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  • Haddington (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Haddington, royal burgh (town), East Lothian council area and historic county, southeastern Scotland, on the left bank of the River Tyne. Lying in the direct route of English invaders from the south, the town, designated a royal burgh in 1130, was burned by forces from across the border in 1216 and

  • Haddingtonshire (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    East Lothian, council area and historic county, southeastern Scotland. It lies on the southern coast of the Firth of Forth east of Edinburgh. Much of East Lothian is an undulating coastal lowland, but it extends inland to include part of the upland moors of the Lammermuir Hills. The council area

  • Haddish, Tiffany (American comedian)

    Tiffany Haddish, American comedian who was known for her unflinching candour and disarming authenticity. She shot to stardom with her no-holds-barred performance as Dina in the raunchy comedy Girls Trip (2017). Haddish’s father, who was Eritrean, left the family when she was still a toddler. After

  • Haddo, Methlick, Tarves, and Kellie, George Hamilton-Gordon, Lord (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of Aberdeen, British foreign secretary and prime minister (1852–55) whose government involved Great Britain in the Crimean War against Russia (1853–56). Orphaned at age 11, George Gordon (who added his deceased first wife’s family name to his own surname in 1818)

  • haddock (fish)

    Haddock, (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), valuable North Atlantic food fish of the cod family, Gadidae, that is often smoked and sold as “finnan haddie.” The haddock is a bottom dweller and a carnivore, feeding on invertebrates and some fishes. It resembles the cod and, like its relative, has a chin

  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (British anthropologist)

    Alfred Cort Haddon, one of the founders of modern British anthropology. Virtually the sole exponent of anthropology at Cambridge for 30 years, it was largely through his work and especially his teaching that the subject assumed its place among the observational sciences. Educated at Christ’s

  • Haddon, Elizabeth (American Quaker)

    Haddonfield: …it was later named by Elizabeth Haddon, an English Quaker girl who settled there about 1701. The story of her romance with a Quaker missionary, John Estaugh, is told by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his Tales of a Wayside Inn (1863). She lived to be 82, and her personal belongings…

  • Haddonfield (borough, New Jersey, United States)

    Haddonfield, borough (town), Camden county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S., a southeastern suburb of Camden. First settled by Francis Collins in 1682, it was later named by Elizabeth Haddon, an English Quaker girl who settled there about 1701. The story of her romance with a Quaker missionary, John

  • Haddu (ancient god)

    Hadad, the Old Testament Rimmon, West Semitic god of storms, thunder, and rain, the consort of the goddess Atargatis. His attributes were identical with those of Adad of the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon. He was the chief baal (“lord”) of the West Semites (including both sedentary and nomadic

  • Hadean Eon (geochronology)

    Hadean Eon, informal division of Precambrian time occurring between about 4.6 billion and about 4.0 billion years ago. The Hadean Eon is characterized by Earth’s initial formation—from the accretion of dust and gases and the frequent collisions of larger planetesimals—and by the stabilization of

  • Hadejia (Nigeria)

    Hadejia, town and traditional emirate, eastern Jigawa state, northern Nigeria. It lies on the northern bank of the Hadejia River (a seasonal tributary of the Komadugu Yobe, which flows into Lake Chad). The emirate’s savanna area originally included Hadejia and six other small Hausa kingdoms that

  • Hadejia River (river, Nigeria)

    Jigawa: It is drained by the Hadejia River, a seasonal stream that flows northeastward through the state. The state’s major crops include peanuts (groundnuts), sorghum, cotton, cowpeas, millet, and the rice grown in the river valley. The herding of cattle, goats, and sheep is widespread. Most of the state’s inhabitants are…

  • Hadeland glass

    glassware: The Scandinavian countries: … glassworks and in Norway the Hadeland glassworks both followed in some respects the example of Swedish glass. At Holmegaard the movement began in the late 1920s with the appointment as art director of Jacob E. Bang, whose designs included an amount of striking engraved work, and was continued in the…

  • Haden, Charles Edward (American musician)

    Charlie Haden, American bass virtuoso and bandleader, known particularly as a pioneer of free jazz in the 1960s. He was among the most influential bassists in the jazz world. From age two Haden sang with his family’s country music band on Midwestern radio and television programs. After graduating

  • Haden, Charlie (American musician)

