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  • harvest mite (arachnid)

    Chigger, (suborder Prostigmata), the larva of any of approximately 10,000 species of mites in the invertebrate subclass Acari (the mites and ticks). The name is also erroneously applied to an insect better known as the chigoe, jigger, or jigger flea. Chiggers range in length from 0.1 to 16 mm

  • Harvest Moon (album by Young)

    Neil Young: Harvest, Rust Never Sleeps, and Harvest Moon: …Young again reversed direction, releasing Harvest Moon, a plaintive, mostly acoustic sequel to Harvest that became his biggest seller since the 1970s. His next significant album, Sleeps with Angels (1994), was a meditation on death that mixed ballads with more-typical Crazy Horse-backed rockers. In 1995 Young was inducted into the…

  • harvest moon (full moon)

    Harvest moon, the full moon nearest the autumnal equinox (about September 23). Near the time of the autumnal equinox, the angle of the moon’s orbit relative to the Earth’s horizon is at its minimum, causing the full moon to rise above the horizon much faster than usual. Since the difference of the

  • Harvest Moon Festival (Korean holiday)

    Ch’usŏk, Korean holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month to commemorate the fall harvest and to honour one’s ancestors. Similar to Thanksgiving Day in the United States, the Harvest Moon Festival, as it is also known, is one of the most popular holidays in Korea. The day begins

  • harvest mouse (rodent)

    Harvest mouse, either of two genera of small mice: the American harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys) or the Old World harvest mouse (Micromys). The 20 species of American harvest mice are widespread, being found from southern Canada to northern South America at elevations ranging from below sea level to

  • Harvest of Death, A (photograph by O’Sullivan)

    Timothy O'Sullivan: In works such as A Harvest of Death (1863), which shows the Confederate dead at Gettysburg, O’Sullivan moved beyond traditional war images, which usually portrayed armies at rest, to capture instead the grim and gruesome realities of armed warfare.

  • Harvest of Shame (American television program)

    Television in the United States: The Kennedy-Nixon debates: …was the chief correspondent on Harvest of Shame, a CBS Reports documentary about the plight of migrant farm labourers. Beautifully photographed, powerfully argued, and strongly supporting federal legislation to protect migrant workers, Harvest of Shame illustrated how effectively the journalistic essay could work on television.

  • Harvest Wagon, The (painting by Gainsborough)

    Thomas Gainsborough: Bath period: …Rubens is also apparent in The Harvest Wagon in the fluency of the drawing and the scale of the great beech trees so different from the stubby oaks of Suffolk. The idyllic scene is a perfect blend of the real and the ideal. The group in the cart is based…

  • harvester (butterfly)

    Harvester, (subfamily Miletinae), any of a group of predatory insects in the gossamer-winged butterfly family, Lycaenidae (order Lepidoptera), that are rapid fliers and are distinguished by iridescent wings that are usually brownish above and spotted below. The male’s forelegs are reduced, but the

  • harvester (agriculture)

    Harvester, in farming, any of several machines for harvesting; the design and function of harvesters varies widely according to crop. See binder; combine; corn harvester; cotton harvester; header; reaper; thresher; windrower. See also entries for particular crops (e.g., hay, for hay-cutting

  • harvester ant (insect)

    Harvester ant, any of several different genera of ants (e.g., Messor, Atta, Pheidole, Pogonomyrmex) that gather seeds and leaves. Messor species collect, husk, and store seeds in their nests. Atta species collect leaves and use them to grow fungi, which they eat. Some Pheidole members have large

  • Harvester case (Australian law)

    organized labour: Compulsory arbitration and union growth in Australasia: …Arbitration Court’s judgment in the Harvester case. This ruling held that a living wage was a first charge upon industry, and it set a basic wage for unskilled labour at a level substantially higher than existing rates—an approach to wage determination that unions could certainly live with. Within both countries,…

  • harvester’s lung (pathology)

    Farmer’s lung, a pulmonary disorder that results from the development of hypersensitivity to inhaled dust from moldy hay or other fodder. In the acute form, symptoms include a sudden onset of breathlessness, fever, a rapid heartbeat, cough (especially in the morning), copious production of phlegm,

  • Harvesters, The (painting by Bruegel)

    Western painting: Low Countries: His “Harvesters” (1565; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) displays a remarkable sensitivity to colour and pattern. The intense golden yellow of the ripe wheat sets up a bold pattern across the lower half of the picture and contrasts with the cool greens and blues…

  • Harvesters, The (work by Pavese)

    Cesare Pavese: …initial novella, Paesi tuoi (1941; The Harvesters, 1961), recalled, as many of his works do, the sacred places of childhood. Between 1943 and 1945 he lived with partisans of the anti-Fascist Resistance in the hills of Piedmont.

