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  • Hawley, Amos (American sociologist)

    social structure: Recent trends in social structure theory: …a structural theory developed by Amos Hawley in Human Ecology (1986). For Hawley, the explanatory variables are the makeup of the population, the external environment, the complex of organizations, and technology. Research has revealed that these variables account for differences in the spatial characteristics, rhythm of activities, mobility patterns, and…

  • Hawley, Elizabeth (British historian)

    Oh Eun-Sun: …to accept the judgment of Elizabeth Hawley, long regarded as mountaineering’s unofficial record keeper and historian. After interviewing Oh following her return from climbing Annapurna, Hawley accepted Oh’s version of events on Kanchenjunga while listing the ascent as “disputed.” However, in June 2010 Hawley said it was “unlikely” that Oh…

  • Hawley, Willis (American politician)

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act: …Senate Finance Committee, and Representative Willis Hawley of Oregon, chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. It was the last legislation under which the U.S. Congress set actual tariff rates.

  • Hawley–Smoot Tariff Act (United States [1930])

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression. The act takes its name from its chief sponsors, Senator Reed Smoot of Utah,

  • Ḥawmat al-Sūq (Tunisia)

    Jerba: Ḥawmat al-Sūq is the principal town and chief market centre, and Ajīm is the main port. The population is mostly Amazigh (Berber) in origin; there also remains a portion of the island’s once significant Jewish community, which was one of the oldest in the world.…

  • Hawn, Goldie (American actress and producer)

    Goldie Hawn, American actress and producer who had a long career playing winsome, slightly ditzy women in numerous film comedies. Critics noted the endearing and effervescent quality of her performances, and she became a respected comic actress. Hawn grew up in Maryland and took dance lessons from

  • Hawn, Goldie Jeanne (American actress and producer)

    Goldie Hawn, American actress and producer who had a long career playing winsome, slightly ditzy women in numerous film comedies. Critics noted the endearing and effervescent quality of her performances, and she became a respected comic actress. Hawn grew up in Maryland and took dance lessons from

  • Haworth (England, United Kingdom)

    Haworth, town (parish), Bradford metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It overlooks the River Worth and the adjoining town of Keighley. The parish also encompasses two small communities, Cross Roads and Stanbury. In 1820 the

  • Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury (England, United Kingdom)

    Haworth, town (parish), Bradford metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It overlooks the River Worth and the adjoining town of Keighley. The parish also encompasses two small communities, Cross Roads and Stanbury. In 1820 the

  • Haworth, Jill (British-born actress)

    (Valerie) Jill Haworth, British-born actress (born Aug. 15, 1945, Hove, East Sussex, Eng.—died Jan. 3, 2011, New York, N.Y.), created the role of Sally Bowles in the original Broadway production (1966–69) of the musical Cabaret. Many critics and audience members expressed disappointment that

  • Haworth, Sir Norman (British chemist)

    Sir Norman Haworth, British chemist, cowinner, with the Swiss chemist Paul Karrer, of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining the chemical structures of carbohydrates and vitamin C . Haworth graduated from the University of Manchester in 1906 and received a Ph.D. degree from

  • Haworth, Sir Walter Norman (British chemist)

    Sir Norman Haworth, British chemist, cowinner, with the Swiss chemist Paul Karrer, of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining the chemical structures of carbohydrates and vitamin C . Haworth graduated from the University of Manchester in 1906 and received a Ph.D. degree from

  • Haworth, Sir Walter Norman (British chemist)

    Sir Norman Haworth, British chemist, cowinner, with the Swiss chemist Paul Karrer, of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining the chemical structures of carbohydrates and vitamin C . Haworth graduated from the University of Manchester in 1906 and received a Ph.D. degree from

  • Haworth, Ted (American art director and designer)
  • Haworth, Valerie Jill (British-born actress)

    (Valerie) Jill Haworth, British-born actress (born Aug. 15, 1945, Hove, East Sussex, Eng.—died Jan. 3, 2011, New York, N.Y.), created the role of Sally Bowles in the original Broadway production (1966–69) of the musical Cabaret. Many critics and audience members expressed disappointment that

  • hawr (swamp)

    history of Mesopotamia: The background: …extensive marshes and reed swamps, hawrs, which, probably since early times, have served as an area of refuge for oppressed and displaced peoples. The supply of water is not regular; as a result of the high average temperatures and a very low annual rainfall, the ground of the plain of…