    Charlie Haden, American bass virtuoso and bandleader, known particularly as a pioneer of free jazz in the 1960s. He was among the most influential bassists in the jazz world. From age two Haden sang with his family’s country music band on Midwestern radio and television programs. After graduating

  • Haden, Sir Francis Seymour (English artist)

    printmaking: Other countries: …centred around two great personalities, Sir Francis Seymour Haden and his brother-in-law, James McNeill Whistler. Haden was a Victorian country gentleman, a surgeon who loved and collected etchings. He started to make prints in his leisure time—and ultimately produced over 200 plates. His etchings, sensitively observed documentations of his environment,…

  • Haderslev (Denmark)

    Haderslev, city, southeastern Jutland, Denmark. It lies along Haderslev Fjord 9 miles (14 km) from the Little Belt (strait). First recorded in 1228 and chartered in 1292, it suffered in the 15th-century wars between Schleswig (Slesvig) and Holstein and passed to Prussia with Schleswig in 1864. It

  • Hades (Greek mythology)

    Hades, in Greek mythology, god of the underworld. Hades was a son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, and brother of the deities Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia. After Cronus was overthrown by his sons, his kingdom was divided among them, and the underworld fell by lot to Hades. There he ruled

  • Hades (Old Testament)

    Hades, in the Greek Old Testament, translation of the Hebrew Sheol, the dwelling place of the dead. See

  • Hades (mythical place)

    hell: Greece and Rome: The house of Hades is a labyrinth of dark, cold, and joyless halls, surrounded by locked gates and guarded by the hellhound Cerberus. Hell’s queen, Persephone, resides there a prisoner. This somber picture is confirmed in Homer’s Odyssey. When Odysseus visits Hades to consult the seer…

  • Hadfield steel (metallurgy)

    steel: Wear-resistant steels: Manganese steels are often called Hadfield steels, after their inventor, Robert Hadfield.

  • Hadfield, Sir Robert Abbott, Baronet (British metallurgist)

    Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield, Baronet, British metallurgist who developed manganese steel, an alloy of exceptional durability that found uses in the construction of railroad rails and rock-crushing machinery. The son of a Sheffield steel manufacturer, Hadfield took an early interest in metallurgy and

  • Hadhoxt Nask (Zoroastrian text)

    Zoroastrianism: Sources: The Hadhoxt Nask (“Section Containing Sayings”) describes the fate of the soul after death. The Khūrda Avesta, or “Small Avesta,” is made up of minor texts.

  • Hadhramaut (region, Yemen)

    Hadhramaut, region in east-central Yemen, on the Gulf of Aden. The region comprises a hilly area near the coast and an inland valley occupied by a seasonal watercourse, the Wadi Ḥaḍramawt, that runs parallel to the coast before turning southeastward to reach the sea. In its lower reaches this

  • Hadhramaut (ancient kingdom, Arabia)

    Ḥaḍramawt, ancient South Arabian kingdom that occupied what are now southern and southeastern Yemen and the present-day Sultanate of Oman (Muscat and Oman). Ḥaḍramawt maintained its political independence until late in the 3rd century ad, when it was conquered by the kingdom of

  • Ḥaḍhramaut, Wadi (river, Yemen)

    Yemen: Relief and drainage: …of the latter is the Wadi Ḥaḍramawt (Hadhramaut Valley), which has been renowned since antiquity for its frankincense trees and which historically has been the locus of a number of sophisticated city-states. Together with their tributaries and lesser neighbours, these intermittently flowing channels slice the highlands and central massif into…

  • Hadi ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Sudanese leader)

    Mahdist: …another branch of the family, Hadi ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. When the latter was killed fighting the leftist revolutionary government of Sudan in 1970, most members of the Mahdī family fled into exile.

  • Hādī, al- (ʿAbbāsid caliph)

    Al-Hādī, fourth caliph of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty (reigned 785–786). Al-Hādī’s persecution of the ʿAlids, representatives of the Shīʿīte sect of Islām, precipitated revolts in Medina, Egypt, and Iraq, all of which were put down brutally. Throughout his short reign, he struggled with the question of

  • Hādī, al- (Zaydī imam)

    history of Arabia: The Zaydīs and ʿAlawīs: …the 9th century; the imam al-Hādī, a theocratic arbiter-ruler of traditional type, founded the ʿAlīd Zaydī dynasty in Ṣaʿdah of northern Yemen. About the mid-12th century a Zaydī imam extended his rule northward to Khaybar and Yanbuʿ (Yenbo) and southward to Zabīd.

