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  • hellēnotamiai (ancient Greek financial officers)

    Hellēnotamiai, (Greek: “treasurers of the Greeks”) financial officers of the Delian League (478–404 bce) and instruments of Athenian control over league affairs. The hellēnotamiai, all Athenians, were elected annually and put in charge of the funds contributed by the various allied cities.

  • Hellens, Franz (Belgian writer)

    Franz Hellens, Belgian writer who produced more than 120 works, including novels, plays, criticism, and volumes of poetry and short stories. He also played an important role in Belgian-French literary life between 1920 and 1955 as editor of several progressive magazines and is notable as a

  • Heller Altarpiece (altarpiece, Germany)

    Matthias Grünewald: …from the Frankfurt merchant Jacob Heller to add two fixed wings to the altarpiece of the Assumption of the Virgin recently completed by the painter Albrecht Dürer. These wings depicting four saints are painted in grisaille (shades of gray) and already show the artist at the height of his powers.…

  • Heller syndrome (neurobiological disorder)

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), a rare neurobiological disorder characterized by the deterioration of language and social skills and by the loss of intellectual functioning following normal development throughout at least the initial two years of life. The disorder was first described in

  • Heller, Dean (United States senator)

    Dean Heller, American Republican politician who was appointed to the U.S. Senate in 2011 and began representing Nevada the following year. He was elected to the body later in 2012 and served until 2019. Although he was born in Castro Valley, California, Heller grew up in Carson City, Nevada. After

  • Heller, Dean Arthur (United States senator)

    Dean Heller, American Republican politician who was appointed to the U.S. Senate in 2011 and began representing Nevada the following year. He was elected to the body later in 2012 and served until 2019. Although he was born in Castro Valley, California, Heller grew up in Carson City, Nevada. After

  • Heller, Gerald (American music manager)

    Jerry Heller, (Gerald Heller), American music manager (born Oct. 6, 1940, Cleveland, Ohio—died Sept. 2, 2016, Thousand Oaks, Calif.), managed the seminal hip-hop group N.W.A. from the band’s 1987 inception until its acrimonious 1991 dissolution and was a partner with N.W.A. founding member Eazy-E

  • Heller, Hermann (German political scientist)

    Hermann Heller, German political scientist who was responsible for the revival of political theory in Germany. Heller taught at the universities of Kiel, Leipzig, Berlin, and Frankfurt and left Germany in 1933 after the advent to power of the National Socialist Party of Adolf Hitler. An eclectic

  • Heller, Jerry (American music manager)

    Jerry Heller, (Gerald Heller), American music manager (born Oct. 6, 1940, Cleveland, Ohio—died Sept. 2, 2016, Thousand Oaks, Calif.), managed the seminal hip-hop group N.W.A. from the band’s 1987 inception until its acrimonious 1991 dissolution and was a partner with N.W.A. founding member Eazy-E

  • Heller, Joseph (American author)

    Joseph Heller, American writer whose novel Catch-22 (1961) was one of the most significant works of protest literature to appear after World War II. The satirical novel was a popular success, and a film version appeared in 1970. During World War II, Heller flew 60 combat missions as a bombardier

  • Heller, Lucas (American screenwriter)

    What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?: Production notes and credits:

  • Heller, Michał (Polish priest and mathematical cosmologist)

    Michał Heller, Roman Catholic priest and mathematical cosmologist who championed a world view that combined mathematical physics, theology, and philosophy. Heller was born in southern Poland. When he was four years old, his father helped to sabotage the chemical plant in which he worked, and the

  • Heller, Michal Kazimierz (Polish priest and mathematical cosmologist)

    Michał Heller, Roman Catholic priest and mathematical cosmologist who championed a world view that combined mathematical physics, theology, and philosophy. Heller was born in southern Poland. When he was four years old, his father helped to sabotage the chemical plant in which he worked, and the

  • Heller, Robert (American magician)

    Robert Heller, British-born magician who popularized conjuring in the United States. Trained as a musician, Heller turned to magic after he saw a performance by the French magician Robert-Houdin in 1848. Heller settled in the United States, where he found success as a magician in the 1860s. At

  • Heller, Walter (American economist)

    revenue sharing: Economist Walter Heller is credited with originating the revenue-sharing program, which U.S. President Richard M. Nixon signed into law in October 1972. During the 14 years of the program’s operation administrative costs were extremely low, and a total of $85 billion reached America’s communities.

