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  • Hewitt, Peter Cooper (American electrical engineer)

    Peter Cooper Hewitt, American electrical engineer who invented the mercury-vapour lamp, a great advance in electrical lighting. At an early age, Hewitt began research on electricity and mechanics in a greenhouse converted into a workshop. In 1901 he marketed his first mercury-vapour lamp, but an

  • Hewlett, James Monroe (American architect)

    R. Buckminster Fuller: Life: …married Anne Hewlett, daughter of James Monroe Hewlett, a well-known architect and muralist. Hewlett had invented a modular construction system using a compressed fibre block, and after the war Fuller and Hewlett formed a construction company that used this material (later known as Soundex, a Celotex product) in modules for…

  • Hewlett, Jamie (British comic-book artist and designer)

    Damon Albarn: …1990s Albarn and comic-book artist Jamie Hewlett developed the idea for Gorillaz, a “virtual band” for which animated characters drawn by Hewlett would serve as the sole visual component (on record covers and in music videos, for instance) of music conceived by Albarn. The group’s self-titled full-length debut album (2001)…

  • Hewlett, William (American engineer)

    William Hewlett, American engineer and businessman who was the cofounder of the electronics and computer corporation Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Hewlett’s interest in science and electronics started when he was a child, and in 1930 he began studying engineering at Stanford University in

  • Hewlett, William Redington (American engineer)

    William Hewlett, American engineer and businessman who was the cofounder of the electronics and computer corporation Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Hewlett’s interest in science and electronics started when he was a child, and in 1930 he began studying engineering at Stanford University in

  • Hewlett-Packard Company (American company)

    Hewlett-Packard Company, American manufacturer of software and computer services. The company split in 2015 into two companies: HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. Headquarters were in Palo Alto, California. The company was founded on January 1, 1939, by William R. Hewlett and David Packard,

  • Hewson, John (Australian politician)

    Tony Abbott: …secretary for Liberal Party leader John Hewson in 1990. When the Liberals were defeated in 1993 in an election that they were widely expected to win, Hewson became a pariah within the party, and Abbott found himself out of work. From 1993 to 1994 he served as executive director for…

  • Hewson, Paul David (Irish singer)

    Bono, lead singer for the popular Irish rock band U2 and prominent human rights activist. He was born of a Roman Catholic father and a Protestant mother (who died when he was just age 14). In Dublin in 1977, he and school friends David Evans (later “the Edge”), Larry Mullen, Jr., and Adam Clayton

  • Hewson, William (English physiologist)

    William Hewson, British anatomist and physiologist who described blood coagulation and isolated a key protein in the coagulation process, fibrinogen, which he called coagulable lymph. He also investigated the structure of the lymphatic system and described red blood cells. Hewson was trained in

  • hex (game)

    number game: Puzzles involving configurations: …marketed under the name of hex.

  • hex sign (emblem)

    Hex sign, emblem painted on a barn, especially in Pennsylvania Dutch country, an agricultural region in southeastern Pennsylvania largely settled by German immigrants who have preserved ethnic custom and identification to a high degree (see Pennsylvania German). Hex designs, usually round, with

  • hexabromocyclododecane (chemical compound)
  • hexacarbonylchromium (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: The structure of metal carbonyls: …the six carbonyl ligands in hexacarbonylchromium project toward the vertices of an octahedron.