  • Hadi, Sayyid Shaykh bin Ahmad, al- (Malaysian writer)

    Sayyid Shaykh bin Ahmad al-Hadi, Malay Islāmic writer and polemicist, journalist, and publisher who made significant contributions to modern Malay nationalism. Taken when young to Pulau Penyengat, Riau (now in Indonesia), Sayyid Shaykh was adopted there by a half brother of the sultan and brought

  • Hadī, ʿAbd Rabbuh Manṣūr (president of Yemen)

    al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula: After Saleh’s resignation, his successor ʿAbd Rabbuh Manṣūr Hadī launched an offensive to retake the area in 2012 with the support of the United States, which also carried out series of air strikes by unmanned drones targeting suspected militants. By mid-2012 Yemeni forces had retaken many of the areas formerly…

  • Hadīboh (Yemen)

    Socotra: …capital and largest town is Hadīboh (Tamrida) on the northern coast.

  • Hadid, Dame Zaha Mohammad (British architect)

    Zaha Hadid, Iraqi-born British architect known for her radical deconstructivist designs. In 2004 she became the first woman to be awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize. Hadid began her studies at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, receiving a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. In 1972 she

  • Hadid, Zaha (British architect)

    Zaha Hadid, Iraqi-born British architect known for her radical deconstructivist designs. In 2004 she became the first woman to be awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize. Hadid began her studies at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, receiving a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. In 1972 she

  • Hadimu (people)

    Zanzibar: Geography: …Bantu-speaking people known as the Hadimu. The northern portion of Zanzibar Island and the adjacent Tumbatu Island have been occupied by another Bantu-speaking people known as the Tumbatu. These two groups represent the earliest arrivals in Zanzibar. Throughout the 19th century, and after, they were expropriated from the western and…

  • Ḥadīqat al-ḥaqīqah wa sharīʿat al-ṭariqah (work by Sanāʾī)

    Sanāʾī: …was translated in English as The Enclosed Garden of Truth (1910).

  • hadīt (Islam)

    Hadith, record of the traditions or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, revered and received as a major source of religious law and moral guidance, second only to the authority of the Qurʾān, the holy book of Islam. It might be defined as the biography of Muhammad perpetuated by the long memory of his

  • Hadith (Islam)

    Hadith, record of the traditions or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, revered and received as a major source of religious law and moral guidance, second only to the authority of the Qurʾān, the holy book of Islam. It might be defined as the biography of Muhammad perpetuated by the long memory of his

  • ḥadīth classification science (Islam)

    ʿilm al-ḥadīth, form of investigation established by Muslim traditionists in the 3rd century ah (9th century ad) to determine the validity of accounts (hadiths) of Muhammad’s statements, actions, and approbations as reported by various authorities. In the first two centuries of Islam, during the

  • Hadiyya (language)

    Cushitic languages: … (some 3 million speakers), and Hadiyya (more than 1 million speakers) in southern Ethiopia; Somali, the official language of Somalia, with about 15 million speakers; and Saho-Afar, two closely related languages, spoken by more than 1 million people in Djibouti and adjacent areas. Agau languages are spoken by a few…

  • hadj (Islam)

    Hajj, in Islam, the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which every adult Muslim must make at least once in his or her lifetime. The hajj is the fifth of the fundamental Muslim practices and institutions known as the Five Pillars of Islam. The pilgrimage rite begins on the 7th day

  • Hadj Omar ibn Saʿīd Tal, el- (Tukulor leader)

    ʿUmar Tal, West African Tukulor leader who, after launching a jihad (holy war) in 1854, established a Muslim realm, the Tukulor empire, between the upper Senegal and Niger rivers (in what is now upper Guinea, eastern Senegal, and western and central Mali). The empire survived until the 1890s under

  • ḥadjdj (Islam)

    Hajj, in Islam, the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which every adult Muslim must make at least once in his or her lifetime. The hajj is the fifth of the fundamental Muslim practices and institutions known as the Five Pillars of Islam. The pilgrimage rite begins on the 7th day

  • Hadjeray (people)

    Chad: Ethnic groups: The Hadjeray (of the Guera Massif) and Abou Telfân are composed of refugee populations who, living on their mountainous terrain, have resisted various invasions. On the plains surrounding the Hadjeray are the Bulala, Kuka, and the Midogo, who are sedentary peoples. In the eastern region of…

  • Hadji-Murad (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Fiction after 1880: …notably the novella Khadji-Murat (1904; Hadji-Murad), a brilliant narrative about the Caucasus reminiscent of Tolstoy’s earliest fiction.