  • Heller, Yom Ṭov Lipmann ben Nathan ha-Levi (Bohemian rabbi and scholar)

    Yom Ṭov Lipmann ben Nathan ha-Levi Heller, Bohemian Jewish rabbi and scholar who is best known for his commentary on the Mishna. His works also indicate that he had extensive knowledge of mathematics, the sciences, and other secular subjects. Raised by his grandfather Moses Wallerstein, a respected

  • Hellerman, Fred (American musician)

    Fred Hellerman, American folk musician (born May 13, 1927, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Sept. 1, 2016, Weston, Conn.), played guitar and sang baritone in the seminal folk music quartet the Weavers. In addition, he wrote (singly and with collaborators) songs both for the Weavers and for other artists,

  • Hellespont (strait, Turkey)

    Dardanelles, narrow strait in northwestern Turkey, 38 miles (61 km) long and 0.75 to 4 miles (1.2 to 6.5 km) wide, linking the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. The city of Dardanus in the Troad (territory around ancient Troy), where Mithradates VI (king of Pontus) and Sulla (the Roman general)

  • Hellfire (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Semiactive: Hellfire antitank missile, for example, used laser designation by an air or ground observer who could be situated many miles from the launching helicopter.

  • Hellfire Pass (railway pass, Burma)

    Burma Railway: Construction of the railway: …railway became known as “Hellfire Pass” because of the harsh and extremely difficult working conditions. Much of the excavation was carried out with inadequate hand tools, and, because work on the railway had fallen behind schedule, the pace of work was increased. Prisoners were made to work around the…

  • Hellgate Village (Montana, United States)

    Missoula, city, seat (1866) of Missoula county, western Montana, U.S. It is situated on Clark Fork of the Columbia River, at the mouth of the Bitterroot River, near the Bitterroot Range in a broad valley (elevation 3,223 feet [982 metres]). The first white settler in the area was Father Pierre-Jean

  • hellgrammite (larva)

    dobsonfly: The larvae, sometimes known as hellgrammites or toe-biters, are aquatic and are eaten by fish, especially bass; they often are used as fish bait by anglers. Mature larvae migrate from their freshwater habitat to wet soil, moss, or decaying vegetation near the water to form pupal cells from which adults…

  • hellhound (mythological creature)

    Hellhound, a dog represented in mythology (such as that of ancient Greece and Scandinavia) as standing guard in the underworld. In Greek mythology this was Cerberus, a three-headed, dragon-tailed

  • Hellig-Olav (king of Norway)

    Olaf II Haraldsson, ; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the acceptance of Christianity. His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first

  • Hellín (city, Spain)

    Hellín, city, Albacete provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile–La Mancha, southeastern Spain. The city’s Spanish name derives from Ilunum, the name given to the city by the ancient Romans. Served by a hydroelectric plant on the Mundo River, Hellín’s

  • Hellman, Jerome (American producer and filmmaker)
  • Hellman, Lillian (American playwright)

    Lillian Hellman, American playwright and motion-picture screenwriter whose dramas forcefully attacked injustice, exploitation, and selfishness. Hellman attended New York public schools and New York University and Columbia University. Her marriage (1925–32) to the playwright Arthur Kober ended in

  • Hellman, Martin E. (American mathematician)

    cryptology: Public-key cryptography: … and Stanford University electrical engineer Martin Hellman realized that the key distribution problem could be almost completely solved if a cryptosystem, T (and perhaps an inverse system, T′), could be devised that used two keys and satisfied the following conditions:

  • hellmouth (stage design)

    multiple setting: …ingenious mansion was usually the hellmouth, a booth in the shape of a monster’s jaws, from which smoke and fireworks issued and actors dressed as devils appeared.

