • History of the Revolution, The (work by Ferguson)

    Robert Ferguson: …in his last notable work, The History of the Revolution (1706), he argued that this event was a Roman Catholic plot. Both sides, however, regarded him with understandable suspicion, and he died in deep poverty in London.

  • History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution, A (work by Warren)

    Mercy Otis Warren: …completed a three-volume history titled A History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution. The work deliberately avoided dull accounts of “military havoc” in favour of knowledgeable comments on the important personages of the day, which remain especially useful. Its marginalizing and sharply critical treatment of John…

  • History of the Royal Society of London (work by Sprat)

    Thomas Sprat: In his History of the Royal Society of London (1667), a propagandist defense rather than a factual account of the new scientific society, he criticizes the “inkhorn terms” (learned jargon) and sonorous stylistic swellings of Restoration prose. He advocated the return to the style of a simpler…

  • History of the Russian Church (work by Bulgakov)

    Macarius Bulgakov: …1857–82, Macarius produced his 13-volume History of the Russian Church, from its 10th-century origins to the Council of Moscow in 1667. Although deficient in its evaluation of historical sources, the work is notable for the previously unpublished documents it reproduced. He also left three volumes of sermons and a History…

  • History of the Standard Oil Company, The (work by Tarbell)

    Ida Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company, originally a serial that ran in McClure’s, is one of the most thorough accounts of the rise of a business monopoly and its use of unfair practices. The articles also helped to define a growing trend to investigation,…

  • History of the Synoptic Tradition (work by Bultmann)

    Rudolf Bultmann: Early career: …Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition (History of the Synoptic Tradition), an analysis of the traditional material used by the Evangelists Matthew, Mark, and Luke and an attempt to trace its history in the tradition of the church prior to their use of it. This proved to be a seminal work,…

  • History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, from the Age of Descartes to the Close of the Nineteenth Century, A (work by Whittaker)

    Sir Edmund Taylor Whittaker: In A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, from the Age of Descartes to the Close of the Nineteenth Century (1910), expanded in 1953 to include the first quarter of the 20th century, Whittaker showed the philosophical depth behind his mathematical thought. Shortly after…

  • History of the Times (work by Choniates)

    Nicetas Choniates: …court-in-exile, and wrote the 21-volume History of the Times, a record of the rise and fall of the 12th- and 13th-century Byzantine dynasties, beginning with the Greek emperor John Comnenus (1118–43) and concluding with the intrusion of the first Latin Eastern emperor, Baldwin I of Flanders (1204–05).

  • History of the United States (work by Channing)

    Edward Channing: …his New England bias, his History of the United States, 6 vol. (1905–25), ranks as a major accomplishment in American historical writing. The sixth volume was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History.

  • History of the United States (work by Bancroft)

    George Bancroft: …the compilation of his 10-volume History of the United States extended over a period of 40 years (1834–74). With a few exceptions, earlier American historians had been collectors or annalists, concerned chiefly with state or Revolutionary War histories. Bancroft was the first scholar to plan a comprehensive study of the…

  • History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (work by Rhodes)

    James Ford Rhodes: …his reputation as a historian—the History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. The seven volumes of this work appeared between 1893 and 1906 and were held in high esteem as “scientific” (i.e., objective and detached) historical scholarship. His insistence upon slavery as the cause of the war…

  • History of the United States of America (work by Adams)

    Henry Adams: …study culminated in his nine-volume History of the United States of America during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison, a scholarly work that received immediate acclaim after its publication (1889–91). In this work he explored the dilemma of governing an egalitarian society in a political world in which the predominant…

  • History of the War in the North Against the Chief Heke, The (work by Maning)

    Frederick Maning: His account of the campaign, The History of the War in the North Against the Chief Heke, was published in 1862.

  • History of the War in the Peninsula (work by Napier)

    Sir William Francis Patrick Napier: …Portugal; he wrote the popular History of the War in the Peninsula…, 6 vol. (1828–40), based partly on his own combat experiences and partly on information supplied by two commanders in that conflict, the duke of Wellington and the French marshal Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult.