  • harvesting (agriculture)

    cocoa: Harvesting: Harvesting of cocoa beans can proceed all year, but the bulk of the crop is gathered in two flush periods occurring from October to February and from May to August. The ripe seed pods are cut from the trees and split open with machetes.…

  • harvestman (arachnid)

    Daddy longlegs, (order Opiliones), any of more than 6,000 species of arachnids (class Arachnida) that are known for their extremely long and thin legs and for their compact bodies. Daddy longlegs are closely related to scorpions (order Scorpiones) but, because of their appearance, are often

  • Harvey (film by Koster [1950])

    Harvey, American comedy film, released in 1950, that is based on Mary Chase’s Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name about a man’s unusual friendship. James Stewart portrayed Elwood P. Dowd, an amiable fellow with a fondness for drink who travels everywhere with his best friend—a giant rabbit

  • Harvey (play by Chase)

    Harvey: on Mary Chase’s Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name about a man’s unusual friendship.

  • Harvey Girls, The (film by Sidney [1946])

    George Sidney: Bathing Beauty and Anchors Aweigh: …given the prestigious assignment of The Harvey Girls (1946), a musical set in the Old West, with Garland as a mail-order bride who leaves her husband and begins working in a restaurant; the strong supporting cast included Ray Bolger, Angela Lansbury, and John Hodiak. Sidney followed that hit with Holiday…

  • Harvey House (American restaurant chain)

    Fred Harvey: …Fe Railroad, each called the Harvey House and often staffed by “Harvey Girls.”

  • Harvey Mudd College (college, Claremont, California, United States)

    Claremont Colleges: Harvey Mudd College, and Pitzer College) and two graduate schools (Claremont Graduate University and the Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences). The campuses are adjacent to one another, and many facilities are shared, including the consortium’s main library, the Honnold/Mudd Library, which houses nearly…

  • Harvey, Anne (American poet)

    Anne Sexton, American poet whose work is noted for its confessional intensity. Anne Harvey attended Garland Junior College for a year before her marriage in 1948 to Alfred M. Sexton II. She studied with the poet Robert Lowell at Boston University and also worked as a model and a librarian. Although

  • Harvey, Anthony (British director)

    The Lion in Winter: The film marked director Anthony Harvey’s first major feature film, though he had previously worked as an editor on several Stanley Kubrick classics. Composer John Barry won an Oscar for his innovative score.

  • Harvey, Broderick Steven (American comedian, actor, and talk show host)

    Steve Harvey, American comedian, actor, author, and television and radio personality who first gained fame for his observational humour and later became known for his self-help advice, especially about relationships. Harvey grew up with his parents and elder siblings in Cleveland. He attended Kent

  • Harvey, David (American sociologist)

    geography: Influence of the social sciences: …the first, geographers led by David Harvey (who was Cambridge-trained but worked largely in the United States) explored Marxist thinking. This involved not only the workings of the economy—to which they added an important spatial dimension—but also the class conflict underpinning Marxian analyses and the consequent unequal distribution of power.…

  • Harvey, Edmund Newton (American zoologist)

    Edmund Newton Harvey, U.S. zoologist and physiologist whose work in marine biology contributed to the early study of bioluminescence. From 1911 until his retirement in 1956 he taught at Princeton University, becoming H.F. Osborn professor of biology in 1933. His research, primarily in cellular

  • Harvey, Fred (American restaurateur)

    Fred Harvey, American restaurateur, who operated a chain of restaurants along the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, each called the Harvey House and often staffed by “Harvey Girls.” Harvey emigrated from Liverpool, Eng., to New York City in 1850 and began working in restaurants there and in

  • Harvey, Frederick Henry (American restaurateur)

    Fred Harvey, American restaurateur, who operated a chain of restaurants along the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, each called the Harvey House and often staffed by “Harvey Girls.” Harvey emigrated from Liverpool, Eng., to New York City in 1850 and began working in restaurants there and in

  • Harvey, Gabriel (English writer)

    Gabriel Harvey, English writer and friend of the Elizabethan poet Edmund Spenser; the latter celebrated their friendship in The Shepheardes Calender (1579) through the characters of Hobbinol (Harvey) and Colin Clout (Spenser). Harvey was also noted for his tenacious participation in literary feuds.