  • Ḥawrān (region, Syria)

    Ḥawrān, region of southwestern Syria extending southeastward from Mount Hermon to the Jordanian frontier. Although rock-strewn and almost completely devoid of trees, the plain has very fertile soil and sufficient rainfall to make it a productive wheat-growing region. Other crops include barley,

  • Hawrani, Akram al- (Syrian politician)

    Akram al-Hawrani, radical politician and populist leader who had a determining influence on the course of Syrian politics in the two decades after World War II. Hawrani’s radical orientation had its roots in direct personal experience rather than in intellectual reflection. He resented the large

  • ḥawrāʾ (Islam)

    Houri, in Islām, a beautiful maiden who awaits the devout Muslim in paradise. The Arabic word ḥawrāʾ signifies the contrast of the clear white of the eye to the blackness of the iris. There are numerous references to the houri in the Qurʾān describing them as “purified wives” and “spotless

  • HAWT (technology)

    wind turbine: Types: …implementation of wind energy systems: horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) and vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs). HAWTs are the most commonly used type, and each turbine possesses two or three blades or a disk containing many blades (multibladed type) attached to each turbine. VAWTs are able to harness wind blowing from any…

  • Hawtah, Al- (Yemen)

    Laḥij, town, southwestern Yemen. Situated on the Wadi Tibban in the coastal plain, some 30 miles (45 km) north of Aden, it is the centre of an agricultural area. Its sparse rainfall occurs chiefly in the winter season. Under the former Aden Protectorate, a British-ruled area, it was capital of the

  • hawthorn (plant)

    Hawthorn, (genus Crataegus), large genus of thorny shrubs or small trees in the rose family (Rosaceae), native to the north temperate zone. Many species are common to North America, and a number of cultivated varieties are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and fruits. The hawthorn

  • Hawthorn Football Club (Australian football team)

    Leigh Matthews: …played 332 games for the Hawthorn (Vic.) Football Club over three decades (1969–85). He distinguished himself by picking up Hawthorn’s Best First Year Player title (1969), earning eight Best and Fairest (top player) Awards (1971–72, 1974, 1976–78, 1980, 1982), scoring 915 goals (a league record for a rover and seventh…

  • Hawthorn Hawks (Australian football team)

    Leigh Matthews: …played 332 games for the Hawthorn (Vic.) Football Club over three decades (1969–85). He distinguished himself by picking up Hawthorn’s Best First Year Player title (1969), earning eight Best and Fairest (top player) Awards (1971–72, 1974, 1976–78, 1980, 1982), scoring 915 goals (a league record for a rover and seventh…

  • Hawthorn, John Michael (British automobile racer)

    John Michael Hawthorn, automobile racer who became the first British world-champion driver (1958). Hawthorn won his first motorcycle race at 18, turned to sports cars at 21, and two years later, driving a Cooper–Bristol, defeated Juan Manuel Fangio at Goodwood. In 1953, driving for Ferrari, he won

  • Hawthorn, Mike (British automobile racer)

    John Michael Hawthorn, automobile racer who became the first British world-champion driver (1958). Hawthorn won his first motorcycle race at 18, turned to sports cars at 21, and two years later, driving a Cooper–Bristol, defeated Juan Manuel Fangio at Goodwood. In 1953, driving for Ferrari, he won

  • Hawthorne effect (socioeconomics)

    Hawthorne research, socioeconomic experiments conducted by Elton Mayo in 1927 among employees of the Hawthorne Works factory of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. For almost a year, a group of female workers were subjected to measured changes in their hours, wages, rest periods,

  • Hawthorne research (socioeconomics)

    Hawthorne research, socioeconomic experiments conducted by Elton Mayo in 1927 among employees of the Hawthorne Works factory of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. For almost a year, a group of female workers were subjected to measured changes in their hours, wages, rest periods,

  • Hawthorne, Nathaniel (American writer)

    Nathaniel Hawthorne, American novelist and short-story writer who was a master of the allegorical and symbolic tale. One of the greatest fiction writers in American literature, he is best known for The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851). Hawthorne’s ancestors had lived

  • Hawthorne, Rose (Roman Catholic nun)

    Mother Alphonsa Lathrop, U.S. author, nun, and founder of the Servants of Relief for Incurable Cancer, a Roman Catholic congregation of nuns affiliated with the Third Order of St. Dominic and dedicated to serving victims of terminal cancer. The daughter of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne, Rose was