  • Hellmuth, George (American architect)

    Minoru Yamasaki: …to become a partner with George Hellmuth and Joseph Leinweber. Yamasaki designed the Lambert–St. Louis Municipal Airport terminal in Missouri, which was notable for its impressive use of concrete vaults and which strongly influenced subsequent American air-terminal design. In 1955, the year in which Hellmuth left the partnership, Yamasaki was…

  • Hello (song by Adele)

    Adele: The yearning single “Hello” became a hit in numerous countries, and more than 20 million copies of the album were sold worldwide. In addition, 25 earned Adele five more Grammys, including another sweep of the top categories (album, song, and record of the year).

  • Hello Kitty (cartoon character)

    Hello Kitty, cartoon character whose likeness adorns hundreds of products for children and adults throughout the world. Created in 1974 by the Japanese merchandising company Sanrio and known internationally as Hello Kitty, Kitty White is a small, round-faced, cartoon catlike girl with black eyes, a

  • Hello Mary Lou (song by Pitney)

    Gene Pitney: …with hits such as “Hello Mary Lou” (recorded by Rick Nelson in 1961) and “He’s a Rebel” (recorded by the Crystals in 1962).

  • Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh (song by Sherman)

    Dance of the Hours: …melody for his song “Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh” (1963), an amusing take on the American tradition of sending children to summer camp. Despite the tune’s wide recognition, however, few listeners can identify Dance of the Hours by title or composer.

  • Hello Nasty (album by Beastie Boys)

    Beastie Boys: …electronic turn on the Grammy-winning Hello Nasty (1998) and scored another hit with the single “Intergalactic.” In 2001 Grand Royal folded as a result of slow sales and mounting debts, and the Beastie Boys returned to Capitol for the 2004 release To the 5 Boroughs.

  • Hello, Dolly! (musical by Herman [1964])

    Pearl Bailey: …all-black production of the musical Hello, Dolly!, first on Broadway (1967–69), then on tour in the United States and Canada (1969–71, 1975–76). She made frequent television appearances and hosted her own show, The Pearl Bailey Show (1971).

  • Hello, Dolly! (film by Kelly [1969])

    Gene Kelly: Films of the 1960s and beyond: Hello, Dolly! (1969) was Kelly’s adaptation of the Broadway hit starring Barbra Streisand, Matthau, and Louis Armstrong. The western comedy The Cheyenne Social Club (1970) starred Henry Fonda and James Stewart as two cowboys who unwittingly inherit management of a brothel. Kelly’s final

  • Hello, Frisco, Hello (film by Humberstone [1943])
  • Hello, Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea (film by Stapleton [2019])

    Chelsea Handler: …her “year of self-discovery,” and Hello, Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea (2019), a documentary exploring the impact of white privilege on culture.

  • HELLP syndrome (medicine)

    pregnancy: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: …condition is known as the HELLP syndrome and is denoted by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. In this situation, delivery of the fetus must be induced, or pregnancy must be immediately terminated.

  • Hells Angels (international motorcycle club)

    Hells Angels, club for motorcyclists that was founded in California in 1948 and is probably the best known of the so-called “outlaw motorcycle gangs.” The club, which is international, has been accused of criminal activity by law enforcement officials. Most Hells Angels members are white males who

  • Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (international motorcycle club)

    Hells Angels, club for motorcyclists that was founded in California in 1948 and is probably the best known of the so-called “outlaw motorcycle gangs.” The club, which is international, has been accused of criminal activity by law enforcement officials. Most Hells Angels members are white males who

  • Hells Angels Motorcycle Corporation (international motorcycle club)

    Hells Angels, club for motorcyclists that was founded in California in 1948 and is probably the best known of the so-called “outlaw motorcycle gangs.” The club, which is international, has been accused of criminal activity by law enforcement officials. Most Hells Angels members are white males who

  • Hells Canyon (canyon, United States)

    Hells Canyon, deep gorge of the Snake River in the northwestern United States. It forms part of the boundary between Idaho and Oregon and separates the Seven Devils (Idaho) and Wallowa (Oregon) mountain ranges. The canyon has a total length of 125 miles (201 km), along 40 miles (64 km) of which it

  • Hells Canyon National Recreation Area (recreation area, United States)

    Hells Canyon: Hells Canyon National Recreation Area was established in the gorge and surrounding region in 1975. Situated primarily in Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in Oregon but also in Nezperce and Payette national forests in Idaho, it has an area of some 1,020 square miles (2,640 square km).…