  • Hadjidakis, Manos (Greek composer and songwriter)
  • Hadley cell (meteorology)

    Hadley cell, model of the Earth’s atmospheric circulation that was proposed by George Hadley (1735). It consists of a single wind system in each hemisphere, with westward and equatorward flow near the surface and eastward and poleward flow at higher altitudes. The tropical regions receive more heat

  • Hadley Rille (lunar feature)

    Hadley Rille, valley on the Moon, typical of the class of features known as sinuous rilles, which are believed to be ancient lava flow channels. The feature was a primary site of exploration for the Apollo 15 lunar-landing mission. Named for the 18th-century English inventor John Hadley, the rille

  • Hadley, Arthur T. (British editor)

    Encyclopædia Britannica: Tenth edition: …editors, Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, Arthur T. Hadley, and Hugh Chisholm, 19 departmental editors (including Richard Garnett for biography and Edmund W. Gosse for literature), four associate editors, and two copy editors. One of the associate editors was Franklin H. Hooper, Horace Hooper’s brother, who from his office in New…

  • Hadley, George (British physicist and meteorologist)

    George Hadley, English physicist and meteorologist who first formulated an accurate theory describing the trade winds and the associated meridional (north-south) circulation pattern now known as the Hadley cell. Though educated in law, Hadley preferred physics to legal work. For about seven years

  • Hadley, Henry Kimball (American composer)

    Henry Hadley, one of the most prominent American composers of his day. Hadley studied in Boston and Vienna and in 1904 went to Germany, where in 1909 he conducted his one-act opera Safié. He conducted the Seattle Symphony Orchestra (1909–11), the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra (1911–15), and the

  • Hadley, Hopton (British entrepreneur)

    Bernarr Macfadden: …he collaborated with bicycle entrepreneur Hopton Hadley to market the wall-mounted muscle developer that he had created. With Hadley’s support, Macfadden founded an early muscle magazine, Physical Development (1898), and later an even more successful American version, Physical Culture (1899). Macfadden also toured widely to promote his message of vigorous…

  • Hadley, James (British inventor)

    Thomas Godfrey: Godfrey’s invention was challenged by James Hadley, vice president of the Royal Society in London, who had developed a similar quadrant. In December 1734 Godfrey, with the support of Logan, wrote to the society, claiming recognition as the original inventor, but his claims were not acknowledged.

  • Hadley, Jerry (American opera singer)

    Jerry Hadley, American opera singer (born June 16, 1952, Princeton, Ill.—died July 18, 2007, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.), was acclaimed in the U.S. and Europe for his bold stage presence and superb acting ability as well as for his versatile lyric tenor voice that lent itself to both operatic and musical

  • Hadley, John (British mathematician)

    John Hadley, British mathematician and inventor who improved the reflecting telescope, producing the first such instrument of sufficient accuracy and power to be useful in astronomy. Hadley’s first Newtonian reflector, built in 1721, had a mirror about 6 inches (15 cm) in diameter. The favourable

  • Hadogenes troglodytes (arachnid)

    scorpion: Ecology and habitats: …(“stone-loving”) species such as the South African rock scorpion (Hadogenes troglodytes) are found only on rocks. They possess stout spinelike setae that operate in conjunction with highly curved claws to provide the legs with a strong grip on rock surfaces. They can move rapidly along surfaces at any angle, even…

  • Hadokht Nask (Zoroastrian text)

    Zoroastrianism: Sources: The Hadhoxt Nask (“Section Containing Sayings”) describes the fate of the soul after death. The Khūrda Avesta, or “Small Avesta,” is made up of minor texts.