  • Harvey, Hayward A. (American inventor)

    Hayward A. Harvey, versatile American inventor who discovered the modern method of strengthening armour plating. Harvey began his career as a draftsman in the New York Screw Company, of which his father was president. After a series of engineering jobs he founded (c. 1865) the Continental Screw

  • Harvey, Hayward Augustus (American inventor)

    Hayward A. Harvey, versatile American inventor who discovered the modern method of strengthening armour plating. Harvey began his career as a draftsman in the New York Screw Company, of which his father was president. After a series of engineering jobs he founded (c. 1865) the Continental Screw

  • Harvey, Hurricane (storm [2017])

    Houston: History: Hurricane Harvey, the strongest storm to make landfall in the United States in more than a decade, drenched the Houston area in August 2017. The city received more than 16 inches (over 400 mm) of rain in a 24-hour period, and catastrophic flooding claimed several…

  • Harvey, Jack (Scottish author)

    Ian Rankin, Scottish best-selling crime novelist, creator of the Inspector Rebus series. (For Rankin’s reflections on the Scottish capital, see Edinburgh: A City of Stories.) Rankin grew up in a small coal-mining town, where at a young age he displayed a talent for writing poetry. He studied

  • Harvey, Jean-Charles (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: In fiction Jean-Charles Harvey attacked bourgeois ideology in Les Demi-Civilisés (1934; “The Half-Civilized”; Eng. trans. Sackcloth for Banner and Fear’s Folly), which was condemned by the Roman Catholic Church, resulting in Harvey’s being fired from his job at the journal Le Soleil. Three years later Félix-Antoine Savard’s…

  • Harvey, Laurence (Lithuanian-British actor)

    The Alamo: William Travis (Laurence Harvey), a courageous but overly strict officer whose methods clash with those of the folksy Crockett and his fellow legendary frontiersman Jim Bowie (Richard Widmark). Travis hopes to hold the Alamo long enough for Sam Houston (Richard Boone) to send additional troops. When word…

  • Harvey, Neil (Australian athlete)

    Neil Harvey, Australian cricketer who was noted as an outstanding left-handed batsman. Harvey first gained recognition in 1948 as the youngest member of the Australian team against India at Melbourne. From 1948 until 1963 he played in more Test (international) matches (79) than any other

  • Harvey, Paul (American broadcaster)

    Paul Harvey, American radio commentator and news columnist noted for his firm staccato delivery and his conservative but individualistic opinions on current events. He enjoyed an almost unparalleled longevity as a national broadcaster. Harvey was descended from five generations of Baptist

  • Harvey, PJ (British singer-songwriter and guitarist)

    PJ Harvey, British singer-songwriter and guitarist whose mythically pitched, fanatically intense recordings and concerts set new standards for women in rock. Harvey, born to countercultural parents in rural England, seems to have grown up with a sense of rock as simply another elemental force

  • Harvey, Polly Jean (British singer-songwriter and guitarist)

    PJ Harvey, British singer-songwriter and guitarist whose mythically pitched, fanatically intense recordings and concerts set new standards for women in rock. Harvey, born to countercultural parents in rural England, seems to have grown up with a sense of rock as simply another elemental force

  • Harvey, Robert Neil (Australian athlete)

    Neil Harvey, Australian cricketer who was noted as an outstanding left-handed batsman. Harvey first gained recognition in 1948 as the youngest member of the Australian team against India at Melbourne. From 1948 until 1963 he played in more Test (international) matches (79) than any other

  • Harvey, Sir John Martin (British actor and producer)

    Sir John Martin Harvey, English actor, producer, and theatre manager. The son of a yacht builder, Harvey originally planned for a career in naval architecture but decided instead to study theatre with the actor John Ryder. He made his first public appearance in London in 1881. A year later he

  • Harvey, Steve (American comedian, actor, and talk show host)

    Steve Harvey, American comedian, actor, author, and television and radio personality who first gained fame for his observational humour and later became known for his self-help advice, especially about relationships. Harvey grew up with his parents and elder siblings in Cleveland. He attended Kent

  • Harvey, William (English physician)

    William Harvey, English physician who was the first to recognize the full circulation of the blood in the human body and to provide experiments and arguments to support this idea. Harvey had seven brothers and two sisters, and his father, Thomas Harvey, was a farmer and landowner. Harvey attended

  • Harvey-Jones, Sir John Henry (British businessman)

    Sir John Henry Harvey-Jones, British businessman (born April 16, 1924, London, Eng.—died Jan. 10, 2008, Hereford, Eng.), as chairman and CEO (1982–87) of Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), combined an ebullient personality, sharp business acumen, and willingness to make tough, often unpopular,

  • Harwell, Ernie (American sports broadcaster)

    Ernie Harwell, (William Earnest Harwell), American sports broadcaster (born Jan. 25, 1918, Washington, Ga.—died May 4, 2010, Novi, Mich.), was the announcer for a number of Major League Baseball teams—including the Brooklyn Dodgers, the Baltimore Orioles, the New York Giants, and the California

  • Harwell, William Earnest (American sports broadcaster)