  • Hellsing, Lennart (Swedish poet)

    children's literature: National and modern literature: …detective series; the outstanding poet Lennart Hellsing, with Daniel Doppsko (1959); Astrid Lindgren, successful in a half dozen genres but perhaps best known as the creator of the supergirl Pippi Longstocking; Gösta Knutsson, with her well-liked Pelle svanslös (1939; Eng. trans., The Adventures of the Cat Who Had No Tail).…

  • Hellström, Erik Gustaf (Swedish author)

    Gustaf Hellström, Swedish realist novelist, journalist, and literary critic. As foreign correspondent for several Scandinavian newspapers, Hellstrom lived in Paris, London, and New York City (1907–35), and these cities form the background for much of his early fiction. His critical studies

  • Hellström, Gustaf (Swedish author)

    Gustaf Hellström, Swedish realist novelist, journalist, and literary critic. As foreign correspondent for several Scandinavian newspapers, Hellstrom lived in Paris, London, and New York City (1907–35), and these cities form the background for much of his early fiction. His critical studies

  • Hellweg (plateau, Germany)

    Hellweg, plateau and historic corridor in North Rhine-Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It extends east–west from Duisburg to Paderborn, parallel to the northern edge of the Sauerland, and is bounded by the Ruhr (south) and Lippe (north) rivers. The region centres on and is named for an

  • Hellwig, James Brian (American professional wrestler)

    James Brian Hellwig, (“Ultimate Warrior”), American professional wrestler (born June 16, 1959, Crawfordsville, Ind.—died April 8, 2014, Scottsdale, Ariz.), was billed as the “Ultimate Warrior,” one of the most popular and enduring characters in the history of the World Wrestling Federation (WWF;

  • Helly’s theorem (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Helly’s theorem: In 1912 Austrian mathematician Eduard Helly proved the following theorem, which has since found applications in many areas of geometry and analysis and has led to numerous generalizations, extensions and analogues known as Helly-type theorems. If K1, K2, · · ·, Kn are…

  • helm (coin)

    coin: Gold coinage: …fine gold series—florin, leopard, and helm (12 and 14 florin)—but his attempt to introduce a gold currency failed. A gold coinage was finally established in currency in 1351 with a noble of 120 grains of gold and its subdivisions, the half- and quarter-noble. In the same year, the silver penny…

  • helm (boat part)

    rudder: …by a handle termed a tiller or helm. In larger vessels, the rudder is turned by hydraulic, steam, or electrical machinery.

  • helm (headgear)

    helmet: …of metal increased until entire helmets were fashioned of iron, still following the same form. About the year 1200 the helm, or heaume, emerged. It was a flat-topped cylinder that was put on over the skullcap just before an engagement; experience soon dictated rounded contours that would cause blows to…

  • Helm, Brigitte (German actress)

    Brigitte Helm, (GISELE EVE SCHITTENHELM), German actress who starred in silent movies and early talkies and was best remembered for her dual performance as the innocent Maria and her counterpart, a hypersexed robot, in Fritz Lang’s 1926 futuristic cult classic Metropolis (b. March 17, 1906--d. June

  • Helm, Levon (American musician)

    Levon Helm, (Mark Lavon Helm), American musician (born May 26, 1940, Elaine, Ark.—died April 19, 2012, New York, N.Y.), provided a bottom-heavy, versatile beat as drummer and contributed clear evocative tones as a vocalist for the seminal roots-rock group the Band; he later enjoyed an encore career

  • Helm, Mark Lavon (American musician)

    Levon Helm, (Mark Lavon Helm), American musician (born May 26, 1940, Elaine, Ark.—died April 19, 2012, New York, N.Y.), provided a bottom-heavy, versatile beat as drummer and contributed clear evocative tones as a vocalist for the seminal roots-rock group the Band; he later enjoyed an encore career

  • Helm, Matt (fictional character)

    Matt Helm, fictional character, the intrepid hero of a series of spy novels (1960–83) by American writer Donald Hamilton. Employed by a secret military organization during World War II, Helm is called upon to spy, to kill, and to convey military secrets. The character was portrayed by Dean Martin

  • Helmand River (river, Central Asia)