  • hexachlorocyclobenzene (chemical compound)

    Benzene hexachloride (BHC), any of several stereoisomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane formed by the light-induced addition of chlorine to benzene. One of these isomers is an insecticide called lindane, or Gammexane. Benzene hexachloride was first prepared in 1825; the insecticidal

  • hexachlorophene (trichlorophenol)

    antimicrobial agent: Antiseptics and germicides: …bisphenols as hexyl resorcinol and hexachlorophene are widely used as antiseptic agents in soaps. Chlorine and iodine are both extremely effective agents and can be used in high dilution. Chlorine is widely used in the disinfection of drinking-water supplies, and among its derivatives, the hypochlorite solutions (e.g., Dakin’s solution) are…

  • hexachloroplatinic acid (chemical compound)

    Hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6∙6H2O), complex compound formed by dissolving platinum metal in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) or in hydrochloric acid that contains chlorine. It is crystallized from the solution in the form of reddish brown deliquescent (moisture-absorbing)

  • hexachord (music)

    Hexachord, in music, six-note pattern corresponding to the first six tones of the major scale (as, C–D–E–F–G–A). The names of the degrees of the hexachord are ut, re, mi, fa, sol, and la (also called solmization [q.v.] syllables); they were devised by the 11th-century teacher and theorist Guido of

  • Hexacorallia (invertebrate subclass)

    cnidarian: Annotated classification: Subclass Zoantharia Sea anemones and corals. Six (or multiples of 6) tentacles (rarely branched). Mesenteries commonly arranged hexamerously. Solitary or colonial. Skeletons non-spicular calcareous, horny, or lacking. Usually 2 siphonoglyphs. Order Actiniaria Sea anemones. Solitary or clonal, never colonial; lacking skeleton; with or without basilar muscles.…

  • Hexactinellida (invertebrate)

    Glass sponge, any of a class (Hexactinellida, also called Hyalospongiae, or Triaxonia) of sponges characterized by a skeleton that consists of silica spicules (needlelike structures) often united into a delicate geometric network—e.g., that of Venus’s flower basket (q.v.). Glass sponges occur

  • hexadecanoic acid (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Saturated aliphatic acids: to C18 (lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic), are present in the fats and oils of many animals and plants, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most prevalent. Lauric acid (C12) is the main acid in coconut oil (45–50 percent) and palm kernel oil (45–55 percent). Nutmeg butter is…

  • Hexaëmeron (work by Dracontius)

    Blossius Aemilius Dracontius: …Middle Ages under the title Hexaëmeron. The tragedy Orestes—927 lines on the murder of Agamemnon and the revenge of his son, Orestes—has been transmitted without Dracontius’s name but is now held to be his. Dracontius demonstrates wide familiarity with pagan Latin literature and with the Bible.

  • Hexaëmeron (sermons by Basil the Great)

    St. Basil the Great: Works and legacy: In the Hexaëmeron (“Six Days”), nine Lenten sermons on the days of the Creation, Basil speaks of the varied beauty of the world as reflecting the splendour of God. Against Eunomius defends the deity of the Son against an extreme Arian thinker, and On the Holy Spirit…

  • Hexaëmeron (work by George the Pisidian)

    George the Pisidian: George’s major work, the Hexaëmeron (Greek: “Of Six Days”), a rhapsody on the beauty of creation and the Creator’s wisdom, was popularized through translations into Armenian and Slavic languages. Other writings included the moralistic elegy “De vanitate vitae” (“On the Vanity of Life”), in the manner of the Old…

  • hexafluoropropylene (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Fluoroelastomers: the monomers vinylidene fluoride (CH2=CF2), hexafluoropropylene (CF2=CFCF3), and chlorotrifluoroethylene (CF2=CFCl) in addition to tetrafluoroethylene. These elastomers have outstanding resistance to oxygen, ozone, heat, and swelling by oils, chlorinated solvents, and fuels. With service temperatures up to 250° C (480° F), they are the elastomers of choice for use in industrial…

  • hexagonal close-packed structure (crystallography)

    crystal: Structures of metals: , which is called the hexagonal- closest-packed (hcp) structure. Cadmium and zinc crystallize with this structure. The second possibility is to place the atoms of the third layer over those of neither of the first two but instead over the set of holes in the first layer that remains unoccupied.…

  • hexagonal openwork (art)

    basketry: Matting or plaited construction: …one woven) is known as hexagonal openwork and is the technique most common in openwork basketry using flat elements. It has a very wide distribution: from Europe to Japan, southern Asia, Central Africa, and the tropical Americas. A closely woven fabric in three layers, forming a six-pointed star design, is…

  • hexagonal system (crystallography)

    Hexagonal system, one of the principal categories of structures to which a given crystalline solid can be assigned. Components of crystals in this system are located by reference to four axes—three of equal length set at 120° to one another and a fourth axis perpendicular to the plane of the other

  • Hexagone, L’ (Canadian publishing house)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: …models for the next generation—the Hexagone poets.

