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  • heiden (Japanese architecture)

    jinja: …by the priests; (2) the heiden (hall of offerings), or norito-den (hall for reciting prayers), where religious rites are performed by the priests; here are offered the prayers which “call down” the kami (deity, or sacred power) and subsequently send it away; and (3) the haiden (hall of worship), where…

  • Heiden, Eric (American athlete)

    Eric Heiden, American athlete who at the 1980 Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York, U.S., became the first skater to win gold medals in all speed-skating events (500, 1,000, 1,500, 5,000, and 10,000 metres). His performance included a world record in the 10,000-metre event and Olympic

  • Heiden, Eric Arthur (American athlete)

    Eric Heiden, American athlete who at the 1980 Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York, U.S., became the first skater to win gold medals in all speed-skating events (500, 1,000, 1,500, 5,000, and 10,000 metres). His performance included a world record in the 10,000-metre event and Olympic

  • Heidenreich, Jerry (American swimmer)
  • Heidenstam, Carl Gustaf Verner von (Swedish author)

    Verner von Heidenstam, poet and prose writer who led the literary reaction to the Naturalist movement in Sweden, calling for a renaissance of the literature of fantasy, beauty, and national themes. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916. Ill health forced Heidenstam to spend most of his

  • Heidenstam, Verner von (Swedish author)

    Verner von Heidenstam, poet and prose writer who led the literary reaction to the Naturalist movement in Sweden, calling for a renaissance of the literature of fantasy, beauty, and national themes. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916. Ill health forced Heidenstam to spend most of his

  • Heider, Fritz (American psychologist)

    personality: Deviation from trait theory: …psychology,” in the words of Fritz Heider, an American psychologist. This “naive” psychology, as he called it, consists of a set of rules that guide most people’s impressions of other people and of social situations. These rules are used constantly to interpret one’s own and other people’s behaviour and to…

  • Heidi (film by Dwan [1937])

    Allan Dwan: Dwan’s talkies: …child star Shirley Temple (Heidi [1937], Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm [1938], and Young People [1940]) and the historical epic Suez (1938), about the building of the Suez Canal.

  • Heidi (television film by Mann [1968])

    Delbert Mann: Later television work: …he directed an adaptation of Heidi, which remains best remembered in the United States because NBC ended coverage of a National Football League (NFL) game in order to air the TV movie at its scheduled time. The decision outraged fans, who missed a come-from-behind win by the Oakland Raiders. NFL…

  • Heidi (novel by Spyri)

    Heidi, classic children’s novel by Swiss writer Johanna Spyri, published in two volumes in 1880–81. The title character is a young orphan who is sent to the Swiss mountains to live with her grandfather. The novel opens with Aunt Dete taking her niece, Heidi, to stay with the young girl’s

  • Heidi Chronicles, The (play by Wasserstein)

    Wendy Wasserstein: Her drama The Heidi Chronicles (1988) was awarded both a Pulitzer Prize and a Tony Award in 1989.

  • heifer (cattle)

    cattle: The female is first a heifer calf, growing into a heifer and becoming a cow. Depending on the breed, mature bulls weigh 450–1,800 kg (1,000–4,000 pounds) and cows 360–1,100 kg (800–2,400 pounds). Males retained for beef production are usually castrated to make them more docile on the range or in…

  • Heifetz, Jascha (American musician)

    Jascha Heifetz, Russian-born American violinist noted for his conscientious musical interpretation, his smooth tone, and his technical proficiency. His name became associated with musical perfection. Heifetz studied violin from age three and at six performed Felix Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto. At

  • height (dimension)

    length, area, and volume: Length is the size of a line segment (see distance formulas), area is the size of a closed region in a plane, and volume is the size of a solid. Formulas for area and volume are based on lengths. For example, the area of a…

  • height (anatomy)

    human development: Types and rates of human growth: Meanwhile, height is in most circumstances the best single index of growth, being a measure of a single tissue (that of the skeleton; weight is a mixture of all tissues, and this makes it a less useful parameter in a long-term following of a child’s growth).…

  • height equivalent to a theoretical plate (chemistry)

    chromatography: Column efficiency: …theoretical plate (or plate height), HETP (or h), which is L/N, L being the length of the column. Efficient columns have small h values (see below Plate height).