  • Hawthorne, Sir Nigel Barnard (British actor)

    Sir Nigel Barnard Hawthorne, British actor, perhaps best known for his portrayal of the cunning, manipulative civil servant Sir Humphrey Appleby in the British television series Yes, Minister (1980–83, 1985–86) and Yes, Prime Minister (1986–87). When Hawthorne was four years old, his family moved

  • Hawtrey, Sir Ralph George (British economist)

    Sir Ralph Hawtrey, British economist who developed a concept that later became known as the multiplier. Hawtrey was educated at Eton and the University of Cambridge, graduating with first-class honours in mathematics in 1901. He spent his working life as a civil servant and played a key role in the

  • Hawwaʾ (Egyptian women’s magazine)

    Amīnah al-Saʿīd: …(1954) and editor (1954–69) of Ḥawwaʾ (“Eve”), the first women’s magazine to be published in Egypt.

  • Haxamanish (Persian ruler of Parsumash)

    Achaemenes, eponymous ancestor of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty; he was the father of Teispes (Chishpish) and an ancestor of Cyrus II the Great and Darius I the Great. Although Achaemenes probably ruled only Parsumash, a vassal state of the kingdom of Media, many scholars believe that he led a

  • Häxan (film by Christensen)

    Benjamin Christensen: …directed the film Häxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages), for which he became famous. In the film he portrayed Satan, the central character in a screenplay that gave a graphic description of the continuum of satanic practices from medieval to modern times. The film, although widely acknowledged for its craftsmanship…

  • Haxby, William F. (geophysicist)

    ocean basin: Exploration of the ocean basins: …measurements of the ocean surface, William F. Haxby computed the gravity field there. The resulting gravity map provides comprehensive coverage of the ocean surface on a 5′-by-5′ grid that depicts five nautical miles on each side at the Equator). Coverage as complete as this is not available from echo soundings…

  • Haxey, Thomas (English statesman)

    United Kingdom: Political struggles and Richard’s deposition: …in Parliament and their author, Thomas Haxey, was adjudged a traitor. Richard’s rule, based on fear rather than consent, became increasingly tyrannical. Three of the Lords Appellant of 1388 were arrested in July and tried in Parliament. The Earl of Arundel was executed and Warwick exiled. Gloucester, whose death was…

  • Hay (New South Wales, Australia)

    Hay, town, south-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the Murrumbidgee River. The settlement originated in 1840 as a coach station known as Lang’s Crossing Place. It was surveyed in 1858 and became a town the following year, named for John Hay, a district parliamentary representative.

  • Hay (people)

    Armenian, member of a people with an ancient culture who originally lived in the region known as Armenia, which comprised what are now northeastern Turkey and the Republic of Armenia. Although some remain in Turkey, more than three million Armenians live in the republic; large numbers also live in

  • hay (animal feed)

    Hay, in agriculture, dried grasses and other foliage used as animal feed. Usually the material is cut in the field while still green and then either dried in the field or mechanically dried by forced hot air. Typical hay crops are timothy, alfalfa, and clover. The protein content of grasses and

  • hay bacillus (bacterium)

    antibiotic: Aztreonam, bacitracin, and vancomycin: …by a special strain of Bacillus subtilis. Because of its severe toxicity to kidney cells, its use is limited to the topical treatment of skin infections caused by Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and for eye and ear infections.

  • hay cuber (agriculture)

    hay: Hay cubers, developed in the mid-1960s, pick up the cut hay from windrows and compress it into cubes that are easily shoveled; they are practical in regions in which the climate permits cut forage to dry to the desired moisture content.

  • Hay Fever (play by Coward)

    Noël Coward: …first of his durable comedies, Hay Fever, opened in London. Coward ended the decade with his most popular musical play, Bitter Sweet (1929).

  • hay fever (pathology)

    Hay fever, seasonally recurrent bouts of sneezing, nasal congestion, and tearing and itching of the eyes caused by allergy to the pollen of certain plants, chiefly those depending upon the wind for cross-fertilization, such as ragweed in North America and timothy grass in Great Britain. In allergic

  • hay mower-conditioner (agriculture)

    hay: The hay mower-conditioner, introduced in the 1960s, has either steel or rubber rolls to split the stems or meshing fluted rolls to crimp the stems, allowing moisture to escape quickly so that leaves and stems dry at nearly the same rate, reducing overall drying time.