  • hexagram (Chinese divination)

    Yijing: …its presentation of 64 symbolic hexagrams that, if properly understood and interpreted, are said to contain profound meanings applicable to daily life. Throughout the ages, Yijing enthusiasts have claimed that the book is a means of understanding, and even controlling, future events.

  • Hexagrammidae (marine fish)

    Greenling, any of a number of marine fish of the family Hexagrammidae (order Scorpaeniformes). Greenlings are characterized, as a group, by such features as small scales, long dorsal fins, and strong jaw teeth. Members of the family usually do not exceed a length of about 45 or 46 cm (18 inches).

  • Hexagrammoidei (fish suborder)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: Suborder Hexagrammoidei Moderate-sized, slender-bodied fishes. Vertebrae 42–64; ribs attached to strong parapophyses (projections of vertebrae). Small scales, long dorsal fins, spines on the head few, powerful teeth in jaws. Locally important food fishes, some with sporting value. Size of most Hexagrammidae (greenlings) and Anoplopomatidae (sablefish) to…

  • Hexagrammos otakii (fish)

    greenling: …the North Pacific; and the ainame (H. otakii), a common food fish of Japan.

  • hexahedrite (meteorite)

    iron meteorite: …groups grading into one another: hexahedrites, octahedrites, and ataxites. Hexahedrites are usually made up entirely of kamacite and lack the Widmanstätten pattern. Octahedrites contain both kamacite and taenite and constitute the largest group of iron finds. Most ataxites, which are the rarest group, are pure taenite; some ataxite specimens contain…

  • hexahelicene (chemical compound)

    isomerism: Stereoisomers of more complex molecules: One classic example is hexahelicene, a molecule composed of six benzene rings connected to each other. The molecule coils in the form of a spiral so that the atoms of the last ring do not impinge on the atoms of the first ring. The result is a left- or…

  • hexahydropyrazine (drug)

    Piperazine, anthelmintic drug used in the treatment of intestinal roundworm infection in humans and domestic animals (including poultry) and against pinworm infection in humans. It is administered orally, in repeated doses, usually as the citrate salt. Its action causes worms to be paralyzed and

  • hexameter (poetry)

    Hexameter, a line of verse containing six feet, usually dactyls (′ ˘ ˘). Dactylic hexameter is the oldest known form of Greek poetry and is the preeminent metre of narrative and didactic poetry in Greek and Latin, in which its position is comparable to that of iambic pentameter in English

  • hexamethonium (drug)

    cholinergic drug: The latter group includes hexamethonium and trimethaphan. These drugs cause overall paralysis of the autonomic nervous system because they do not distinguish between sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and therefore are not specific in their action. They were the first effective agents to reduce high blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs), but…

  • hexamethylene diamine (chemical compound)

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: Some amines—such as hexamethylenediamine, used in the manufacture of nylon-6,6—are made by catalytic addition of hydrogen to nitriles, R≡CN.

  • Hexamita meleagridis (protist)

    diplomonad: …sometimes causes severe diarrhea, and Hexamita meleagridis, the cause of fatal infectious catarrhal enteritis in turkeys.