  • height growth unit (tree measurement)

    tree: Tree height growth: The two primary determinants of height growth are the number of height growth units (the node plus its subtending internode) produced during each growing season and elongation of the internodes. This process is sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability, soil quality,…

  • Height of Buildings Act (United States [1910])

    Washington, D.C.: Architecture: …of tall buildings, and the Height of Buildings Act of 1910 assured the city’s horizontal landscape. According to the act, no building in Washington may be taller than 130 feet (40 metres), though along certain portions of Pennsylvania Avenue certain structures are allowed to extend an additional 30 feet (9…

  • Height, Dorothy (American civil and women’s rights activist)

    Dorothy Height, American civil rights and women’s rights activist, a widely respected and influential leader of organizations focused primarily on improving the circumstances of and opportunities for African American women. Reared in Rankin, Pa., Height graduated in 1933 from New York University

  • Height, Dorothy Irene (American civil and women’s rights activist)

    Dorothy Height, American civil rights and women’s rights activist, a widely respected and influential leader of organizations focused primarily on improving the circumstances of and opportunities for African American women. Reared in Rankin, Pa., Height graduated in 1933 from New York University

  • Heights of Abraham (plateau, Quebec, Canada)

    Plains of Abraham, plains in Québec region, southern Quebec province, Canada. The plains lie at the western edge of the old walled city, overlooking the St. Lawrence River. The plateau was the scene of a battle (Sept. 13, 1759) between the French under the Marquis de Montcalm and the British under

  • Heights of Macchu Picchu, The (poem by Neruda)

    The Heights of Macchu Picchu, poem by Pablo Neruda, published in 1947 as Alturas de Macchu Picchu and later included as part of his epic Canto general. It is considered one of Neruda’s greatest poetic works. The 12 sections of The Heights of Macchu Picchu represent separate phases of a journey,

  • Heigl, Katherine (American actress)

    Katherine Heigl, American actress known for her work on the television series Grey’s Anatomy and for roles in a series of popular romantic comedies. Heigl started modeling while a child and eventually appeared in television commercials. In 1992 she made her movie debut in That Night, and minor

  • Heigl, Katherine Marie (American actress)

    Katherine Heigl, American actress known for her work on the television series Grey’s Anatomy and for roles in a series of popular romantic comedies. Heigl started modeling while a child and eventually appeared in television commercials. In 1992 she made her movie debut in That Night, and minor

  • Heijermans, Herman (Dutch author)

    Herman Heijermans, Dutch author and playwright, both naturalistic and didactic, who in his work attacked all aspects of bourgeois hypocrisy. After failing in business, Heijermans became a journalist in Amsterdam. His novel Kamertjeszonde (1898; “Petty Sin”), published under the pseudonym Koos

  • Heiji Disturbance (Japanese history)

    Japan: The rise of the warrior class: …Taira Kiyomori, and, in the Heiji Disturbance (1159) that followed, the two warrior clans were pitted against one another. The Minamoto were thoroughly defeated, and Taira Kiyomori emerged as a major power in the land.

  • Heiji monogatari (Japanese chronicle)

    epic: The epic in Japan: The Hōgen monogatari and the Heiji monogatari deal with two small wars, the Hōgen (1156) and Heiji (1159), in which the Genji and Heike warriors fought for opposing court factions. The structure of the two works is roughly the same. Each celebrates the extraordinary prowess of a young Genji warrior,…

  • Heiji monogatari emaki (Japanese scroll)

    Japanese art: Painting: …the Sanjō Palace in the Heiji monogatari emaki. Here, the artist uses highly animated, modulated strokes of defining ink, judicious, repetitive patterning, and the application of opaque colour to produce a series of carefully joined vignettes that intimately and actively tell the story.

  • Heijō-kyō (Japan)

    Nara, city, Nara ken (prefecture), southern Honshu, Japan. The city of Nara, the prefectural capital, is located in the hilly northeastern edge of the Nara Basin, 25 miles (40 km) east of Ōsaka. It was the national capital of Japan from 710 to 784—when it was called Heijō-kyō—and retains the

  • heika (floral art)

    Ohara: …but it is known as heika. The styles of this school grew in popularity throughout the 20th century, superseding the traditional and formalistic rikka style.

