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  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura (pathology)

    childhood disease and disorder: Connective-tissue disorders: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (anaphylactoid purpura) is the most common connective-tissue disorder in children. It is characterized by a purpuric rash, painful swollen joints, and abdominal pain with vomiting. In a minority of patients, the kidneys become involved and nephritis develops; this is the only complication that…

  • Henodus (fossil reptile)

    sauropterygian: …placodonts evolved dermal armour, with Henodus having a shell comparable to that of a turtle. However, some paleontologists consider these similarities to some advanced plesiosaurs superficial, perhaps entirely due to convergent evolution, and they no longer recognize placodonts as particularly close to sauropterygians.

  • henogamy (marriage custom)

    Henogamy, the custom by which one, and only one, member of a family is permitted to marry. The classic example is that of the patrilineal Nambūdiri Brahmans of Malabār in Tamil Nadu, India; among them, only eldest sons were permitted to marry Nambūdiri women and have legitimate children. The custom

  • Hénon, Michel (French astronomer)

    celestial mechanics: Chaotic orbits: The French astronomer Michel Hénon and the American astronomer Carl Heiles discovered that when a system exhibiting periodic motion, such as a pendulum, is perturbed by an external force that is also periodic, some initial conditions lead to motions where the state of the system becomes essentially unpredictable…

  • henotheism (religion)

    polytheism: The nature of polytheism: …the 19th century the terms henotheism and kathenotheism were used to refer to the exalting of a particular god as exclusively the highest within the framework of a particular hymn or ritual—e.g., in the hymns of the Vedas (the ancient sacred texts of India). This process often consisted in loading…

  • Henotikon (religious edict)

    Acacian Schism: …drew up an edict, the Henotikon (Greek: “Edict of Union”), by which he attempted to secure unity between Chalcedonian Christians and miaphysites. The Henotikon’s theological formula incorporated the decisions of the general Councils of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381) and recognized Christ’s divinity, but it omitted any reference to the…

  • Henreid, Paul (Austrian-born actor)

    Paul Henreid, Austrian-born actor whose elegant sophistication and middle-European accent made him ideal for romantic leading roles in such motion pictures as Casablanca (1942) and Now, Voyager (1942). Henreid, the son of an aristocratic Viennese banker, trained for the theatre in Vienna and made

  • Henreid, Paul George Julius von (Austrian-born actor)

    Paul Henreid, Austrian-born actor whose elegant sophistication and middle-European accent made him ideal for romantic leading roles in such motion pictures as Casablanca (1942) and Now, Voyager (1942). Henreid, the son of an aristocratic Viennese banker, trained for the theatre in Vienna and made

  • Henri (Luxembourger noble)

    Luxembourg: Independent Luxembourg: …by his son, Crown Prince Henri, who in 2001 became the first member of the Luxembourgian royal family to open a session of parliament since 1877.

  • Henri de Flandre (emperor of Constantinople)

    Henry of Hainault, second and most able of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, who reigned from 1206 to 1216 and consolidated the power of the new empire. Son of Baldwin V, count of Hainaut, and younger brother of Baldwin I, the first Latin emperor, Henry began the conquest of Asia Minor in 1204

  • Henri de Gand (French philosopher)

    Henry of Ghent, Scholastic philosopher and theologian, one of the most illustrious teachers of his time, who was a great adversary of St. Thomas Aquinas and whose controversial writings influenced his contemporaries and followers, particularly postmedieval Platonists. After studying at Tournai, w

  • Henri de Guise (French noble)

    Henri I de Lorraine, 3e duc de Guise, popular duke of Guise, the acknowledged chief of the Catholic party and the Holy League during the French Wars of Religion. Henri de Lorraine was 13 years old at the death of his father, François, the 2nd duke (1563), and grew up under the domination of a

  • Henri de Hainaut (emperor of Constantinople)

    Henry of Hainault, second and most able of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, who reigned from 1206 to 1216 and consolidated the power of the new empire. Son of Baldwin V, count of Hainaut, and younger brother of Baldwin I, the first Latin emperor, Henry began the conquest of Asia Minor in 1204

  • Henri de Navarre (king of France)

    Henry IV, king of Navarre (as Henry III, 1572–89) and first Bourbon king of France (1589–1610), who, at the end of the Wars of Religion, abjured Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism (1593) in order to win Paris and reunify France. With the aid of such ministers as the Duke de Sully, he

  • Henri Deux ware (earthenware)

    Saint-Porchaire faience, lead-glazed earthenware (inaccurately called faience, or tin-glazed ware) made in the second quarter of the 16th century at Saint-Porchaire in the département of Deux-Sèvres, France. Its uniqueness consisted in its method of decoration, which took the form of impressions

  • Henri Grâce à Dieu (ship)

    naval ship: Gun-armed warships: …Henry VIII’s best-known warship, the Henry Grâce à Dieu, had 186 guns. Most of these were small, but they also included a number of iron “great guns.”