  • Hexanchidae (shark family)

    chondrichthyan: Annotated classification: Family Hexanchidae (cow sharks and 7-gilled sharks) Distinguished by presence of 6 gill slits; teeth of lower jaw strikingly unlike those of upper, the 5 or 6 on either side of the central tooth being about twice as broad as high, their inner edges saw-toothed with…

  • hexane (chemical compound)

    natural gas: Hydrocarbon content: hexane. In natural gas reservoirs even the heavier hydrocarbons occur for the most part in gaseous form because of the higher pressures. They usually liquefy at the surface (at atmospheric pressure) and are produced separately as natural gas liquids (NGLs), either in field separators or…

  • hexane, commercial (chemistry)

    fat and oil processing: Processes: …especially the various grades of petroleum benzin (commonly known as petroleum ether, commercial hexane, or heptane). In large-scale operations, solvent extraction is a more economical means of recovering oil than is mechanical pressing. In the United States and increasingly in Europe, there are many instances of simple petroleum benzin extraction…

  • hexanoic acid (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Saturated aliphatic acids: …6-, 8-, and 10-carbon acids: hexanoic (caproic), octanoic (caprylic), and decanoic (capric) acids, respectively. Common names for these three acids are derived from the Latin caper, meaning “goat.” Some hard cheeses (e.g., Swiss cheese) contain natural propanoic acid. The higher even-numbered saturated acids, from C12 to C18 (lauric,

  • Hexapla (edition of Old Testament)

    Hexapla, (Greek: “Sixfold”), edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria in Caesarea, Palestine, before ad 245. The Hexapla presented for comparison the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, the Hebrew text in Greek characters, and the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, the

  • hexaploidy (genetics)

    Poaceae: Economic and ecological importance: …fusion of diploid gametes); and hexaploid (2n = 21). An example of a domesticated diploid wheat is einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), one of the earliest domesticated wheat species. Hybridization of a diploid wheat with Aegilops speltoides (a closely allied species of grass), followed by doubling of the chromosome complement, produced…

  • Hexaprotodon liberiensis (mammal)

    hippopotamus: Pygmy hippopotamus: The rare pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis, also known as Choeropsis liberiensis), the other living species of the family Hippopotamidae, is about the size of a domestic pig. The pygmy hippo is less aquatic than its larger relative, although, when pursued, it hides in water. Less gregarious, it…

  • Hexathelidae (arachnid family)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Hexathelidae 85 mostly tropical species. Arched, glabrous carapace differentiates it from Dipluridae; funnel-web spiders (genus Atrax) of southeastern Australia are venomous. Family Atypidae (purse-web spiders) 43 species of Europe, North America, Japan, Myanmar, and Java. 3 tarsal claws; 6

  • hexathia-18-crown-6 (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …etherlike structures, such as the hexathia-18-crown-6. Oxidation of sulfides yields sulfoxides or, under more vigorous conditions, sulfones; reaction with alkyl halides gives sulfonium salts; and reaction with halogen compounds produces halosulfonium salts. Halosulfonium ions and related species formed from sulfoxides are key intermediates in the synthesis of polysaccharides from

  • hexatic-B phase (physics)

    liquid crystal: Symmetries of liquid crystals: … layers, is broken in the hexatic-B phase, but a proliferation of dislocations maintains continuous translational symmetry within its layers. A similar relationship holds between smectic-C and smectic-F. Crystal-B and crystal-G have molecular positions on regular crystal lattice sites, with long axes of molecules (directors) aligned, but allow rotation of molecules…

  • hexatonic scale (music)

    Hexatonic scale, musical scale containing six different tones within an octave. Using the syllables ut, re, me, fa, sol, and la to refer to the pitches, the 11th-century Italian theorist Guido d’Arezzo identified three hexatonic scales—which he called hexachords—built of whole- and half-step

  • Hexatrygon bickelli (stingray)

    stingray: …1981 with the identification of Hexatrygon bickelli. The specimen, found on the coast of South Africa, showed unique adaptations to deepwater life and was classified by its discoverers in a separate family and suborder.