  • Heikal, Muhammad Hassanein (Egyptian journalist)

    Muhammad Hassanein Heikal, leading Egyptian journalist who gained fame as the editor in chief (1957–74) of Al-Ahram, the semiofficial Egyptian newspaper. During his tenure Al-Ahram was called The New York Times of the Arab world, partly because of Heikal’s weekly analytical pieces. Heikal was

  • Heike family (Japanese clan)

    Taira Family, Japanese samurai (warrior) clan of great power and influence in the 12th century. The genealogy and history of the family have been traced in detail from 825, when the name Taira was given to Prince Takamune, grandson of Kammu (the 50th emperor of Japan). From about 1156 to 1185, the

  • Heike monogatari (Japanese epic)

    Heike monogatari, medieval Japanese epic, which is to the Japanese what the Iliad is to the Western world—a prolific source of later dramas, ballads, and tales. It stems from unwritten traditional tales and variant texts composed between 1190 and 1221, which were gathered together (c. 1240),

  • Heike nōkyō (Japanese narrative scroll)

    Japanese art: Calligraphy and painting: …completion in 1164 of the Heike nōkyō. This incomparable 34-scroll presentation of the Lotus Sutra with alternating text and painting was an offering of the military leader Taira Kiyomori.

  • Heilbroner, Robert Louis (American economist)

    Robert Louis Heilbroner, American economist (born March 24, 1919, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 4, 2005, New York City), was the author of several of the most widely read books on economics in the U.S. Heilbroner viewed economics broadly, as a system in context with political and social systems. He t

  • Heilbronn (Germany)

    Heilbronn, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Neckar River and is surrounded by vineyards and the Swabian Forest. Built on the site of an old Roman settlement, it was first mentioned in 741, and the Carolingian princes had a palace there. Heilbronn was

  • Heilbronn, League of (European history)

    Axel, Count Oxenstierna: The war after Gustav’s death.: In the League of Heilbronn (1633), he created a corpus evangelicorum of the kind that Gustav had planned, with himself as its director, but he never managed to persuade the North German princes to join it. The disaster at Nördlingen (1634) destroyed his hopes of keeping Sweden’s…

  • Heilbrun, Carolyn (American author and literary critic)

    Carolyn Heilbrun, American scholar and feminist literary critic who became known for the mystery stories she published under a pseudonym. Heilbrun attended Wellesley (Massachusetts) College (B.A., 1947) and Columbia University in New York City (M.A., 1951; Ph.D., 1959) and in 1960 joined the

  • Heilbrun, Carolyn Gold (American author and literary critic)

    Carolyn Heilbrun, American scholar and feminist literary critic who became known for the mystery stories she published under a pseudonym. Heilbrun attended Wellesley (Massachusetts) College (B.A., 1947) and Columbia University in New York City (M.A., 1951; Ph.D., 1959) and in 1960 joined the

  • Heilbuth, Yvonne (South African actress)

    Yvonne Bryceland, South African actress who was known both for her inspired interpretations of the antiapartheid works of South African playwright Athol Fugard and for defying racial segregation in South Africa with her second husband, Brian Astbury, by founding the country’s first nonracial

  • Heiler, Johann Friedrich (German scholar)

    study of religion: Modern origin and development of the history and phenomenology of religion: Friedrich Heiler (1892–1967), like Otto a professor at Marburg (Germany), was a strong proponent of the phenomenological and comparative method, as in his major work on prayer. Heiler, however, went beyond the scientific study of religion in attempting to promote interreligious fellowship, partly through the…

  • Heiles, Carl (American astronomer)

    celestial mechanics: Chaotic orbits: …Hénon and the American astronomer Carl Heiles discovered that when a system exhibiting periodic motion, such as a pendulum, is perturbed by an external force that is also periodic, some initial conditions lead to motions where the state of the system becomes essentially unpredictable (within some range of system states)…

  • Heilig, Morton (American cinematographer)

    virtual reality: Early work: …Is Cinerama (1952), the cinematographer Morton Heilig became fascinated with Cinerama and 3-D movies. Like Waller, he studied human sensory signals and illusions, hoping to realize a “cinema of the future.” By late 1960, Heilig had built an individual console with a variety of inputs—stereoscopic images, motion chair, audio, temperature…

  • Heiligbronn (Germany)

    Heilbronn, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies along the Neckar River and is surrounded by vineyards and the Swabian Forest. Built on the site of an old Roman settlement, it was first mentioned in 741, and the Carolingian princes had a palace there. Heilbronn was

  • heilige Familie, Die (work by Marx and Engels)