    Helmand River, river in southwestern Afghanistan and eastern Iran, about 715 miles (1,150 km) long. Rising in the Bābā Range in east-central Afghanistan, it flows southwestward across more than half the length of Afghanistan before flowing northward for a short distance through Iranian territory

  • Helmand Valley Authority (Afghanistan)

    Helmand River: …been extensively developed under the Helmand Valley Authority. A reservoir has been built at Kajakī, 50 miles (80 km) above Gereshk, for irrigation and flood control, and just above the same town a dam diverts water to a canal. Below the reservoir much of the river’s length is tapped for…

  • Helmarshausen abbey (abbey, Germany)

    Western painting: Germany and Austria: …prepared in the abbey of Helmarshausen on the Weser River. This scriptorium’s masterpiece is a Gospel book presented by Henry and his wife Matilda to Brunswick cathedral in 1173–75. The illumination is extraordinarily rich and dense, with a solemn and magisterial palette of gold, purple, dark green, azure, ochre, and…

  • Helmarshausen, Roger of (German writer and artist)

    Theophilus, German monk who wrote De diversis artibus (c. 1110–40; also called Schedula diversarum artium), an exhaustive account of the techniques of almost all the known crafts of the first half of the 12th century. From his writings it can be deduced that Theophilus was of the Benedictine o

  • Helmaspergersches Notariatsinstrument (German history)

    Johannes Gutenberg: Invention of the press: …in what is called the Helmaspergersches Notariatsinstrument (the Helmasperger notarial instrument), dated November 6, 1455, now in the library of the University of Göttingen. Gutenberg was ordered to pay Fust the total sum of the two loans and compound interest (probably totaling 2,020 guilders). Traditional historiography suggested that this settlement…

  • Helmbrecht (literary hero)

    Meier Helmbrecht: …the poem the young peasant Helmbrecht prefers knightly adventure to farming. His family outfits him at great expense, and he enters the service of a knight (i.e., a robber). He returns home insufferably proud of his stolen riches and his smattering of foreign words and arranges a marriage between his…

  • Helmer, Nora (fictional character)

    Nora Helmer, fictional character, the once-meek wife of lawyer Torvald Helmer, who asserts her independence in Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House

  • Helmert, Friedrich R. (German scientist)

    geoid: Ellipsoidal era: Later workers, particularly Friedrich R. Helmert of Germany, extended the expression to include higher-order terms, and gravimetric methods of determining f continued to be used, along with arc methods, up to the time when Earth-orbiting satellites were employed to make precise measurements (see the table).

  • helmet (heraldry)

    heraldry: The helmet: On top of the shield is placed the helmet, upon which the crest is fastened by a wreath, coronet, or chapeau. Originally everything in heraldry was strictly utilitarian. As armorial bearings were used with armour, there had to be a helmet. In later centuries…

  • helmet (sports equipment)

    baseball: Protective gear: The catcher wears a helmet, a barred mask with a hanging throat guard, a padded chest protector, and lightweight guards covering the knees, shins, and ankles. The umpire behind home plate wears a similar chest protector and mask. At bat players wear a lightweight plastic batting helmet that flares…

  • helmet (armour)

    Helmet, defensive covering for the head, one of the most universal forms of armour. Helmets are usually thought of as military equipment, but they are also worn by firefighters, miners, construction workers, riot police, and motorcyclists, players of several sports, and bicyclists. Military helmets

  • helmet guinea fowl (bird)

    bird: Importance to man: Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) from Africa were also widely exported and kept not only for food but also because they are noisy when alarmed, thus warning of the approach of intruders.

  • helmet shell (gastropod family)

    Helmet shell, any marine snail of the family Cassidae (subclass Prosobranchia, class Gastropoda), characterized by a large, thick shell with a shieldlike inner lip. An example is the 18-centimetre (7-inch) king helmet (Cassis tuberosa) of the Caribbean. Cameos are carved from helmet shells.