  • Ḥaḍr, Al- (ancient city, Iraq)

    Hatra, ruined city located in the Al-Jazīrah region of present-day northern Iraq, 180 miles (290 km) northwest of Baghdad and 68 miles (110 km) southwest of Mosul. A religious and trading centre of the Parthian empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries bce. The city survived several

  • Ḥaḍramawt (ancient kingdom, Arabia)

    Ḥaḍramawt, ancient South Arabian kingdom that occupied what are now southern and southeastern Yemen and the present-day Sultanate of Oman (Muscat and Oman). Ḥaḍramawt maintained its political independence until late in the 3rd century ad, when it was conquered by the kingdom of

  • Ḥaḍramawt (region, Yemen)

    Hadhramaut, region in east-central Yemen, on the Gulf of Aden. The region comprises a hilly area near the coast and an inland valley occupied by a seasonal watercourse, the Wadi Ḥaḍramawt, that runs parallel to the coast before turning southeastward to reach the sea. In its lower reaches this

  • Ḥaḍramawt, Wadi (river, Yemen)

    Yemen: Relief and drainage: …of the latter is the Wadi Ḥaḍramawt (Hadhramaut Valley), which has been renowned since antiquity for its frankincense trees and which historically has been the locus of a number of sophisticated city-states. Together with their tributaries and lesser neighbours, these intermittently flowing channels slice the highlands and central massif into…

  • Hadramawtian (language)

    South Arabian languages: Sabaean, Qatabanian, and Ḥaḍramawtian . The earliest Old South Arabian inscriptions, dating from the 8th century bce, are in the Minaean dialect. Sabaean is the dialect of the majority of South Arabic inscriptions; the latest inscriptions are from the 6th century ce. The type of Semitic alphabet in…

  • Hadramite (ancient kingdom, Arabia)

    Ḥaḍramawt, ancient South Arabian kingdom that occupied what are now southern and southeastern Yemen and the present-day Sultanate of Oman (Muscat and Oman). Ḥaḍramawt maintained its political independence until late in the 3rd century ad, when it was conquered by the kingdom of

  • Hadramout (region, Yemen)

    Hadhramaut, region in east-central Yemen, on the Gulf of Aden. The region comprises a hilly area near the coast and an inland valley occupied by a seasonal watercourse, the Wadi Ḥaḍramawt, that runs parallel to the coast before turning southeastward to reach the sea. In its lower reaches this

  • Hadranon (Italy)

    Adrano, town, eastern Sicily, Italy. It lies near the Simeto River on a lava plateau on the western slopes of Mount Etna, northwest of Catania city. It originated as the ancient town of Hadranon, founded about 400 bc by Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, near a sanctuary dedicated to the Siculan god

  • Hadranum (Italy)

    Adrano, town, eastern Sicily, Italy. It lies near the Simeto River on a lava plateau on the western slopes of Mount Etna, northwest of Catania city. It originated as the ancient town of Hadranon, founded about 400 bc by Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, near a sanctuary dedicated to the Siculan god

  • Ḥaḍrat Mīrzā Bashīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd Aḥmad (Muslim leader)

    Aḥmadiyyah: …prophet (nabī) and his son Ḥaḍrat Mīrzā Bashīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd Aḥmad (born 1889) as the second caliph, and the new Lahore society that accepted Ghulām Aḥmad only as a reformer (mujaddid).

  • Hadria (Italy)

    Adria, town and episcopal see in the Veneto regione of northern Italy, on the Bianco Canal just east of Rovigo. Founded by the Etruscans or the Veneti of northeastern Italy, it later became a Roman town and was a flourishing port on the Adriatic Sea (to which it gave its name) until the silting up

  • Hadrian (Roman emperor)

    Hadrian, Roman emperor (117–138 ce), the emperor Trajan’s cousin and successor, who was a cultivated admirer of Greek civilization and who unified and consolidated Rome’s vast empire. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian’s Roman forebears left Picenum in Italy for southern

  • Hadrian I (pope)

    Adrian I, pope from 772 to 795 whose close relationship with the emperor Charlemagne symbolized the medieval ideal of union of church and state in a united Christendom. Having been born an aristocrat and having served Popes Paul I and Stephen III (IV), he was elected pope on February 1 with the

  • Hadrian III (pope)

    Saint Adrian III, ; canonized June 2, 1891; feast day July 8), pope from 884 to 885. Adrian’s brief pontificate came during troubled times. He died en route to the Diet of Worms after being summoned by the Frankish king Charles III the Fat to settle the succession to the empire and discuss the

  • Hadrian IV (pope)

    Adrian IV, the only Englishman to occupy the papal throne (1154–59). He became a canon regular of St. Ruf near Avignon, Fr., and in about 1150 Pope Eugenius III appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano, Italy. Eugenius sent him in 1152 as legate to Scandinavia, where his mission to reorganize the

  • Hadrian the Seventh (novel by Rolfe)

    Frederick William Rolfe: …known for his autobiographical fantasy Hadrian the Seventh. He provides the curious example of an artist rescued from obscurity by his biographer; many years after Rolfe’s death A.J.A. Symons wrote a colourful biographical fantasy, The Quest for Corvo (1934), the publication of which marked the beginning of Rolfe’s fame.