    Karl Marx: Brussels period: …published Die heilige Familie (1845; The Holy Family), a prolix criticism of the Hegelian idealism of the theologian Bruno Bauer. Their next work, Die deutsche Ideologie (written 1845–46, published 1932; The German Ideology), contained the fullest exposition of their important materialistic conception of history, which set out to show how,…

  • Heilige Geschichte der Menschheit von einem Jünger Spinozas (work by Hess)

    Moses Hess: Hess’s first published work, Heilige Geschichte der Menschheit von einem Jünger Spinozas (1837; “The Holy History of Mankind, by a Young Spinozist”), exhibited the sharp imprint not only of Benedict de Spinoza’s but also of G.W.F. Hegel’s transcendental philosophy. Hess saw a material application of his beliefs in an…

  • heilige Hinterecke (religion)

    Baltic religion: Temples and other holy places: …as to whether the so-called holy corner (heilige Hinterecke)—i.e., the dark corner of a peasant’s house in which a deity or patron lives—belongs to pre-Christian concepts or not. On the other hand, various places in the house proper, such as the hearth and the doorstep, were considered to be abodes…

  • Heilige, Das (work by Otto)

    study of religion: Modern origin and development of the history and phenomenology of religion: …world with the publication of The Idea of the Holy (in its German edition of 1917), which showed the influence of Schleiermacher, Marett, Edmund Husserl, and the Neo-Kantianism of Jakob Fries (1773–1843). More important than the philosophical side of his enterprise, however, was the excellent delineation of a central experience…

  • heiligenschein (physics)

    Cellini’s halo, bright white ring surrounding the shadow of the observer’s head on a dew-covered lawn with a low solar elevation angle. The low solar angle causes an elongated shadow, so that the shadow of the head is far from the observer, a condition that is apparently required for Cellini’s h

  • Heiligenstadt Testament (work by Beethoven)

    Ludwig van Beethoven: Approaching deafness: …the (then) country village of Heiligenstadt he wrote the “Heiligenstadt Testament.” Ostensibly intended for his two brothers, the document begins:

  • Heiligerlee, Battle of (Dutch history)

    history of the Low Countries: Causes of the revolt: …victory over the Spaniards at Heiligerlee (in the province of Groningen), considered the beginning of the Eighty Years’ War; but shortly afterward Louis was defeated near Jengum in East Friesland. A greater setback, however, was the complete failure, due to lack of funds, of a campaign led by William himself…

  • Heiliges Römisches Reich (historical empire, Europe)

    Holy Roman Empire, the varying complex of lands in western and central Europe ruled over first by Frankish and then by German kings for 10 centuries (800–1806). (For histories of the territories governed at various times by the empire, see France; Germany; Italy.) The precise term Sacrum Romanum

  • Heilong Jiang (river, Asia)

    Amur River, river of East Asia. It is the longest river of the Russian Far East, and it ranks behind only the Yangtze and Huang Ho (Yellow River) among China’s longest rivers. Its headwaters rise in Russia (Siberia), Mongolia, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in the mountains

  • Heilongjiang (province, China)

    Heilongjiang, the northernmost sheng (province) of China’s Northeast region. It is bounded to the north and east by Russia along the Amur River and the Ussuri (Wusuli) River, to the south by the Chinese province of Jilin, and to the west by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The capital is

  • Heilsgeschichte (religion)

    time: One-way view of time in the philosophy of history: This belief in Heilsgeschichte (salvational history) has been derived by Islam and Christianity from Judaism and Zoroastrianism. Late in the 12th century, the Christian seer Joachim of Fiore saw this divinely ordained spiritual progress in the time flow as unfolding in a series of three ages—those of the…

  • Heilsspiegel altarpiece (work by Witz)

    Konrad Witz: The Heilsspiegel altarpiece (c. 1435; now dispersed), generally agreed to be his earliest surviving work, displays numerous monumental, sculpturelike figures in small, bare rooms. In this altarpiece, such figures as the personification of “The Synagogue” are placed diagonally to the picture-plane in a simple, graceful pose,…

  • Heilungkiang (province, China)

    Heilongjiang, the northernmost sheng (province) of China’s Northeast region. It is bounded to the north and east by Russia along the Amur River and the Ussuri (Wusuli) River, to the south by the Chinese province of Jilin, and to the west by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The capital is

  • Heim, Albert (Swiss geologist)