  • history of the wheelchair

    History of the wheelchair, the development over time of wheelchairs. Precisely when the first wheeled chairs were invented and used for disabled persons is unknown. Some scholars suspect that the history of the wheelchair begins sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries bce, possibly with the

  • History of the Work of Redemption, A (work by Edwards)

    Jonathan Edwards: Pastorate at Stockbridge: …books on other subjects, notably A History of the Work of Redemption (he had preached a series of sermons—posthumously published—on that subject in 1739), which was to be a complete theology combining biblical, historical, and systematic materials “in an entire new method.” Late in 1757, however, he accepted the presidency…

  • History of the World Conqueror, A (work by Joveynī)

    ʿAṭā Malek Joveynī: …opus, the Tārīkh-i jehān-gushā (A History of the World Conqueror, 2 vol., 1958), is one of the most important works of Persian historiography. Begun in 1252–53, the history includes sections on the Mongols’ two principal Muslim enemies, the Khwārezm-Shāhs (995–1231) and the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt (1090–1256), as well as…

  • History of the World, The (work by Müller)

    Johannes von Müller: ; The History of the World), is indebted to the historical outlook of the Enlightenment but points forward to Leopold von Ranke in its religious conception. In Fürstenbund (1787; “League of Princes”) and Reisen der Päpste (1782; “Travels of the Popes”), which are political journalism, Müller…

  • History of the World, The (work by Raleigh)

    biography: Renaissance: …in the introduction to his History of the World (1614): “Whosoever, in writing a modern history, shall follow truth too near the heels, it may haply strike out his teeth”—as Sir John Hayward could testify, having been imprisoned in the Tower of London because his account (1599) of Richard II’s…

  • History of the Worthies of England (work by Fuller)

    Thomas Fuller: His History of the Worthies of England, published posthumously in 1662, was the first attempt at a dictionary of national biography. He was also a historian who gathered facts from original sources, producing works that provide much valuable antiquarian information. He acquired a reputation for quaintness…

  • History of Titus Andronicus, The (English chapbook)

    Titus Andronicus: …important, an 18th-century chapbook titled The History of Titus Andronicus, though clearly too late to have served as Shakespeare’s source, may well have been derived from a closely similar prose version that Shakespeare could have known.

  • History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The (novel by Fielding)

    Tom Jones, comic novel by Henry Fielding, published in 1749. Tom Jones, like its predecessor, Joseph Andrews, is constructed around a romance plot. Squire Allworthy suspects that the infant whom he adopts and names Tom Jones is the illegitimate child of his servant Jenny Jones. When Tom is a young

  • History of Trade Unionism, The (work by Webb)

    Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Their work after marriage.: …were the great twin volumes The History of Trade Unionism (1894) and Industrial Democracy (1897). In these books the Webbs, in effect, introduced the economists and social historians of Britain to a part of British social life of which they had hitherto been unaware. The work that followed extended into…

  • History of Two Nations (work by Bainville)

    Jacques Bainville: …and Germany; notable is his Histoire de deux peuples (1915; “History of Two Nations”), an anti-German work dealing with the recurrent German invasions of France. In 1920 he published Les Conséquences politiques de la paix (1920; “The Political Consequences of the Peace”), in which he attacked the Treaty of Versailles…

  • History of Tythes (work by Selden)

    John Selden: Selden’s History of Tythes (1618), although conceding the legal right of the Church of England to collect tithes, denied divine authority for the practice. The book was suppressed, and the Privy Council forced the author to recant. Twice he was imprisoned for taking the side of…

  • History of Violence, A (film by Cronenberg [2005])

    David Cronenberg: Later films: A History of Violence and Eastern Promises: A History of Violence (2005), based on a graphic novel, starred Viggo Mortensen as a small-town family man who, after committing a heroic deed, is confronted with his shady past. The suspenseful drama was one of the best-regarded works of the director’s career. Cronenberg worked…

  • History of Violence, A (graphic novel by Wagner)

    DC Comics: The DC universe: …Piranha, it published John Wagner’s A History of Violence (1997) and Road to Perdition (1998) by writer Max Allan Collins and artist Richard Piers Rayner. Both graphic novels were later adapted into award-winning motion pictures. Far more enduring was DC’s Vertigo imprint, which began in 1993 as a home for…

  • History of Western Philosophy, A (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: …the foundation into a book, A History of Western Philosophy (1945), which proved to be a best-seller and was for many years his main source of income.