  • Henri I, sieur de Damville (French statesman)

    Henri I, duke de Montmorency, brother of François de Montmorency and a leader of the moderate Roman Catholic party of the Politiques during the French Wars of Religion. Under the title of Sieur de Damville, by which he is usually remembered, Montmorency fought in various theatres of war and became

  • Henri III and the English Ambassador (painting by Lawrence)

    Western painting: Britain: …painting, too, was transformed: Bonington’s “Henri III and the English Ambassador” (1827–28; Wallace Collection, London), while testifying to a sustained delight in the medieval world, already betrays commensurate interest in period detail and the finer points of human insight. The authentic, domestic treatment of biblical themes at the hands of…

  • Henri le Balafré (French noble)

    Henri I de Lorraine, 3e duc de Guise, popular duke of Guise, the acknowledged chief of the Catholic party and the Holy League during the French Wars of Religion. Henri de Lorraine was 13 years old at the death of his father, François, the 2nd duke (1563), and grew up under the domination of a

  • Henri le Gros (king of Navarre)

    Henry I, king of Navarre (1270–74) and count (as Henry III) of Champagne. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre by Margaret of Foix. He succeeded his eldest brother, Theobald II (Thibaut V), in both kingdom and countship in December 1270. By his marriage (1269) to Blanche, daughter o

  • Henri Pittier National Park (national park, Venezuela)

    Henri Pittier National Park, park in the Cordillera de la Costa, Aragua estado (state), Venezuela, occupying an area of 350 sq mi (900 sq km) between Lago (lake) de Valencia and the Caribbean. It is Venezuela’s oldest national park. It was established in 1937, largely through the efforts of Henri

  • Henri Quatre (work by Mann)

    Heinrich Mann: His novel Henri Quatre (two parts, 1935 and 1938) represents his ideal of the humane use of power.

  • Henri, Adrian (British artist and poet)

    Adrian Maurice Henri, British poet and artist (born April 10, 1932, Birkenhead, Cheshire [now Merseyside], Eng.—died Dec. 20, 2000, Liverpool, Eng.), was one of the three “Merseybeat” poets who gained renown when their works were published in The Mersey Sound (1967), which remained a best-seller. H

  • Henri, Adrian Maurice (British artist and poet)

    Adrian Maurice Henri, British poet and artist (born April 10, 1932, Birkenhead, Cheshire [now Merseyside], Eng.—died Dec. 20, 2000, Liverpool, Eng.), was one of the three “Merseybeat” poets who gained renown when their works were published in The Mersey Sound (1967), which remained a best-seller. H

  • Henri, Florence (American-born Swiss photographer and painter)

    Florence Henri, American-born Swiss photographer and painter associated with the Bauhaus and best known for her use of mirrors and unusual angles to create disorienting photographs. By mid-adolescence Henri had lost both her parents. She was raised by an array of extended family members in Silesia

  • Henri, Robert (American artist)

    Robert Henri, urban realist painter, a leader of The Eight and the Ashcan School and one of the most influential teachers of art in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Henri studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, from 1884 to 1888, and at both the

  • Henriade, La (work by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Heritage and youth: This Henriade is spoiled by its pedantic imitation of Virgil’s Aeneid, but his contemporaries saw only the generous ideal of tolerance that inspired the poem. These literary triumphs earned him a pension from the regent and the warm approval of the young queen, Marie. He thus…

  • Henrichenburg (Germany)

    canals and inland waterways: Boat lifts: …were constructed in 1899 at Henrichenburg, Ger., with a 46-foot lift for 600-ton vessels; in 1938 at Magdeburg, Ger., with a 60-foot lift for 1,000-ton vessels; and in 1962 a lift at Henrichenburg for 1,350-ton vessels.