  • helmet-shrike (bird)

    Helmet-shrike, (family Prionopidae), any of nine species of African songbirds (order Passeriformes) characterized by a forwardly directed crest on the forehead. Several Prionops species, often called red-billed shrikes, were formerly separated in the genus Sigmodus. They are about 20 cm (8 inches)

  • Helmhack, Abraham (German artist)

    pottery: Tin-glazed ware: …developed by another glass painter, Abraham Helmhack (1654–1724), who mastered the technique as early as 1690, many years before it was adopted by the factories. The more important studio painters are Johann Aufenwerth and Bartholomäus Seuter of Augsburg, J.F. Metszch of Bayreuth, the Bohemians Daniel and Ignaz Preussler, and Ignaz…

  • Helmholtz coil (physics)

    magnetism: Magnetization effects in matter: …a configuration is called a Helmholtz coil. By carefully orienting and adjusting the current in a large Helmholtz coil, it is often possible to cancel an external magnetic field (such as Earth’s magnetic field) in a region of space where experiments require the absence of all external magnetic fields.

  • Helmholtz free energy (chemistry)

    free energy: …expressed in two forms: the Helmholtz free energy F, sometimes called the work function, and the Gibbs free energy G. If U is the internal energy of a system, PV the pressure-volume product, and TS the temperature-entropy product (T being the temperature above absolute zero), then F =

  • Helmholtz function (chemistry)

    free energy: …expressed in two forms: the Helmholtz free energy F, sometimes called the work function, and the Gibbs free energy G. If U is the internal energy of a system, PV the pressure-volume product, and TS the temperature-entropy product (T being the temperature above absolute zero), then F =

  • Helmholtz Research Centre (research centre, Jülich, Germany)

    Peter Grünberg: …Solid State Research at the Helmholtz Research Centre in Jülich, Ger.

  • Helmholtz resonator (acoustics)

    sound: The Helmholtz resonator: An important type of resonator with very different acoustic characteristics is the Helmholtz resonator, named after the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. Essentially a hollow sphere with a short, small-diameter neck, a Helmholtz resonator has a single isolated resonant frequency and no other…

  • Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand (German scientist and philosopher)

    Hermann von Helmholtz, German scientist and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology, optics, electrodynamics, mathematics, and meteorology. He is best known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy. He brought to his laboratory research the ability to analyze

  • Helmholtz, Hermann von (German scientist and philosopher)

    Hermann von Helmholtz, German scientist and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology, optics, electrodynamics, mathematics, and meteorology. He is best known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy. He brought to his laboratory research the ability to analyze

  • helminth (parasitic worm)

    anthelmintic: Helminths can be divided into three groups: cestodes, or tapeworms; nematodes, or roundworms; and trematodes, or flukes. The helminths differ from other infectious organisms in that they have a complex body structure. They are multicellular and have partial or complete organ

  • helminthic therapy (medicine)

    asthma: Asthma on the rise: Further investigation of this “helminthic therapy” in larger sample populations is under way.

  • Helminthoglyptidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: Camaenidae) or with (Bradybaenidae, Helminthoglyptidae, and Helicidae) accessory glands on the genitalia; dominant land snails in most regions, including the edible snails of Europe (Helicidae). Assorted Referencesannotated classifications

  • Helminthosporium (genus of fungi)

    Helminthosporium, genus of fungi in the order Pleosporales (phylum Ascomycota, kingdom Fungi) that exists as asexual anamorphs and causes leaf blight, especially of grasses (e.g., bluegrass, corn, oats), in humid areas. Symptoms include grayish green, tan, or brown elliptical spots that appear on

  • Helminthostachys (fern genus)

    Ophioglossaceae: Helminthostachys zeylanica in Sri Lanka and regions extending from the Himalayas to Queensland, Australia, has sporangia in small groups on both sides of the fertile spike. Mankyua chejuense is endemic to Cheju Island of South Korea

  • Helmold of Bosau (German historian and priest)

    Helmold Of Bosau, German historian and priest who wrote Chronica Slavorum (Chronicle of the Slavs). Completed in about 1172, this work was a history of the lower Elbe River region from about 800 to 1170. Educated at Brunswick (1139–42) under Gerold (later bishop of Oldenburg and Lübeck) and at the

  • Helmond (Netherlands)

    Helmond, gemeente (municipality), southeastern Netherlands. It lies along the Aa River and the Zuid-Willems Canal east of Eindhoven. Its textile factories and iron foundries have suffered in recent decades, and the town is now dependent on the service sector. A 15th-century castle formerly housed