  • History of Woman Suffrage (American publication)

    History of Woman Suffrage, publication that appeared, over the course of some 40 years, in six volumes and nearly 6,000 pages chronicling the American woman suffrage movement in great, but incomplete, detail. It consists of speeches and other primary documents, letters, and reminiscences, as well

  • history of work organization

    History of the organization of work, history of the methods by which society structures the activities and labour necessary to its survival. Work is essential in providing the basic physical needs of food, clothing, and shelter. But work involves more than the use of tools and techniques. Advances

  • history play (literature)

    Chronicle play, drama with a theme from history consisting usually of loosely connected episodes chronologically arranged. Plays of this type typically lay emphasis on the public welfare by pointing to the past as a lesson for the present, and the genre is often characterized by its assumption of a

  • history, philosophy of

    Philosophy of history, the study either of the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material. The term history may be employed in two quite different senses: it may mean (1) the events and actions that together make up the human past, or

  • History: A Novel (work by Morante)

    Elsa Morante: The novel La storia (1974; History: A Novel) met with mixed critical reaction, but it achieved commercial success. Set primarily in Rome between 1941 and 1947, its focus is the arduous existence of a simple, half-Jewish elementary school teacher and her young son, Useppe, born after she is raped by…

  • History: The Home Movie (work by Raine)

    English literature: Poetry: …narrative genre was Craig Raine’s History: The Home Movie (1994), a huge semifictionalized saga, written in three-line stanzas, chronicling several generations of his and his wife’s families. Before this, three books of dazzling virtuosity (The Onion, Memory [1978], A Martian Sends a Postcard Home [1979], and Rich [1984]) established Raine…

  • Histosol (soil)

    Histosol, one of the 12 soil orders in the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. Histosols are formed under waterlogged conditions typical of peat bogs, moors, and swamps. Under such conditions, the accumulated tissues of dead plants and animals and their decomposition products are preserved, resulting in soils of

  • Histosol (FAO soil group)

    Histosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Histosols are low-density, acidic soils with a high proportion of organic material. Formed mainly in cold climates and under waterlogged conditions, they are the most common soil in

  • histotoxic hypoxia (medical condition)

    hypoxia: …unevenly distributed; and (4) the histotoxic type, in which the tissue cells are poisoned and are therefore unable to make proper use of oxygen. Diseases of the blood, the heart and circulation, and the lungs may all produce some form of hypoxia.

  • Histrio histrio (fish)

    frogfish: The sargassum fish (Histrio histrio) is patterned very much like the sargassum weed in which it lives.

  • Histrio Mastix: The Players Scourge, or, Actors tragoedie (work by Prynne)

    William Prynne: In his famous book Histrio Mastix: The Players Scourge, or, Actors tragoedie (1633), he tried to prove that stage plays provoked public immorality. Many believed his vigorous denunciation of actresses was directed at Charles I’s theatrically inclined wife, and the powerful Anglican William Laud (archbishop of Canterbury 1633–45) had…

  • Histrio-mastix (work by Marston)

    John Marston: …writing for the theatre, producing Histrio-mastix (published in 1610), probably for performance at the Middle Temple. In his character Chrisoganus, a “Master Pedant” and “translating scholler,” the audience was able to recognize the learned Ben Jonson. A brief, bitter literary feud developed between Marston and Jonson—part of “the war of…

  • histrionic personality disorder (psychology)

    personality disorder: Persons with histrionic personality disorder persistently display overly dramatic, highly excitable, and intensely expressed behaviour (i.e., histrionics). Persons with dependent personality disorder lack energy and initiative and passively let others assume responsibility for major aspects of their lives. Persons with passive-aggressive personality disorder express their hostility through…

  • Histriophoca fasciata (mammal)

    Ribbon seal, (Histriophoca fasciata), earless seal of the family Phocidae found in the North Pacific and the Bering Sea. The male, growing to about 1.7 m (5.6 feet) in length and 95 kg (210 pounds) in weight, is dark brown with broad, yellowish, ribbonlike markings. The smaller female and the young

  • Hīt (ancient city, Iraq)

    history of Mesopotamia: The background: There are bitumen springs at Hīt (90 miles northwest of Baghdad) on the Euphrates (the Is of Herodotus). On the other hand, wood, stone, and metal were rare or even entirely absent. The date palm—virtually the national tree of Iraq—yields a wood suitable only for rough beams and not for…