  • Henrician Articles (Polish history)

    Henrician Articles, (1573) statement of the rights and privileges of the Polish gentry (szlachta) that all elected kings of Poland, beginning with Henry of Valois (elected May 11, 1573), were obliged to confirm and that severely limited the authority of the Polish monarchy. After King Sigismund II

  • Henrietta (ship)

    yacht: Transatlantic racing and global circumnavigation: >Henrietta. Henrietta, owned by the American newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett, won in 13 days of sailing. The first single-sailor transatlantic voyage was made in a 6-metre boat by Alfred Johnson in 1876 to commemorate the centenary of U.S. independence. The first single-handed race in…

  • Henrietta Anne of England (English aristocrat)

    Henrietta Anne Of England, English princess and duchesse d’Orléans, a notable figure at the court of her brother-in-law King Louis XIV of France. The youngest child of England’s King Charles I (beheaded 1649), she was reared as an exile by her mother, Henrietta Maria, in Paris. Her brother C

  • Henrietta Maria (queen consort of England)

    Henrietta Maria, French wife of King Charles I of England and mother of Kings Charles II and James II. By openly practicing Roman Catholicism at court, she alienated many of Charles’s subjects, but during the first part of the English Civil Wars she displayed courage and determination in mustering

  • Henriette-Anne d’Angleterre (English aristocrat)

    Henrietta Anne Of England, English princess and duchesse d’Orléans, a notable figure at the court of her brother-in-law King Louis XIV of France. The youngest child of England’s King Charles I (beheaded 1649), she was reared as an exile by her mother, Henrietta Maria, in Paris. Her brother C

  • Henriette-Marie (queen consort of England)

    Henrietta Maria, French wife of King Charles I of England and mother of Kings Charles II and James II. By openly practicing Roman Catholicism at court, she alienated many of Charles’s subjects, but during the first part of the English Civil Wars she displayed courage and determination in mustering

  • Henrion, Denis (French mathematician)

    number game: Pioneers and imitators: … was published in 1630, and Denis Henrion, whose Les Récréations mathématiques avec l’examen de ses problèmes en arithmétique, géométrie, méchanique, cosmographie, optique, catoptrique, etc., based largely upon Mydorge’s book, appeared in 1659. Leurechon’s book, meanwhile, had found its way into Germany: Daniel Schwenter, a professor of Hebrew, Oriental languages, and…

  • Henrique de Carvalho (Angola)

    Saurimo, city, northeastern Angola. Located at an elevation of 3,557 feet (1,084 metres) above sea level, it is a garrison town and local market centre. Saurimo was formerly named after Henrique de Carvalho, a Portuguese explorer who visited the region in 1884 and contacted the Lunda peoples there

  • Henrique o Cardeal-Rei (king of Portugal [1512–1580])

    Henry, king of Portugal and Roman Catholic ecclesiastic whose brief reign (1578–80) was dominated by the problem of succession. His failure to decisively designate a successor left the Portuguese throne at his death prey to its Spanish claimant, King Philip II. Henry, son of Manuel I, chose a

  • Henrique o Navegador (prince of Portugal)

    Henry the Navigator, Portuguese prince noted for his patronage of voyages of discovery among the Madeira Islands and along the western coast of Africa. The epithet Navigator, applied to him by the English (though seldom by Portuguese writers), is a misnomer, as he himself never embarked on any

  • Henrique, infante de Portugal, duque de Viseu, senhor da Covilhã (prince of Portugal)

    Henry the Navigator, Portuguese prince noted for his patronage of voyages of discovery among the Madeira Islands and along the western coast of Africa. The epithet Navigator, applied to him by the English (though seldom by Portuguese writers), is a misnomer, as he himself never embarked on any

  • Henríquez Ureña, Pedro (Dominican [republic] writer and critic)

    Pedro Henríquez Ureña, critic, philologian, educator, and essayist, one of the most influential critic-scholars in 20th-century Latin America. Henríquez Ureña was also one of its best prose writers. Henríquez Ureña’s father, a doctor, became president of the Dominican Republic, and his mother was a

  • Henry (duke of Bavaria)

    Otto I: Early years: …939, however, Otto’s younger brother Henry revolted; he was joined by Eberhard of Franconia and by Giselbert of Lotharingia and supported by the French king Louis IV. Otto was again victorious: Eberhard fell in battle, Giselbert was drowned in flight, and Henry submitted to his brother. Nevertheless, in 941 Henry…

  • henry (unit of inductance)

    Henry, unit of either self-inductance or mutual inductance, abbreviated h (or hy), and named for the American physicist Joseph Henry. One henry is the value of self-inductance in a closed circuit or coil in which one volt is produced by a variation of the inducing current of one ampere per second.