  • Hexe von Buchenwald (German war criminal)

    Ilse Koch, German wife of a commandant (1937–41) of Buchenwald concentration camp, notorious for her perversion and cruelty. On May 29, 1937, she married Karl Otto Koch, a colonel in the SS who was commander of the Sachsenhausen camp. In the summer of 1937 he was transferred to Buchenwald, then a

  • hexenbesen (plant disease)

    Witches’-broom, symptom of plant disease that occurs as an abnormal brushlike cluster of dwarfed weak shoots arising at or near the same point; twigs and branches of woody plants may die back. There are numerous causes, including rust (Gymnosporangium and Pucciniastrum); Apiosporina, Exobasidium,

  • Hexenkessel (warfare concept and tactic)

    blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg in practice: …to be known as the Hexenkessel (“witches’ cauldron”). By the end of the war, Germany found itself defeated by the strategic (Schwerpunkt) and tactical (Kesselschlacht) concepts that had initially brought it such success. German armies were destroyed at Falaise in France, the Scheldt in the Netherlands, and the Bulge in…

  • Hexham (England, United Kingdom)

    Hexham, town, administrative and historic county of Northumberland, northern England. It is situated on the upper River Tyne, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Hadrian’s Wall. The abbey church of St. Andrew, containing a great stone staircase, dominates the town. The church and monastery were

  • Hexi Corridor (region, China)

    Gansu: Agriculture: The fertile Hexi Corridor produces most of the province’s food crops, which include wheat, barley, millet, corn (maize), and tubers. The province is also a modest producer of sugar beets, rapeseed, soybeans, and a variety of fruits. Attempts have been made to increase agricultural output by transforming…

  • Hexing (China)

    Jiaxing, city, northern Zhejiang sheng (province), eastern China. Jiaxing is a communications centre in the southern Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) delta, situated to the southeast of Lake Tai on the Grand Canal, north of the port of Hangzhou and on the railway between Hangzhou and Shanghai. It is

  • hexogen (explosive)

    RDX, powerful explosive, discovered by Georg Friedrich Henning of Germany and patented in 1898 but not used until World War II, when most of the warring powers introduced it. Relatively safe and inexpensive to manufacture, RDX was produced on a large scale in the United States by a secret process

  • hexokinase (enzyme group)

    metabolism: Glycolysis: In most cells a hexokinase with a high affinity for glucose—i.e., only small amounts of glucose are necessary for enzymatic activity—effects the reaction. In addition, the liver contains a glucokinase, which requires a much greater concentration of glucose before it reacts. Glucokinase functions only in emergencies, when the concentration…

  • hexomino (game)

    number game: Polyominoes: …there are 35 types of hexominoes and 108 types of heptominoes, if the dubious heptomino with an interior “hole” is included.

  • hexosamine-collagen ratio (biochemistry)

    aging: Changes in structural tissues: …a measure of this, the hexosamine–collagen ratio, has been investigated as an index of individual differences in the rate of aging. An important consequence of these changes is decreased permeability of the tissues to dissolved nutrients, hormones, and antibody molecules.

  • hexosaminidase A (enzyme)

    Tay-Sachs disease: …low activity of the enzyme hexosaminidase A allows an unusual sphingolipid, ganglioside GM2, to accumulate in the brain, where it soon exerts devastating effects on neurological function. In some affected children, the enzyme is present but the sphingolipid accumulates nonetheless. Tay-Sachs infants appear normal at birth but become listless and…

  • Hexter, Jack (American historian)

    historiography: The presentation of history: The American historian Jack Hexter wrote entertainingly about this issue, pointing out that excessive quotation breaks up the flow of the narrative and introduces discordant voices into the text. On the other hand, there are times when a point can be made only with the exact words of…

  • hexuronic acid (chemical compound)

    Vitamin C, water-soluble, carbohydrate-like substance that is involved in certain metabolic processes of animals. Although most animals can synthesize vitamin C, it is necessary in the diet of some, including humans and other primates, in order to prevent scurvy, a disease characterized by soreness