  • Helmont, Jan Baptist van (Belgian scientist)

    Jan Baptista van Helmont, Flemish physician, philosopher, mystic, and chemist who recognized the existence of discrete gases and identified carbon dioxide. Van Helmont was born into a wealthy family of the landed gentry. He studied at Leuven (Louvain), where he finished the course in philosophy and

  • Helmont, Jan Baptista van (Belgian scientist)

    Jan Baptista van Helmont, Flemish physician, philosopher, mystic, and chemist who recognized the existence of discrete gases and identified carbon dioxide. Van Helmont was born into a wealthy family of the landed gentry. He studied at Leuven (Louvain), where he finished the course in philosophy and

  • Helmont, Joannes Baptista van (Belgian scientist)

    Jan Baptista van Helmont, Flemish physician, philosopher, mystic, and chemist who recognized the existence of discrete gases and identified carbon dioxide. Van Helmont was born into a wealthy family of the landed gentry. He studied at Leuven (Louvain), where he finished the course in philosophy and

  • Helms, Jesse (American politician)

    Jesse Helms, American politician and longtime member of the U.S. Senate (1973–2003), who was a leading figure in the conservative movement. Nicknamed “Senator No,” he was perhaps best known for his vehement opposition to civil rights and gay rights. Helms, the son of the chief of police in Monroe,

  • Helms, Jesse Alexander, Jr. (American politician)

    Jesse Helms, American politician and longtime member of the U.S. Senate (1973–2003), who was a leading figure in the conservative movement. Nicknamed “Senator No,” he was perhaps best known for his vehement opposition to civil rights and gay rights. Helms, the son of the chief of police in Monroe,

  • Helms, Richard McGarrah (American intelligence official and diplomat)

    Richard McGarrah Helms, American intelligence official and diplomat (born March 30, 1913, Saint Davids, Pa.—died Oct. 22, 2002, Washington, D.C.), headed the Central Intelligence Agency from 1966 to 1973. To supporters he was a patriot who upheld the security of the country above all else, while t

  • Helms, Susan (American astronaut and Air Force officer)

    Susan Helms, U.S. astronaut and Air Force officer who was the first U.S. military woman in space (1993) and, with astronaut James Voss, performed the longest space walk (2001). Helms received a bachelor’s degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs,

  • Helms, Susan Jane (American astronaut and Air Force officer)

    Susan Helms, U.S. astronaut and Air Force officer who was the first U.S. military woman in space (1993) and, with astronaut James Voss, performed the longest space walk (2001). Helms received a bachelor’s degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs,

  • Helms-Burton law (United States [1996])

    Cuba: Cuba since 1991: Congress passed the Helms-Burton law, which threatened sanctions against foreign-owned companies investing in Cuba. In 1999 prominent dissidents in Cuba were jailed and repressive laws enacted, prompting further international criticism. In the early 21st century, Cuba benefited from a petroleum-trade agreement with Venezuela and eased some of its…

  • Helms-Museum (museum, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Helms-Museum, in the Harburg district, is a local museum for the part of Hamburg south of the Elbe but also houses antiquities representing the prehistory and early history of the whole territory. The Ernst-Barlach-Haus, in Jenisch Park, was founded in 1961–62 by another great patron…

  • Helmsley, Harry Brakmann (American businessman)

    Harry Brakmann Helmsley, American real-estate investor and property developer whose New York holdings, which included the Empire State Building, were valued at their height at about $5 billion but who came to be overshadowed by his second wife, Leona, who was dubbed "the Queen of Mean"; when in

  • Helmsley, Leona (American businesswoman)

    Leona Helmsley, (Leona Mindy Rosenthal), American hotel magnate (born July 4, 1920, Marbletown, N.Y.—died Aug. 20, 2007, Greenwich, Conn.), was dubbed “the queen of mean” as a result of her imperious manner and callous, abusive treatment of employees of Helmsley Hotels, of which her real-estate

  • Helmstedt (Germany)

    Helmstedt, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany, east of Braunschweig (Brunswick). Probably founded in the 9th century, it was chartered in 1050, joined the Hanseatic League in 1426, and passed to Brunswick in 1490. In 1576 Julius, duke of Brunswick, founded a university there

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