  • Hadrian V (pope)

    Adrian V, pope for about five weeks in 1276. His uncle Pope Innocent IV appointed him cardinal. He was legate to England (1265–68), charged with establishing peace between the English king Henry III and the rebellious barons in 1265. Elected as successor to Innocent V on July 11, he died a little

  • Hadrian VI (pope)

    Adrian VI, the only Dutch pope, elected in 1522. He was the last non-Italian pope until the election of John Paul II in 1978. He studied at the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain), where he was ordained priest and became, successively, professor of theology, chancellor, and rector. The great

  • Hadrian’s Villa (villa, Tivoli, Italy)

    Hadrian’s Villa, country residence built (c. 125–134 ce) at Tivoli near Rome by the emperor Hadrian. This villa is considered the epitome in architecture of the opulence and elegance of the Roman world. Covering approximately 7 square miles (18 square km), the complex was more an imperial garden

  • Hadrian’s Wall (Roman wall, England, United Kingdom)

    Hadrian’s Wall, continuous Roman defensive barrier that guarded the northwestern frontier of the province of Britain from barbarian invaders. The wall extended from coast to coast across the width of northern Britain; it ran for 73 miles (118 km) from Wallsend (Segedunum) on the River Tyne in the

  • Hadrianeum (mausoleum, Rome, Italy)

    Castel Sant’Angelo, structure in Rome, Italy, that was originally the mausoleum of the Roman emperor Hadrian and became the burial place of the Antonine emperors until Caracalla. It was built in ad 135–139 and converted into a fortress in the 5th century. It stands on the right bank of the Tiber

  • Hadrianople (Turkey)

    Edirne, city, extreme western Turkey. It lies at the junction of the Tunca and Maritsa (Turkish: Meriç) rivers, near the borders of Greece and Bulgaria. The largest and oldest part of the town occupies a meander of the Tunca around the ruins of an ancient citadel. Edirne’s site and turbulent

  • Hadrianopolis, Battle of (Roman history [378])

    Battle of Adrianople, Adrianople also spelled Hadrianopolis, (Aug. 9, ad 378), battle fought at present Edirne, in European Turkey, resulting in the defeat of a Roman army commanded by the emperor Valens at the hands of the Germanic Visigoths led by Fritigern and augmented by Ostrogothic and other

  • hadron (physics)

    Hadron, any member of a class of subatomic particles that are built from quarks and thus react through the agency of the strong force. The hadrons embrace mesons, baryons (e.g., protons, neutrons, and sigma particles), and their many resonances. All observed subatomic particles are hadrons except

  • Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (particle accelerator)

    DESY: …the laboratory’s newest facility, the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA), which was completed in 1992. HERA is the only particle accelerator capable of bringing about collisions between beams of electrons or positrons and beams of protons. HERA consists of two rings in a single tunnel with a circumference of 6.3 km…

  • hadrosaur (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: Ornithopoda: …reached a pinnacle in the hadrosaurs, or duck-billed ornithopods. In this group a very prominent, robust projection jutted from the back of the stout lower jaw. Large chambers housing muscles were present above this process and beneath certain openings in the skull (the lateral and upper temporal fenestrae). These chambers…

  • Hadrosauridae (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: Ornithopoda: …reached a pinnacle in the hadrosaurs, or duck-billed ornithopods. In this group a very prominent, robust projection jutted from the back of the stout lower jaw. Large chambers housing muscles were present above this process and beneath certain openings in the skull (the lateral and upper temporal fenestrae). These chambers…

  • Hadrosaurus foulkii (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: American hunting expeditions: …in 1858, which he named Hadrosaurus foulkii. Leidy’s inference that this animal was probably amphibious influenced views of dinosaur life for the next century.

  • Hadrumetum (ancient city, Tunisia)

    Hadrumetum, ancient Phoenician colony some 100 miles (160 km) south of Carthage, on the east coast of the Al-Hammāmāt Gulf in what is now Tunisia. Hadrumetum was one of the most important communities within the Carthaginian territory in northern Africa because of its location on the sea at the edge

  • Ḥāḍur Shuʿayb (mountain, Yemen)

    Arabia: Land: The peninsula’s highest peak, Al-Nabī Shuʿayb, at 12,008 feet (3,660 metres), is located approximately 20 miles northwest of Sanaa in Yemen.