  • hexyl resorcinol (chemical compound)

    antimicrobial agent: Antiseptics and germicides: …creosote, while such bisphenols as hexyl resorcinol and hexachlorophene are widely used as antiseptic agents in soaps. Chlorine and iodine are both extremely effective agents and can be used in high dilution. Chlorine is widely used in the disinfection of drinking-water supplies, and among its derivatives, the hypochlorite solutions (e.g.,…

  • hexylresorcinol (drug)

    hookworm: Infection and treatment: Hexylresorcinol has no serious contraindications, is effective against 80 percent of the worms, and removes 90 percent of A. lumbricoides on a single treatment. Mass treatment, with other anthelminthics, of large groups of heavily infected persons has been successful in reducing the incidence of hookworm,…

  • Hey Hey, My My (song by Young)

    Neil Young: Harvest, Rust Never Sleeps, and Harvest Moon: …the main character in “Hey Hey, My My.” Thus, Young’s reenergized reaction to punk sharply contrasted with that of his aging peers, who generally felt dismissed or threatened. It also demonstrated how resistant he was to nostalgia—a by-product of his creative restlessness.

  • Hey Jude (song by Lennon and McCartney)

    Paul McCartney: The Beatles: …as he did with “Hey Jude” (1968). This facility extends to his bass playing, which is famously melodic though often overlooked. A multi-instrumentalist, McCartney also played drums on some Beatles tracks and played all the instruments on some of his solo albums, as well as lead guitar at concerts.

  • Hey, Richard N. (American geophysicist)

    oceanic ridge: Pacific Ocean: …spreading centres, the American geophysicist Richard N. Hey developed the idea of the propagating rift. In this phenomenon, one branch of a spreading centre ending in a transform fault lengthens at the expense of the spreading centre across the fault. The rift and fault propagate at one to five times…

  • Heybeli Ada (island, Turkey)

    Kızıl Adalar: …islands, Büyükada (Prinkipo, ancient Pityoussa), Heybeli Ada (Halki, ancient Chalcitis), Burgaz Adası (Antigoni, ancient Panormos), and Kınalı Ada (Proti). Büyükada was Leon Trotsky’s home for a time after his exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. Heybeli Ada has a branch of the Turkish naval academy.

  • Ḥeydar, Sheykh (Ṣafavid leader)

    Shaykh Ḥaydar, one of the founders of the Ṣafavid state (1501–1736) in Iran. Ḥaydar inherited the leadership of the Ṣafavid order, a Shīʿite Muslim movement centred on Ardabīl (now in northwest Iran). He was raised in the city of Amid, but when the Kara Koyunlu empire in western Iran disintegrated

  • Heyden, Jan van der (Dutch painter)

    Jan van der Heyden, leading painter of cityscapes in late-17th-century Holland, especially known for his views of Amsterdam done in the 1660s. Little is known of his early life, though it is recorded that van der Heyden studied under a Dutch glass painter. In 1650 van der Heyden’s family moved to

  • Heydrich, Reinhard (German Nazi official)

    Reinhard Heydrich, Nazi German official who was Heinrich Himmler’s chief lieutenant in the Schutzstaffel (“Protective Echelon”), the paramilitary corps commonly known as the SS. He played a key role in organizing the Holocaust during the opening years of World War II. Heydrich’s father, who

  • Heydrich, Reinhard Tristan Eugen (German Nazi official)

    Reinhard Heydrich, Nazi German official who was Heinrich Himmler’s chief lieutenant in the Schutzstaffel (“Protective Echelon”), the paramilitary corps commonly known as the SS. He played a key role in organizing the Holocaust during the opening years of World War II. Heydrich’s father, who

  • Heyerdahl, Thor (Norwegian ethnologist)

    Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian ethnologist and adventurer who organized and led the famous Kon-Tiki (1947) and Ra (1969–70) transoceanic scientific expeditions. Both expeditions were intended to prove the possibility of ancient transoceanic contacts between distant civilizations and cultures. For the

  • Heym, Georg (German author)

    German literature: Expressionism: Georg Trakl, Georg Heym, and Gottfried Benn created terrifying images of war, urban life, oppression, and illness in their lyric poetry, and, although Trakl expressed a visionary mysticism in his battlefield scenes, Heym and Benn presented reality as grotesque, distorted, and starkly unrelieved. At the same time,…

  • Heym, Stefan (German author and politician)

    Stefan Heym, (Helmut Flieg), German writer and political activist (born April 10, 1913, Chemnitz, Ger.—died Dec. 16, 2001, Jerusalem, Israel), as the author of over a dozen novels, including The Crusaders (1948), provoked controversy with his dissident writings. Although he was an avowed M

  • Heyman, I. Michael (American scholar)

    I. Michael Heyman, American scholar known for his academic career at the University of California at Berkeley and for spearheading the digitization of the archives of the Smithsonian Institution during his tenure as secretary (CEO). Despite Heyman’s early interest in science—he qualified to enter

  • Heyman, Ira Michael (American scholar)

    I. Michael Heyman, American scholar known for his academic career at the University of California at Berkeley and for spearheading the digitization of the archives of the Smithsonian Institution during his tenure as secretary (CEO). Despite Heyman’s early interest in science—he qualified to enter

  • Heymans, Corneille (Belgian physiologist)

    Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for his discovery of the regulatory effect on respiration of sensory organs associated with the carotid artery in the neck and with the aortic arch leading from the heart. After taking his M.D.

  • Heymans, Corneille-Jean-François (Belgian physiologist)

    Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for his discovery of the regulatory effect on respiration of sensory organs associated with the carotid artery in the neck and with the aortic arch leading from the heart. After taking his M.D.

  • Heyn, Piet (Dutch admiral)

    Piet Heyn, admiral and director of the Dutch West India Company who captured a Spanish treasure fleet (1628) with 4,000,000 ducats of gold and silver (12,000,000 gulden, or florins). That great naval and economic victory provided the Dutch Republic with money to continue its struggle against Spain

  • Heyne, C. G. (German librarian)

    library: Later developments: The library’s next director, C.G. Heyne, enthusiastically followed the same principles, with the result that Göttingen became the best-organized library in the world.

  • Heyrovský, Jaroslav (Czech chemist)

    Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1959 for his discovery and development of polarography. Educated at the Charles University (Universita Karlova) of Prague and at University College, London, Heyrovský worked in London under Sir William Ramsay and F.G.

  • Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig von (German writer)

    Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, German writer and prominent member of the traditionalist Munich school who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910. Heyse studied classical and Romance languages and traveled for a year in Italy, supported by a research grant. After completing his studies he

  • Heysel Stadium (stadium, Brussels, Belgium)

    football: Spectator problems: …the Italian club Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, 39 fans (38 Italian, 1 Belgian) died and more than 400 were injured when, as Liverpool supporters charged opposing fans, a stadium wall collapsed under the pressure of those fleeing. In response, English clubs were banned from European competition until 1990,…

  • Heyting, Arend (Dutch mathematician)

    philosophy of mathematics: Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism: …was developed by Brouwer’s student Arend Heyting and somewhat later by the British philosopher Michael Dummett. Brouwer and Heyting endorsed intuitionism in conjunction with psychologism, but Dummett did not, and the view is consistent with various nonpsychologistic views—e.g., Platonism and nominalism.

  • Heyward, Dorothy (American writer)

    DuBose Heyward: Dorothy Heyward (1890–1961) attended G.P. Baker’s Workshop 47 at Harvard University and had a play produced on Broadway in 1924. She was most effective as a collaborator with her husband and others.