    Albert Heim, Swiss geologist whose studies of the Swiss Alps greatly advanced knowledge of the dynamics of mountain building and of glacial effects on topography and geology. Heim was appointed to the chair of geology at the Federal Polytechnic School in Zürich in 1873. He served as director of the

  • Heimaey (island, Iceland)

    Vestmanna Islands: …and only inhabited island is Heimaey, 4 miles (6 km) in length, on which the town of Vestmannaeyjar is located. Fishing and some limited farming are the chief economic activities. The fiery emergence in 1963–67 of the volcanic isle of Surtsey, 14 miles (23 km) southwest, covered the island group…

  • Heiman, Salomon (Jewish philosopher)

    Salomon Maimon, Jewish philosopher whose acute Skepticism caused him to be acknowledged by the major German philosopher Immanuel Kant as his most perceptive critic. He combined an early and extensive familiarity with rabbinic learning with a proficiency in Hebrew, and, after acquiring a special

  • Heimat (work by Sudermann)

    Hermann Sudermann: , Magda) carried his fame throughout the world. It portrays the conflicts of Magda, a celebrated opera singer who returns to confront her past in the narrow, provincial hometown that she left in disgrace.

  • Heimatkunst (German literary movement)

    Heinrich Federer: …the nationalistic outlook of the Heimatkunst (“Homeland Art”) movement, which took Swiss and German rural life as its subject in novels and literary sketches. His novels include Der heilige Franz von Assisi (1908; “Saint Francis of Assisi”), Lachweiler Geschichten (1911; “Lachweil Stories”), Berge und Menschen (1911; “Mountains and Men”), Sisto…

  • Heimberger, Edward Albert (American actor)

    Eddie Albert, (Edward Albert Heimberger), American actor (born April 22, 1906, Rock Island, Ill.—died May 26, 2005, Pacific Palisades, Calif.), was best remembered for his starring role as Oliver Wendell Douglas, a lawyer intent on leaving the trappings of city life to become a gentleman farmer, i

  • Heimburg Mannes, Maria von (American author and critic)

    Marya Mannes, American writer and critic, known for her caustic but insightful observations of American life. Mannes was the daughter of Clara Damrosch Mannes and David Mannes, both distinguished musicians. She was educated privately and benefited from the cultural atmosphere of her home and from

  • Heimdall (Norse mythology)

    Heimdall, in Norse mythology, the watchman of the gods. Called the shining god and whitest skinned of the gods, Heimdall dwelt at the entry to Asgard, where he guarded Bifrost, the rainbow bridge. He required less sleep than a bird, could see 100 leagues, and could hear grass growing in the meadows

  • Heimdallr (Norse mythology)

    Heimdall, in Norse mythology, the watchman of the gods. Called the shining god and whitest skinned of the gods, Heimdall dwelt at the entry to Asgard, where he guarded Bifrost, the rainbow bridge. He required less sleep than a bird, could see 100 leagues, and could hear grass growing in the meadows

  • Heimdallur (work by Hafstein)

    Hannes Hafstein: …the heroic, as exemplified in Heimdallur (1884), a portrait of Brandes. He also wrote many delicate love lyrics and drinking songs.

  • Heimdalr (Norse mythology)

    Heimdall, in Norse mythology, the watchman of the gods. Called the shining god and whitest skinned of the gods, Heimdall dwelt at the entry to Asgard, where he guarded Bifrost, the rainbow bridge. He required less sleep than a bird, could see 100 leagues, and could hear grass growing in the meadows

  • Heimin shimbun (Japanese newspaper)

    Japan: Social change: …a small group organized the Heimin shimbun (“Commoner’s Newspaper”); it published The Communist Manifesto and opposed the Russo-Japanese War before being forced to cease publication. The socialist movement gained strength after World War I, but its program was often theoretical and doctrinaire, and its leaders found it difficult to make…

  • Heimlich maneuver (emergency procedure)

    Heimlich maneuver, emergency procedure that is used to dislodge foreign bodies from the throats of choking victims. In the early 1970s, the American surgeon Henry J. Heimlich observed that food and other objects causing choking were not freed by the recommended technique of delivering sharp blows

  • Heimlich, Henry J. (American surgeon, author and teacher)

    Henry Heimlich, (Henry Judah Heimlich), American physician (born Feb. 3, 1920, Wilmington, Del.—died Dec. 17, 2016, Cincinnati, Ohio), developed a simple procedure, known as the Heimlich maneuver, to dislodge solid foreign bodies from the throat of a choking person. The technique, which involved