  • Hay River (Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Hay River, town, southern Fort Smith region, Northwest Territories, Canada, lying on the southwestern shore of Great Slave Lake at the mouth of the Hay River. The settlement was established in 1868 as a Hudson’s Bay Company trading post. With the arrival of the Mackenzie Highway in 1949 and the

  • hay tower (agriculture)

    farm building: Crop storage: …or in special installations called hay towers. Silage is made to conserve moist fodders, such as corn, sorghum, and grass. There are two types of silos. The horizontal silo is parallel-piped, either cut into the ground (trench silo) or built aboveground (bunker silo). The floor is natural earth or concrete.…

  • Hay Wain (painting by Bosch)

    Hiëronymus Bosch: …panoramic triptychs such as the Haywain, The Temptation of St. Anthony, and The Garden of Earthly Delights. His figures are graceful and his colours subtle and sure, and all is in motion in those ambitious and extremely complex works. The paintings are marked by an eruption of fantasy, expressed in…

  • Hay, Francis (Scottish noble)

    Francis Hay, 9th earl of Erroll, Scottish nobleman, a leader of the militant Roman Catholic party in Scotland. Erroll was converted to Roman Catholicism at an early age and succeeded to the earldom in 1585. Between 1588 and 1597 he and his associates were involved in a series of treasonable

  • Hay, George Dewey (American music promoter)

    Grand Ole Opry: Founded by George Dewey Hay, who had helped organize a similar program, the WLS “National Barn Dance,” in Chicago, the show was originally known as the “WSM Barn Dance,” acquiring its lasting name in 1926. It was largely Hay, called “the Solemn Ol’ Judge,” who determined the…

  • Hay, Harry (American activist)

    Harry Hay, American gay rights activist who believed that homosexuals should see themselves as an oppressed minority entitled to equal rights. He acted on his convictions and in large measure prompted the dramatic changes in the status of homosexuals that took place in the United States in the

  • Hay, Harry, Jr. (American activist)

    Harry Hay, American gay rights activist who believed that homosexuals should see themselves as an oppressed minority entitled to equal rights. He acted on his convictions and in large measure prompted the dramatic changes in the status of homosexuals that took place in the United States in the

  • Hay, John (United States statesman)

    John Hay, U.S. secretary of state (1898–1905) who skillfully guided the diplomacy of his country during the critical period of its emergence as a great power; he is particularly associated with the Open Door policy toward China. Hay studied law in Springfield, Illinois, where he met the future

  • Hay, John Milton (United States statesman)

    John Hay, U.S. secretary of state (1898–1905) who skillfully guided the diplomacy of his country during the critical period of its emergence as a great power; he is particularly associated with the Open Door policy toward China. Hay studied law in Springfield, Illinois, where he met the future

  • Hay, Lucy (English conspirator)

    Lucy Hay, countess of Carlisle, intriguer and conspirator during the English Civil Wars, celebrated by many poets of the day, including Thomas Carew, William Cartwright, Robert Herrick, and Sir John Suckling. The second daughter of Henry Percy, 9th earl of Northumberland, she married James Hay (the

  • Hay, Mesh, String (work by Weiner)

    Lawrence Weiner: He renamed it A Series of Stakes Set in the Ground at Regular Intervals to Form a Rectangle—Twine Strung from Stake to Stake to Demark a Grid—a Rectangle Removed from This Rectangle (1968).

  • Hay, Oliver Perry (American paleontologist)

    Oliver Perry Hay, American paleontologist who did much to unify existing knowledge of North American fossil vertebrates by constructing catalogs that have become standard references. While serving as professor of biology and geology at Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. (1879–92), he helped

  • Hay, Sir Gilbert (Scottish translator)

    Sir Gilbert Hay, Scottish translator of works from the French, whose prose translations are the earliest extant examples of literary Scots prose. Hay may have been the Gylbertus Hay named in the registers of St. Andrews University in 1418 and 1419. That he received a degree as a master of arts,

  • Hay, Timothy (American writer)

    Margaret Wise Brown, prolific American writer of children’s literature whose books, many of them classics, continue to engage generations of children and their parents. Brown attended Hollins College (now Hollins University) in Roanoke, Virginia, where she earned a B.A. in 1932. After further work

  • Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty (United States-Panama [1903])

    Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty, (Nov. 18, 1903), agreement between the United States and Panama granting exclusive canal rights to the United States across the Isthmus of Panama in exchange for financial reimbursement and guarantees of protection to the newly established republic. The United States had

  • Hay–Herrán Treaty (United States-Colombia [1903])

    Bidlack Treaty: …rights, and in 1903 the Hay–Herrán Treaty was concluded between the United States and Colombia. The Colombian senate, however, withheld ratification to secure better terms. Thereupon the U.S. government engineered the secession of Panama from Colombia and then reached an agreement (Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty) with the new Republic of Panama, by…

  • Hay–Pauncefote Treaty (United States-United Kingdom [1900–1901])

    Hay–Pauncefote Treaty, (1900–01), either of two agreements between Britain and the United States, the second of which freed the United States from a previous commitment to accept international control of the Panama Canal. After negotiations between U.S. Secretary of State John Milton Hay and

  • Hay-Wain, The (painting by Constable)

    John Constable: London: …international success in 1824 when The Hay-Wain was shown at the Paris Salon, where he won a gold medal that was awarded by the king. Constable’s output also diversified: Chain Pier, Brighton (1826–27) pictured, among other things, urban modernity. In 1828, Dedham Vale, reprising a scene first painted in his…

  • haya (tree)

    beech: The Mexican beech, or haya (F. mexicana), a timber tree often 40 metres (130 feet) tall, has wedge-shaped leaves. The Oriental beech (F. orientalis), a pyramidal Eurasian tree about 30 metres (about 100 feet) tall, has a grayish white trunk and wavy-margined wedge-shaped leaves up to…

  • Haya (people)

    Haya, East African people who speak a Bantu language (also called Haya) and inhabit the northwestern corner of Tanzania between the Kagera River and Lake Victoria. Two main ethnic elements exist in the population—the pastoral Hima, who are probably descendants of wandering Nilotes, and the more

  • Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl (Peruvian political theorist)

    Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Peruvian political theorist and activist who founded (1924) and led APRA, a political party that became the vehicle for radical dissent in Peru. The son of wealthy parents, Haya de la Torre became a student leader and was deported in 1923 after leading a mass

  • Hayabusa (Japanese train)

    railroad: Japan: The Hayabusa (“Falcon”) train, introduced on the Tohoku line in 2011, is capable of reaching 300 km (185 miles) per hour.

  • Hayabusa (Japanese spacecraft)

    Hayabusa, series of Japanese spacecraft that explored asteroids. The first, Hayabusa, studied the asteroid Itokawa and returned a sample container of dust grains to Earth in 2010. The second, Hayabusa2, arrived at the asteroid Ryugu in June 2018. Hayabusa (“Falcon”) was launched on May 9, 2003,

  • Hayabusa2 (Japanese spacecraft)

    Hayabusa: Hayabusa2: Hayabusa2 launched on December 3, 2014, from Kagoshima to the asteroid Ryugu. The spacecraft had the same basic design as the first Hayabusa. However, instead of one rover, it carried three: the MINERVA-II1 rovers 1A and 1B and MINERVA-II2 rover 2. It also had a…

  • Hayachine, Mount (mountain, Japan)

    Kitakami Mountains: The highest peak, Mount Hayachine, rises to an elevation of 6,280 feet (1,914 metres) in the centre of the range.

  • Hayagrīva (Buddhist god)

    Buddhism: Local gods and demons: …god of wealth; and especially Hayagriva, a fierce horse-faced god who is powerful in driving off unconverted demonic forces. The Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions have also identified local deities as manifestations of various buddhas and bodhisattvas. This process is particularly prominent in Japan, where the identification of buddhas and bodhisattvas…

  • Hayakawa, S. I. (United States senator)

    S.I. Hayakawa, scholar, university president, and U.S. senator from California (1977–83). He is best known for his popular writings on semantics and for his career as president of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University). Hayakawa was educated at the University of Manitoba,

  • Hayakawa, Samuel Ichiyé (United States senator)

    S.I. Hayakawa, scholar, university president, and U.S. senator from California (1977–83). He is best known for his popular writings on semantics and for his career as president of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University). Hayakawa was educated at the University of Manitoba,

  • Hayali Bey (poet)