  • Henry (king of Portugal [1512–1580])

    Henry, king of Portugal and Roman Catholic ecclesiastic whose brief reign (1578–80) was dominated by the problem of succession. His failure to decisively designate a successor left the Portuguese throne at his death prey to its Spanish claimant, King Philip II. Henry, son of Manuel I, chose a

  • Henry (king of Portugal [1057-1112])

    Afonso I: …of Portugal to Afonso’s father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against the Muslims (1095–1112). Henry married Alfonso VI’s illegitimate daughter, Teresa, who governed Portugal from the time of her husband’s death (1112) until her son Afonso came of age. She refused to cede her power to Afonso, but…

  • Henry & June (film by Kaufman [1990])

    Philip Kaufman: Adaptations: Kaufman wrote the erotic drama Henry & June (1990) with his wife, Rose. It was based on Anaïs Nin’s memoir about her relationship with Henry Miller and his wife, June. Ward made an adequate Miller, who is trying to write Tropic of Cancer in between trysts, while Uma Thurman was…

  • Henry 3 (work by Krumgold)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: … (1953), Onion John (1958), and Henry 3 (1967), the last about a boy with an I.Q. of 154 trying to get along in a society antagonistic to brains. The candid suburban studies of E.L. Konigsburg introduced a new sophistication. Her 1968 Newbery Medal winner, From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs.…

  • Henry and Cato (novel by Murdoch)

    Iris Murdoch: … (1968), The Black Prince (1973), Henry and Cato (1976), The Sea, the Sea (1978, Booker Prize), The Philosopher’s Pupil (1983), The Good Apprentice (1985), The Book and the Brotherhood (1987), The Message to the Planet (1989), and The Green Knight (1993). Murdoch’s last

  • Henry Classification System (police technology)

    fingerprint: The Galton-Henry system of fingerprint classification, published in June 1900, was officially introduced at Scotland Yard in 1901 and quickly became the basis for its criminal-identification records. The system was adopted immediately by law-enforcement agencies in the English-speaking countries of the world and is now the…

  • Henry de Bourbon (king of France)

    Henry IV, king of Navarre (as Henry III, 1572–89) and first Bourbon king of France (1589–1610), who, at the end of the Wars of Religion, abjured Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism (1593) in order to win Paris and reunify France. With the aid of such ministers as the Duke de Sully, he

  • Henry Draper Catalogue (astronomy)

    Henry Draper Catalogue (HD), listing of the positions, magnitudes, and spectral types of stars in all parts of the sky; with it began the present alphabetical system (see stellar classification) of classifying stars by spectral type. The catalog, named in honour of American astronomer Henry Draper

  • Henry Draper Extension (astronomy)

    Annie Jump Cannon: …11th magnitude for the two-volume Henry Draper Extension (1925, 1949). The work was an invaluable contribution to astronomy, bearing strongly on countless other problems and areas of research and exerting major influence on the evolution of the science of astronomy from one of mere observation to one of great theoretical…

  • Henry E. Huntington Library, Art Gallery, and Botanical Gardens (cultural centre, San Marino, California, United States)

    Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, library and cultural institution created in 1919 at San Marino, Calif., near Los Angeles, by Henry E. Huntington and left as a public trust upon his death. Huntington, a railroad tycoon, began collecting books early in the 20th century,

  • Henry Esmond (historical novel by Thackeray)

    Henry Esmond, historical novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, published in three volumes in 1852. The story, narrated by Esmond, begins in 1691 when he is 12 and ends in 1718. Its complexity of incident is given unity by Esmond and his second cousin Beatrix, who stand out against a background of

  • Henry Ford Hospital (painting by Kahlo)

    Frida Kahlo: Marriage to Rivera and travels to the United States: In Henry Ford Hospital (1932) Kahlo depicted herself hemorrhaging on a hospital bed amid a barren landscape, and in My Birth (1932) she painted a rather taboo scene of a shrouded woman giving birth.