  • Heimskringla (work by Snorri)

    Heimskringla, (c. 1220; “Orb of the World”), collection of sagas of the early Norwegian kings, written by the Icelandic poet-chieftain Snorri Sturluson. It is distinguished by Snorri’s classical objectivity, realistic psychology, and historically feasible (if not always accurate) depiction of cause

  • Heimsljós (novel by Laxness)

    Halldór Laxness: …economic independence; and Heimsljós (1937–40; World Light), a four-volume novel about the struggles of a peasant poet. These novels criticized Icelandic society from a socialist viewpoint, and they attracted a great deal of controversy. Although he had initially rejected the literary tradition of his native country, Laxness later embraced the…

  • Heimwehr (Austrian organization)

    Heimwehr, (German: Home Defense Force), any of the local organizations formed in various parts of Austria to expel invading Yugoslavs or preserve order immediately after World War I. Composed of conservative-minded country dwellers, the Heimwehr came to represent much of the Austrian right wing

  • Hein, Piet (Dutch admiral)

    Piet Heyn, admiral and director of the Dutch West India Company who captured a Spanish treasure fleet (1628) with 4,000,000 ducats of gold and silver (12,000,000 gulden, or florins). That great naval and economic victory provided the Dutch Republic with money to continue its struggle against Spain

  • Hein, Piet (Danish mathematician)

    number game: Puzzles involving configurations: The game was created by Piet Hein in 1942 in Denmark, where it quickly became popular under the name of polygon. It was invented independently in the United States in 1948 by John Nash, and a few years later one version was marketed under the name of hex.

  • Heindel, Max (American religious leader)

    Rosicrucian: …the Rosicrucian Fellowship, whose founder, Max Heindel, attended lectures in Germany by the theosophist Rudolf Steiner. After publishing purportedly secret doctrines against Steiner’s wishes, Heindel taught a form of Rosicrucianism heavily influenced by theosophy. The Rosicrucian Fellowship was founded in Seattle in 1909, and it inspired the creation of other…

  • Heindorf, Ray (American composer and songwriter)
  • Heine, Christian Johann Heinrich (German author)

    Heinrich Heine, German poet whose international literary reputation and influence were established by the Buch der Lieder (1827; The Book of Songs), frequently set to music, though the more sombre poems of his last years are also highly regarded. Heine was born of Jewish parents. His father was a

  • Heine, Harry (German author)

    Heinrich Heine, German poet whose international literary reputation and influence were established by the Buch der Lieder (1827; The Book of Songs), frequently set to music, though the more sombre poems of his last years are also highly regarded. Heine was born of Jewish parents. His father was a

  • Heine, Heinrich (German author)

    Heinrich Heine, German poet whose international literary reputation and influence were established by the Buch der Lieder (1827; The Book of Songs), frequently set to music, though the more sombre poems of his last years are also highly regarded. Heine was born of Jewish parents. His father was a

  • Heine-Borel theorem (mathematics)

    compactness: …compactness was motivated by the Heine-Borel theorem for Euclidean space, which states that compactness of a set is equivalent to the set’s being closed and bounded.

  • Heine-Medin disease (pathology)

    Polio, acute viral infectious disease of the nervous system that usually begins with general symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and muscle pains and spasms and is sometimes followed by a more-serious and permanent paralysis of muscles in one or more limbs, the throat, or the chest.

  • Heinecken, Robert Friedli (American artist)

    Robert Friedli Heinecken, American artist and printmaker (born Dec. 29, 1931, Denver, Colo.—died May 19, 2006, Albuquerque, N.M.), during the 1960s and ’70s, created constructed photography, collages he produced by manipulating media images that he cut out of popular magazines. Calling himself a “

  • Heineken, Alfred Henry (Dutch brewer)

    Alfred Henry Heineken, Dutch brewer (born Nov. 4, 1923, Amsterdam, Neth.—died Jan. 3, 2002, Noordwijk, Neth.), during a lifetime at the brewery incorporated by his grandfather in 1873, used aggressive and innovative marketing to build Heineken NV into the world’s third largest beer company; he w

  • Heineman, Gustav (West German president)

    Germany: Ostpolitik and reconciliation, 1969–89: …of 1969 and its candidate, Gustav Heinemann, also captured the presidency, West Germany underwent its first full-scale change of government. After 20 years of CDU-CSU domination, the SPD captured the chancellorship for Brandt in coalition with the FDP, whose leader Walter Scheel became foreign minister. This so-called social-liberal coalition carried…