    Turkish literature: Movements and poets: Hayali Bey, the most influential poet of the first half of the 16th century, was the son of a timar sipahî (feudal cavalryman) from Rumeli, in the Balkans. He began his career with a troupe of wandering dervishes and eventually came under the protection of…

  • Hayam Wuruk (ruler of Majapahit)

    Hayam Wuruk, ruler of the Javan Hindu state of Majapahit at the time of its greatest power. Hayam Wuruk inherited the throne in 1350 at the age of 16, when the great patih (“prime minister”) Gajah Mada was at the height of his career. Under the two leaders, Majapahit extended its power throughout

  • Hayami Masaru (Japanese banker and business executive)

    Hayami Masaru, Japanese banker and business executive who, as governor (1998–2003) of the Bank of Japan (BOJ), introduced striking reforms to the country’s banking system. Hayami graduated from the Tokyo University of Commerce in 1947 and joined the BOJ that year. He remained with the central bank

  • HaYarden (river, Middle East)

    Jordan River, river of southwestern Asia, in the Middle East region. It lies in a structural depression and has the lowest elevation of any river in the world. The river rises on the slopes of Mount Hermon, on the border between Syria and Lebanon, and flows southward through northern Israel to the

  • hayashi (Japanese music)

    Hayashi, in Japanese music, any of various combinations of flute and percussion instruments. In nō and kabuki drama, the hayashi normally consists of a flute plus the hourglass-shaped hand drum (ko-tsuzumi) held on the right shoulder, the larger o-tsuzumi held on the left hip, and the taiko

  • Hayashi Fumiko (Japanese author)

    Hayashi Fumiko, Japanese novelist whose realistic stories deal with urban working-class life. Hayashi lived an unsettled life until 1916, when she went to Onomichi, where she stayed until graduation from high school in 1922. In her lonely childhood she grew to love literature, and when she went out

  • Hayashi Gahō (Japanese scholar)

    Hayashi Razan: Gahō, Hayashi’s third son (also called Harukatsu), became his father’s successor as chief official scholar; and Dokkōsai, Hayashi’s fourth son (also called Morikatsu), was also employed by the shogunate. During their father’s lifetime they collaborated with him in compiling histories; and after his death they…

  • Hayashi Hiromori (Japanese musician)

    Japanese music: Religious and military music: A court musician, Hayashi Hiromori (1831–96), is credited with the melody, which was given its premiere in 1880 and has remained the national anthem since that time. Hayashi first wrote it in traditional gagaku notation, and Eckert “corrected” it with Western harmonization, noting that it fit in both…

  • Hayashi Morikatsu (Japanese scholar)

    Hayashi Razan: …as chief official scholar; and Dokkōsai, Hayashi’s fourth son (also called Morikatsu), was also employed by the shogunate. During their father’s lifetime they collaborated with him in compiling histories; and after his death they assembled the Hayashi Razan bunshū (“Collected Works of Hayashi Razan”) and the Razan Sensei shishū (“Master…

  • Hayashi Nobukatsu (Japanese scholar)

    Hayashi Razan, Japanese scholar who, with his son and grandson, established the thought of the great Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher Chu Hsi as the official doctrine of the Tokugawa shogunate (the hereditary military dictatorship through which the Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 to 1867).

  • Hayashi Razan (Japanese scholar)

    Hayashi Razan, Japanese scholar who, with his son and grandson, established the thought of the great Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher Chu Hsi as the official doctrine of the Tokugawa shogunate (the hereditary military dictatorship through which the Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 to 1867).

  • Hayashi Senjūrō (prime minister of Japan)

    Hayashi Senjūrō, army officer and later prime minister of Japan. Hayashi was a graduate of the Military Academy and Military Staff College and held many responsible posts. In 1931, as commander of Japanese troops in Korea, Hayashi ordered his forces to march into Manchuria, beginning the Japanese

  • Hayashi Shihei (Japanese military strategist)

    Hayashi Shihei, Japanese scholar, a specialist in military affairs, who first drew attention to Japan’s inadequate military and maritime defenses. Hayashi was the son of an official of the shogunate, Japan’s hereditary military dictatorship. After entering the service of the Sendai clan in Mutsu at

  • Hayashi Tadasu, Count (Japanese diplomat)

    Count Hayashi Tadasu, Japanese diplomat who negotiated the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902. Hayashi studied in England, but upon his return home in 1868, at the time of the Meiji Restoration, he joined a short-lived rebellion of diehard Tokugawa loyalists against the new imperial government. He was

  • Hayastan

    Armenia, country of Transcaucasia, lying just south of the great mountain range of the Caucasus and fronting the northwestern extremity of Asia. To the north and east Armenia is bounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan, while its neighbours to the southeast and west are, respectively, Iran and Turkey.

  • Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun

    Armenia, country of Transcaucasia, lying just south of the great mountain range of the Caucasus and fronting the northwestern extremity of Asia. To the north and east Armenia is bounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan, while its neighbours to the southeast and west are, respectively, Iran and Turkey.

  • Ḥayāt al-ḥayawān (encyclopaedia by ad-Damīrī)

    ad-Damīrī: His encyclopaedia, Ḥayāt al-ḥayawān (c. 1371; partial Eng. trans. by A.S.G. Jayakar, A Zoological Lexicon, 2 vol.), is extant in three Arabic versions of different lengths and in Persian, Turkish, and Latin translations. It treats in alphabetical order the 931 animals mentioned in the Qurʾān, in the…

  • Haycraft, Anna Margaret Lindholm (British author and editor)

    Alice Thomas Ellis, (Anna Margaret Lindholm Haycraft), British author and editor (born Sept. 9, 1932, Liverpool, Eng.—died March 8, 2005, London, Eng.), crafted spare, perceptive novels of middle-class domesticity under the pseudonym Alice Thomas Ellis. She also wrote magazine columns, most n

  • haydamak (Ukrainian peasantry)

    Ukraine: Right Bank and western Ukraine until the Partitions of Poland: …by bands of rebels called haydamaks (Turkish: “freebooters” or “marauders”). The most violent, known as the Koliivshchyna, occurred in 1768 and was put down only with the help of Russian troops.

  • Ḥaydar, Shaykh (Ṣafavid leader)

    Shaykh Ḥaydar, one of the founders of the Ṣafavid state (1501–1736) in Iran. Ḥaydar inherited the leadership of the Ṣafavid order, a Shīʿite Muslim movement centred on Ardabīl (now in northwest Iran). He was raised in the city of Amid, but when the Kara Koyunlu empire in western Iran disintegrated

  • Haydarabad (Pakistan)

    Hyderabad, city, south-central Sind province, southeastern Pakistan. It lies on the most northerly hill of the Ganjo Takkar ridge, just east of the Indus River. One of the largest cities in Pakistan, it is a communications centre, connected by rail with Peshawar and Karachi and with Indian railways

  • Haydée, Marcia (Brazilian-born dancer and choreographer)

    Stuttgart Ballet: Marcia Haydée served as director of the company from 1976 to 1996, when she was succeeded by Reid Anderson.

  • Hayden Planetarium (planetarium, New York City, New York, United States)

    Neil deGrasse Tyson: …1994, when he joined the Hayden Planetarium as a staff scientist. His research dealt with problems relating to galactic structure and evolution. He became acting director of the Hayden Planetarium in 1995 and director in 1996. From 1995 to 2005 he wrote monthly essays for Natural History magazine, some of…

  • Hayden’s Ferry (Arizona, United States)

    Tempe, city, Maricopa county, south-central Arizona, U.S. It lies along the Salt River and is a southern suburb of Phoenix. First settled (1872) by Charles Hayden, father of former Arizona senator Carl Hayden, it was called Hayden’s Ferry until renamed in 1880 for the Vale of Tempe, Greece. It is

  • Hayden, Carl T. (American politician)

    Carl T. Hayden, Democratic political leader who served 56 years in both houses of the U.S. Congress (1912–69)—the longest term in the nation’s history to that time. The son of an Arizona pioneer, young Hayden entered the flour-milling business and first became active in public life in the Tempe

  • Hayden, Carl Trumbull (American politician)

    Carl T. Hayden, Democratic political leader who served 56 years in both houses of the U.S. Congress (1912–69)—the longest term in the nation’s history to that time. The son of an Arizona pioneer, young Hayden entered the flour-milling business and first became active in public life in the Tempe

  • Hayden, Carla D. (American librarian)

    Carla D. Hayden, American librarian who, in 2016, became the first woman and the first African American to serve as the Librarian of Congress. She is also known for defending library users’ privacy and for her efforts to ensure widespread access to public libraries and their resources. Hayden

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