  • hit (baseball)

    Pete Rose: …where he made his record-breaking hit in 1985 as player-manager of the Reds. By the time he retired as a player in 1986, Rose had a record career total of 4,256 hits. His other records included most games played, 3,562; most times at bat, 14,053; and most seasons with 200…

  • hit and span (game)

    marble: In hit and span, players try to shoot or roll marbles either against an opponent’s marbles or a hand’s span from them. In various pot games (a pot is a small hole in the ground), including moshie, the player tries to pitch his own marbles or…

  • hit wicket (cricket)

    cricket: Methods of dismissal: The batsman is out “hit wicket” if he breaks his own wicket with his bat or any part of his person while playing the ball or setting off for a run. Either batsman is out for handling the ball if, with the hand not holding the bat, he willfully…

  • hit-and-run tactics (military)

    guerrilla warfare: Strategy and tactics: Hit-and-run tactics on a broad front cut communication, eventually causing enemy garrisons to wither on the vine. By war’s end the Arabs had gained control of some 100,000 square miles while holding 600,000 Ottoman soldiers in passive defense. Arabs had killed or wounded 35,000 enemy…

  • Hita (Japan)

    Hita, city, northwestern Ōita ken (prefecture), north-central Kyushu, Japan. It lies on the Mikuma River in the centre of the Hita plateau. Hita grew as a castle town in the late 16th century, and it retains many buildings dating from the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867). It is now a market for

  • Hitachi (Japan)

    Hitachi, city, northeastern Ibaraki ken (prefecture), northeastern Honshu, Japan. It lies on the Pacific Ocean coast, about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Kitaibaraki. The area’s industrial development began with the discovery of copper nearby in 1591. Large-scale copper smelting was introduced

  • Hitachi, Ltd. (Japanese manufacturer)

    Hitachi, Ltd., highly diversified Japanese manufacturing corporation that comprises more than 1,000 subsidiaries, including 335 overseas corporations. Headquarters are in Tokyo. Hitachi’s story begins in 1910 with its founder, Odaira Namihei, operating an electrical repair shop at a copper mine

  • Hitachinaka (Japan)

    Hitachinaka, city, eastern Ibaraki ken (prefecture), northern Honshu, Japan. It extends eastward from the Naka River to the Pacific Ocean, just east of Mito, the prefectural capital. The city was formed in 1994 by the merger of the former city of Katsuta with the smaller Nakaminato. For several

  • hitatare (Japanese dress)

    dress: Japan: The hitatare, the formal court robe of samurai, and the suo, a crested linen robe designed for everyday wear, were characterized by V-shaped necklines accentuated by inner-robe neckbands of white.

  • hitch kick (sports)

    long jump: …toward the chest, and the hitch kick, which is in effect a continuation of the run in the air. The legs are brought together for landing, and, since the length of the jump is measured from the edge of the takeoff board to the nearest mark in the landing area…

  • Hitch-22 (work by Hitchens)

    Christopher Hitchens: His memoir, Hitch-22, was published in 2010; during the book tour, Hitchens announced that he had been diagnosed with esophageal cancer. While undergoing treatment, he continued to make public appearances, during which he discussed his condition and frequently reiterated his religious disbelief in response to suggestions of…

  • Hitch-Hiker, The (film by Lupino [1953])

    Ida Lupino: Directing: …masterpiece, the grim film noir The Hitch-Hiker, which was 71 minutes of unabated tension. It centres on two friends (Frank Lovejoy and Edmond O’Brien) who, while on a fishing trip, pick up a stranded man (William Talman) only to discover that he is a psychopath wanted for murder. The film…

  • Hitchcock (film by Gervasi [2012])

    Toni Collette: …personal assistant in the biographical Hitchcock (2012).

  • Hitchcock, Albert Spear (American botanist)

    Albert Spear Hitchcock, U.S. botanist and specialist on the taxonomy of the world’s grasses who developed the practice of using type specimens (or holotypes) for plant nomenclature. During his student days at Iowa State Agricultural College, Hitchcock was greatly influenced by Charles E. Bessey,

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