  • Henry Ford Museum (museum, Dearborn, Michigan, United States)

    Henry Ford: Later years: …what later was named the Henry Ford Museum and filled it with American artifacts and antiques from the era of his youth when American society was almost wholly agrarian. In short, he was a man who baffled even those who had the opportunity to observe him close at hand, all…

  • Henry Grâce à Dieu (ship)

    naval ship: Gun-armed warships: …Henry VIII’s best-known warship, the Henry Grâce à Dieu, had 186 guns. Most of these were small, but they also included a number of iron “great guns.”

  • Henry Huggins (work by Cleary)

    Beverly Cleary: In 1950 her first book, Henry Huggins, was published, and, ever since, middle-grade schoolchildren have enjoyed reading about the adventures of its eponymous hero and his friends, including Beezus and Ramona Quimby, on Klickitat Street, a real street near Cleary’s childhood home in Portland. Cleary’s books realistically portray ordinary children…

  • Henry I (Holy Roman emperor)

    Henry III, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027–41), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038–45), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (1046–56), a member of the Salian dynasty. The last emperor able to dominate the papacy, he was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to

  • Henry I (king of France)

    Henry I, king of France from 1026 to 1060 whose reign was marked by struggles against rebellious vassals. The son of Robert II the Pious and grandson of Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian dynasty, Henry was anointed king at Reims (1026) in his father’s lifetime, following the death of his elder

  • Henry I (king of Navarre)

    Henry I, king of Navarre (1270–74) and count (as Henry III) of Champagne. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre by Margaret of Foix. He succeeded his eldest brother, Theobald II (Thibaut V), in both kingdom and countship in December 1270. By his marriage (1269) to Blanche, daughter o

  • Henry I (ruler of Hesse)

    Hessen: History: …the territory to her son, Henry I (the Child), who founded the Brabant dynasty of Hessen and in 1292 was raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

  • Henry I (ruler of Haiti)

    Henry Christophe, a leader in the war of Haitian independence (1791–1804) and later president (1807–11) and self-proclaimed King Henry I (1811–20) of northern Haiti. The facts of Christophe’s early life are questionable and confused. An official document issued on his own order gives the birth date

  • Henry I (duke of Brabant)

    's-Hertogenbosch: Chartered in 1185 by Henry I, duke of Brabant, who had a hunting lodge nearby (hence the name, meaning “the duke’s wood”), it was an important medieval wool centre and became a bishopric in 1559. The town saw many sieges owing to its strategic position on the Catholic-Protestant line…

  • Henry I (king of Castile)

    Henry I, king of Castile from 1214 to 1217. Henry was the son of Alfonso VIII of Castile and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Henry II of England, after whom he was named. He was killed, while still a boy, by the fall of a tile from a roof. Sovereignty over Castile was then assumed by Alfonso VIII’s

  • Henry I (king of England)

    Henry I, youngest and ablest of William I the Conqueror’s sons, who, as king of England (1100–35), strengthened the crown’s executive powers and, like his father, also ruled Normandy (from 1106). Henry was crowned at Westminster on August 5, 1100, three days after his brother, King William II,

  • Henry I (king of Germany)

    Henry I, German king and founder of the Saxon dynasty (918–1024) who strengthened the East Frankish, or German, army, encouraged the growth of towns, brought Lotharingia (Lorraine) back under German control (925), and secured German borders against pagan incursions. The son of Otto the Illustrious,

  • Henry I the Liberal (count of Champagne)

    France: Principalities north of the Loire: …sons Theobald V (1152–91) and Henry (1152–81), themselves prestigious lords; and the Champagne of Henry the Liberal was among the richest, best organized, and most cultured French lands of its day.

  • Henry II (king of England)

    Henry II, duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with

  • Henry II (duke of Silesia)

    Batu: …Europe, one Mongol army defeated Henry II, Duke of Silesia (now in Poland), on April 9, 1241; another army led by Batu himself defeated the Hungarians two days later.

  • Henry II (duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel)

    Henry II, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, one of the leading Roman Catholic princes attempting to stem the Reformation in Germany. Always a loyal supporter of the Habsburg emperors, Henry tried to restore Roman Catholicism in his realm but was defeated by John Frederick I the Magnanimous of Saxony

  • Henry II (king of Cyprus and Jerusalem)

    Crusades: The final loss of the Crusader states: …again chose a native ruler, Henry II of Cyprus.