  • Heyward, DuBose (American writer)

    DuBose Heyward, American novelist, dramatist, and poet whose first novel, Porgy (1925), was the basis for a highly successful play, an opera, and a motion picture. At the age of 17 Heyward worked on the waterfront, where he observed the black Americans who were to become the subject of his writing.

  • Heyward, Edwin DuBose (American writer)

    DuBose Heyward, American novelist, dramatist, and poet whose first novel, Porgy (1925), was the basis for a highly successful play, an opera, and a motion picture. At the age of 17 Heyward worked on the waterfront, where he observed the black Americans who were to become the subject of his writing.

  • Heywood, Jasper (English priest and poet)

    Jasper Heywood, Jesuit priest and poet whose translations of the works of the Roman playwright Seneca, including Troades (1559), Thyestes (1560), Hercules furens (1561), and other plays issued as Seneca His Tenne Tragedies Translated into English (1581), influenced English drama. A son of the

  • Heywood, John (English author)

    John Heywood, playwright whose short dramatic interludes helped put English drama on the road to the fully developed stage comedy of the Elizabethans. He replaced biblical allegory and the instruction of the morality play with a comedy of contemporary personal types that illustrate everyday life

  • Heywood, Neil (British businessman)

    Bo Xilai and Gu Kailai: On November 15, 2011, Neil Heywood, a British businessman who had dealt with Bo and Gu for 15 years, was found dead in a hotel room in Chongqing. The death was immediately ascribed to “excessive alcohol consumption,” but on February 6, 2012, former Chongqing police chief Wang Lijun, whom…

  • Heywood, Thomas (English actor and playwright)

    Thomas Heywood, English actor-playwright whose career spans the peak periods of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. Heywood apparently attended the University of Cambridge, though his attendance there remains undocumented. After arriving in London sometime before 1598, he joined Philip Henslowe’s

  • Hezbollah (Lebanese organization)

    Hezbollah, political party and militant group that first emerged during Lebanon’s civil war as a militia after the Israeli invasion of that country in 1982. Shiʿi Muslims, traditionally the weakest religious group in Lebanon, first found their voice in the moderate and largely secular Amal

  • Hezbullah (Lebanese organization)

    Hezbollah, political party and militant group that first emerged during Lebanon’s civil war as a militia after the Israeli invasion of that country in 1982. Shiʿi Muslims, traditionally the weakest religious group in Lebanon, first found their voice in the moderate and largely secular Amal

  • Hezekiah (king of Judah)

    Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, and the 13th successor of David as king of Judah at Jerusalem. The dates of his reign are often given as about 715 to about 686 bc, but inconsistencies in biblical and Assyrian cuneiform records have yielded a wide range of possible dates. Hezekiah reigned at a time when the

  • Hezhe language (language)

    Manchu-Tungus languages: Classification and linguistic characteristics: For example, Ho-chen (Hezhe), usually considered a dialect of Nanai, is phonologically similar to the Manchu group, but morphologically similar to the Tungus group. This ambiguity has led some scholars to propose a third branch, the Central group, for Manchu-Tungus languages. Undoubtedly, the patterns of contact with…

  • Ḥēʾwath ḥekkmthā (work by Bar Hebraeus)

    Bar Hebraeus: …was an encyclopaedia of philosophy, Ḥēʾwath ḥekkmthā (“The Butter of Wisdom”), in which he commented on every branch of human knowledge in the Aristotelian tradition. Another was his Chronography, consisting of a secular history from the time of creation and an ecclesiastical history of the patriarchate of Antioch and the…

  • Hf (chemical element)

    Hafnium (Hf), chemical element (atomic number 72), metal of Group 4 (IVb) of the periodic table. It is a ductile metal with a brilliant silvery lustre. The Dutch physicist Dirk Coster and the Hungarian Swedish chemist George Charles von Hevesy discovered (1923) hafnium in Norwegian and Greenland

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