  • Heinemann, Barbara (American religious leader)

    Barbara Heinemann, French-born U.S. spiritual leader of the Community of True Inspiration, also known as the Amana Colony. The Community of True Inspiration had been founded in 1714 by Pietistic mystics and was revived later by Michael Krausert and Christian Metz. In 1818 Heinemann was

  • Heinemann, William (English publisher)

    William Heinemann, English publisher whose firm published outstanding contemporary fiction and drama, introduced translations of important works of European literature to Great Britain, and produced inexpensive translations of classical Greek and Roman texts. Heinemann studied music in England and

  • Heines, Edmund (Nazi leader)

    Adolf Hitler: Dictator, 1933–39: …Knives,” Röhm and his lieutenant Edmund Heines were executed without trial, along with Gregor Strasser, Kurt von Schleicher, and others.

  • Heinesen, Jens Pauli (Faroese author)

    Faroese literature: Development during the 20th century: …distinctly more modern bent is Jens Pauli Heinesen. His works reflect an approach to Faroese life that is generally more international than that of Brú or Joensen and that is infused with a certain satiric element. Gunnar Hoydal, also a poet, is known primarily for his short stories and travel…

  • Heinesen, William (Danish Faeroese author)

    William Heinesen, Faroese writer of Danish-language poetry and fiction in which he used his remote North Atlantic homeland as a microcosmic setting for universal social, psychological, and cosmic themes. In 1921, while studying in Copenhagen, Heinesen published a volume of lyric poetry, Arktiske

  • Heinicke, Samuel (German educator)

    Samuel Heinicke, German advocate for and teacher of oralism (one of many early communication methods devised for use by hearing-impaired individuals) in the education of the deaf. After receiving only a village school education, Heinicke enlisted in the army, where he found time to indulge his

  • Heinitz, Friedrich Anton von (German politician)

    Karl, Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein: Influence of August Rehberg.: …1780, through his friendship with Friedrich Anton von Heinitz, the Prussian minister of mines, he obtained a suitable post.

  • Heinkel He 178 (airplane)

    Ernst Heinrich Heinkel: …successfully with reaction motors; the He 178, first turbojet-powered aircraft; and the He 111 and He 162, widely used by Germany’s air force during World War II. Though he fell into disfavour with the Nazis late in the war, he was arrested by the Allies and tried for war crimes;…

  • Heinkel, Ernst Heinrich (German aeronautical engineer)

    Ernst Heinrich Heinkel, German designer and builder of the first rocket-powered aircraft shortly before the outbreak of World War II. Heinkel’s first plane, constructed in 1910, crashed and burned. Continuing his work, he became chief designer for the Albatros Aircraft Company in Berlin before the

  • Heinlein, Robert A. (American author)

    Robert A. Heinlein, prolific American writer considered to be one of the most literary and sophisticated of science-fiction writers. He did much to develop the genre. After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1929 and serving in the navy for five years, Heinlein pursued graduate studies in

  • Heinlein, Robert Anson (American author)

    Robert A. Heinlein, prolific American writer considered to be one of the most literary and sophisticated of science-fiction writers. He did much to develop the genre. After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1929 and serving in the navy for five years, Heinlein pursued graduate studies in

  • Heino, Viljo Akseli (Finnish athlete)

    Viljo Akseli Heino, Finnish athlete who was the last of the "Flying Finns," track stars who dominated long-distance running from the 1920s through the ’40s; he set a world record in the 10,000 m in 1944, also getting credit for a world 6-mi record, and set another 10,000-m world record in 1949 (b.

  • Heinrich der Jüngere (duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel)

    Henry II, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, one of the leading Roman Catholic princes attempting to stem the Reformation in Germany. Always a loyal supporter of the Habsburg emperors, Henry tried to restore Roman Catholicism in his realm but was defeated by John Frederick I the Magnanimous of Saxony

  • Heinrich der Lowe (duke of Bavaria and Saxony)

    Henry III, duke of Saxony (1142–80) and of Bavaria (as Henry XII, 1156–80), a strong supporter of the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Henry spent his early years recovering his ancestral lands of Saxony (1142) and Bavaria (1154–56), thereafter founding the city of Munich (1157), enhancing the

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