  • Henry II (duke of Bavaria)

    Otto III: …child king was seized by Henry II the Quarrelsome, the deposed duke of Bavaria, in an attempt to secure the regency, if not the throne, for himself. In May 984, however, Henry was forced by the imperial diet to turn the child over to his mother, who served as regent…

  • Henry II (duke of Bavaria)

    Henry X, margrave of Tuscany, duke of Saxony (as Henry II), and duke of Bavaria, a member of the Welf dynasty, whose policies helped to launch the feud between the Welf and the Hohenstaufen dynasties that was to influence German politics for more than a century. Upon his father’s death in 1126

  • Henry II (king of Castile)

    Henry II, king of Castile from 1369, founder of the house of Trastámara, which lasted until 1504. The illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, Henry rebelled against his younger half brother, Peter I (Peter the Cruel), invaded Castile with French aid in 1366, and was crowned king at Burgos. Peter

  • Henry II (king of Navarre)

    Henry II, king of Navarre from 1516 who for the rest of his life attempted by force and negotiation to regain territories of his kingdom that had been lost by his parents, Catherine de Foix and Jean d’Albret, in 1514. In February 1516, when his mother died, Henry fell heir to the House of Albret

  • Henry II (Holy Roman emperor)

    Henry II, ; canonized 1146; feast day July 13), duke of Bavaria (as Henry IV, 995–1005), German king (from 1002), and Holy Roman emperor (1014–24), last of the Saxon dynasty of emperors. He was canonized by Pope Eugenius III, more than 100 years after his death, in response to church-inspired

  • Henry II (king of France)

    Henry II, king of France from 1547 to 1559, a competent administrator who was also a vigorous suppressor of Protestants within his kingdom. The second son of Francis I and Claude of France, Henry was sent with his brother Francis, the dauphin, as a hostage to Spain in 1526 and did not return to

  • Henry II Jasomirgott (duke of Austria)

    Henry II Jasomirgott, the first duke of Austria, a member of the House of Babenberg who increased the dynasty’s power in Austria by obtaining the Privilegium Minus (a grant of special privileges and a reduction of obligations toward the empire) from the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa

  • Henry II of Saxony (duke of Bavaria)

    Henry X, margrave of Tuscany, duke of Saxony (as Henry II), and duke of Bavaria, a member of the Welf dynasty, whose policies helped to launch the feud between the Welf and the Hohenstaufen dynasties that was to influence German politics for more than a century. Upon his father’s death in 1126

  • Henry II style (French architecture)

    Western architecture: Mannerism: …known as the style of Henry II, although it actually was produced under five different kings, beginning late in the reign of Francis I.

  • Henry III (king of England [1207–1272])

    Henry III, king of England from 1216 to 1272. In the 24 years (1234–58) during which he had effective control of the government, he displayed such indifference to tradition that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, the Provisions of Oxford (1258). The elder son and

  • Henry III (duke of Bavaria and Saxony)

    Henry III, duke of Saxony (1142–80) and of Bavaria (as Henry XII, 1156–80), a strong supporter of the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Henry spent his early years recovering his ancestral lands of Saxony (1142) and Bavaria (1154–56), thereafter founding the city of Munich (1157), enhancing the

  • Henry III (king of Castile)

    Henry III, king of Castile from 1390 to 1406. Though unable to take the field because of illness, he jealously preserved royal power through the royal council, the Audiencia (supreme court), and the corregidores (magistrates). During his minority, the anti-Jewish riots of Sevilla (Seville) and

  • Henry III (king of France and Poland)

    Henry III, king of France from 1574, under whose reign the prolonged crisis of the Wars of Religion was made worse by dynastic rivalries arising because the male line of the Valois dynasty was going to die out with him. The third son of Henry II and Catherine de Médicis, Henry was at first e

  • Henry III (Holy Roman emperor)

    Henry III, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI, 1027–41), duke of Swabia (as Henry I, 1038–45), German king (from 1039), and Holy Roman emperor (1046–56), a member of the Salian dynasty. The last emperor able to dominate the papacy, he was a powerful advocate of the Cluniac reform movement that sought to

  • Henry III (king designate of England)

    Henry The Young King, second son of King Henry II of England by Eleanor of Aquitaine; he was regarded, after the death of his elder brother, William, in 1156, as his father’s successor in England, Normandy, and Anjou. In 1158 Henry, only three years of age, was betrothed to Margaret, daughter of