  • Hadyach, Treaty of (1658, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: The Ruin: …in 1658 concluded the new Treaty of Hadyach with Poland. By its terms, central Ukraine (attempts to include Volhynia and Galicia were unsuccessful) was to constitute—under the hetman and a ruling elite of nobles and officers—the self-governing grand duchy of Rus, joined with Poland and Lithuania as an equal member…

  • Hadza (people)

    African architecture: Nomads and pastoralists: Other hunter-gatherers, such as the Hadza of Tanzania, live in dry savanna territory, which contains a wide range of game animals. Their domed dwellings of tied branches are given a thick thatch in winter. Some forest dwellers, such as the Bambuti of the Ituri Forest in eastern Democratic Republic of…

  • Hadza language

    Khoisan languages: Overview: Hadza (Hatsa), one of the East African Khoisan languages, is a remarkable exception to this, having retained its vitality through a pattern of stable bilingualism with Swahili, the dominant Bantu language in the area. Elsewhere many bilingual Khoisan speakers have tended to shift rapidly to…

  • Hadziacz Agreement (1658, Ukraine)

    Poland: John II Casimir Vasa: In Ukraine the Hadziacz agreement of 1658 with Khmelnytsky’s successor provided for the creation of a Ukrainian state as a third member of the Commonwealth with its own offices and army, as well as mass ennoblements of Cossacks and the suspension of the Union of Brest-Litovsk. The accord…

  • Haeberlin, Paul (French chef)

    Paul Haeberlin, French chef and restaurateur (born 1923, Illhaeusern, France—died May 10, 2008, Illhaeusern), transformed his family’s inn in the Alsatian town of Illhaeusern into a Michelin three-star restaurant. L’Arbre Vert was established in 1878 by Haeberlin’s grandparents but was destroyed

  • haeccitas (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: John Duns Scotus: …“individual difference,” or “thisness” (haecceitas). It is an original development of the earlier medieval realism of universals.

  • Haeckel, Ernst (German embryologist)

    Ernst Haeckel, German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. He declared that ontogeny (the embryology and development of the individual) briefly, and sometimes necessarily incompletely,

  • Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August (German embryologist)

    Ernst Haeckel, German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. He declared that ontogeny (the embryology and development of the individual) briefly, and sometimes necessarily incompletely,

  • Haedo Hills (hills, Uruguay)

    Haedo Range, range of hills, north-central Uruguay. With the Grande Range (Cuchilla Grande) to the east, it defines the basin of the Negro River, Uruguay’s major river. The range extends southward from a rugged highland area near the Brazilian border for approximately 125 miles (200 km) and t

  • Haedo Range (hills, Uruguay)

    Haedo Range, range of hills, north-central Uruguay. With the Grande Range (Cuchilla Grande) to the east, it defines the basin of the Negro River, Uruguay’s major river. The range extends southward from a rugged highland area near the Brazilian border for approximately 125 miles (200 km) and t

  • Haedo Ridge (hills, Uruguay)

    Haedo Range, range of hills, north-central Uruguay. With the Grande Range (Cuchilla Grande) to the east, it defines the basin of the Negro River, Uruguay’s major river. The range extends southward from a rugged highland area near the Brazilian border for approximately 125 miles (200 km) and t

  • Haedong kayo (Korean poetry collection)

    Korean literature: Later Chosŏn: 1598–1894: …of which include Kim Su-Jang’s Haedong kayo (“Songs of Korea”) and An Min-Yŏng’s Kagok wŏllyu (“Anthology of Korean Songs”) as well as Kim Ch’ŏng-T’aek’s Ch’ŏnggu yŏngŏn (“Songs of Green Hills”)—contained poems that had previously been transmitted only orally as well as songs that had in the past been recorded in…

  • Haefliger, Ernst (Swiss singer)

    Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (born July 6, 1919 , Davos, Switz.—died March 17, 2007 , Davos), was a noted interpreter of Mozart operas, German lieder, and the oratorios, masses, and cantatas of J.S. Bach. Haefliger made his debut in 1942 as the Evangelist in Bach’s Passion According to St. John,

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