  • Henry III of Champagne (king of Navarre)

    Henry I, king of Navarre (1270–74) and count (as Henry III) of Champagne. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre by Margaret of Foix. He succeeded his eldest brother, Theobald II (Thibaut V), in both kingdom and countship in December 1270. By his marriage (1269) to Blanche, daughter o

  • Henry III of Navarre (king of France)

    Henry IV, king of Navarre (as Henry III, 1572–89) and first Bourbon king of France (1589–1610), who, at the end of the Wars of Religion, abjured Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism (1593) in order to win Paris and reunify France. With the aid of such ministers as the Duke de Sully, he

  • Henry III the Illustrious (margrave of Meissen)

    Thuringia: History: …over the long-disputed succession (1256–63), Henry III (the Illustrious), margrave of Meissen, of the house of Wettin, made good his claim and invested his son Albert with Thuringia in 1265. Thuringia thereafter remained a possession of the Wettins, and in the 15th century it was divided between Ernestine Saxony, Hesse-Kassel,…

  • Henry IV (king of France)

    Henry IV, king of Navarre (as Henry III, 1572–89) and first Bourbon king of France (1589–1610), who, at the end of the Wars of Religion, abjured Protestantism and converted to Roman Catholicism (1593) in order to win Paris and reunify France. With the aid of such ministers as the Duke de Sully, he

  • Henry IV (Holy Roman emperor)

    Henry VII, count of Luxembourg (as Henry IV), German king (from 1308), and Holy Roman emperor (from 1312) who strengthened the position of his family by obtaining the throne of Bohemia for his son. He failed, however, in his attempt to bind Italy firmly to the empire. Henry succeeded his father,

  • Henry IV (fictional character in “Richard II”)

    Richard II: …feuding noblemen, Thomas Mowbray and Henry Bolingbroke, seemingly because Mowbray has been implicated along with Richard himself in the murder of Richard’s uncle Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, while Bolingbroke, Richard’s first cousin, is a threat to the king because he is intent on avenging the death of Gloucester.…

  • Henry IV (Holy Roman emperor)

    Henry IV, duke of Bavaria (as Henry VIII; 1055–61), German king (from 1054), and Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105/06), who engaged in a long struggle with Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) on the question of lay investiture (see Investiture Controversy), eventually drawing excommunication on himself and

  • Henry IV (king of Castile)

    Henry IV, king of Castile from 1454 to 1474, whose reign, though at first promising, became chaotic. Henry’s weak father, John II, was entirely under the control of his constable, Álvaro de Luna, who gave the young Henry a separate court at Segovia, hoping to control him. Instead, Henry became the

  • Henry IV (fictional character in “Henry IV, Part 1” and “Henry IV, Part 2”)

    Henry IV, Part 1: As Part 1 begins, Henry IV, wearied from the strife that has accompanied his accession to the throne, is renewing his earlier vow to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He learns that Owen Glendower, the Welsh chieftain, has captured Edmund Mortimer, the earl of March, and that…

  • Henry IV (king of England)

    Henry IV, king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the house of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. However, he was unable to overcome the fiscal and

  • Henry IV (play by Pirandello)

    Enrico IV, a tragedy in three acts by Luigi Pirandello, produced and published in 1922; it is sometimes translated as Henry IV. The theme of Enrico IV is madness, which lies just under the skin of ordinary life and is, perhaps, superior to ordinary life in its construction of a satisfying reality.

  • Henry IV style (art and architecture)

    Henry IV style, French art and architecture during the reign of King Henry IV of France (1589–1610). Henry’s chief contribution as patron of the arts was in the field of architecture. Although he made additions and improvements to many of his palaces, such as the Stable Court at Fontainebleau

  • Henry IV, Part 1 (work by Shakespeare)

    Henry IV, Part 1, chronicle play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written about 1596–97 and published from a reliable authorial draft in a 1598 quarto edition. Henry IV, Part 1 is the second in a sequence of four history plays (the others being Richard II, Henry IV, Part 2, and Henry V) known

  • Henry IV, Part 2 (work by Shakespeare)

    Henry IV, Part 2, chronicle play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written in 1597–98 and published in a corrupt text based in part on memorial reconstruction in a quarto edition in 1600. A better text, printed in the main from an authorial manuscript, appeared in the First Folio of 1623 and is

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