    Ernie Harwell, (William Earnest Harwell), American sports broadcaster (born Jan. 25, 1918, Washington, Ga.—died May 4, 2010, Novi, Mich.), was the announcer for a number of Major League Baseball teams—including the Brooklyn Dodgers, the Baltimore Orioles, the New York Giants, and the California

  • Harwich (England, United Kingdom)

    Harwich, town (parish) and seaport, Tendring district, administrative and historic county of Essex, eastern England. It occupies the tip of a small peninsula projecting into the estuary of the Rivers Stour and Orwell opposite Felixstowe in Suffolk. In 885 ce Alfred the Great defeated Danish ships

  • Harwich (Massachusetts, United States)

    Harwich, town (township), Barnstable county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on the southern coast of Cape Cod. Named for Harwich, England, it was settled about 1655 and incorporated in 1694. Once a whaling and shipbuilding centre, its economy is now based largely on cranberry cultivation

  • Harwood, Gwen (Australian author)

    Australian literature: Literature from 1940 to 1970: Gwen Harwood developed a thoughtful kind of poetry, varied at times by clever, satiric verses, as in her Collected Poems (1991).

  • Harwood, Richard Lee (American journalist)

    Richard Lee Harwood, American journalist (born March 29, 1925, Chilton, Wis.—died March 19, 2001, Bethesda, Md.), was a top editor at the Washington Post. After working for newspapers in Tennessee and Kentucky, Harwood joined the Post as a reporter in 1966. He was appointed the newspaper’s n

  • Harwood, Ronald (British writer and producer)
  • Háry János (work by Kodály)

    opera: Czechoslovakia and other eastern European countries: …tunes and some spoken passages) Háry János, by Zoltán Kodály (1926), both of which have become more familiar in concert performance or excerpts than in staged productions.

  • Haryana (state, India)

    Haryana, state in north-central India. It is bounded on the northwest by the state of Punjab and the union territory of Chandigarh, on the north and northeast by the states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, on the east by the state of Uttar Pradesh and the union territory of Delhi, and on the

  • Haryana Lok Dal (Rashtriya) (political party, India)

    Indian National Lok Dal (INLD), regional political party of Haryana state, northwest-central India. The party’s focus has been principally in the state, and it has had only a limited presence on the national political scene in New Delhi. Its power base has been principally in the traditional Jat

  • Harz (mountains, Germany)

    Harz, most northerly mountain range in Germany, between the Weser and Elbe rivers, occupying parts of the German Länder (states) of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. At its greatest length it extends southeasterly and northwesterly for 60 miles (100 km), and its maximum breadth is about 20 miles (32

  • Harz Journey, The (work by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Early works: “Die Harzreise” (“The Harz Journey”) became the first piece of what were to be four volumes of Reisebilder (1826–31; Pictures of Travel); the whimsical amalgam of its fact and fiction, autobiography, social criticism, and literary polemic was widely imitated by other writers in subsequent years. Some of…

  • Harzburg Front (German political union)

    Alfred Hugenberg: …Hugenberg in 1931 formed the Harzburg Front, an alliance between nationalist, conservative elements and Hitler, to attempt to topple the government of Heinrich Brüning. He proved unable to manipulate the Nazis for his own ends, but the large contributions from German industrialists that flowed, after the Harzburg agreement, into Hitler’s…

  • Harzreise, Die (work by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Early works: “Die Harzreise” (“The Harz Journey”) became the first piece of what were to be four volumes of Reisebilder (1826–31; Pictures of Travel); the whimsical amalgam of its fact and fiction, autobiography, social criticism, and literary polemic was widely imitated by other writers in subsequent years. Some of…

  • Has, Wojciech Jerzy (Polish director)

    Wojciech Jerzy Has, Polish filmmaker (born April 1, 1925, Krakow, Pol.—died Oct. 3, 2000, Lodz, Pol.), won an international following with his surrealist epic The Saragossa Manuscript (1964). After graduating from the Krakow Film Institute in 1946, Has spent 10 years as a documentary filmmaker b

  • Hasa, Al- (oasis, Saudi Arabia)

    Al-Hasa: The Al-Hasa region derives its name from the oasis at its centre. The region is bounded on the north by Kuwait, on the east by the Persian Gulf, on the south by the desert Rubʿ al-Khali, or Empty Quarter, and on the west by the Dahnā…

  • Hasa, Al- (region, Saudi Arabia)

    Al-Hasa, oasis and region in eastern Saudi Arabia. Al-Hasa oasis, the largest oasis in Saudi Arabia, lies about 40 miles (65 km) west of the Persian Gulf. It has about 30,000 acres (12,000 hectares) of palm groves and other crops that are irrigated by the flow of 60 or more artesian springs. Many

  • Ḥasakah, Al- (Syria)

    Al-Ḥasakah, town, northeastern Syria. The town lies on the banks of the Khābūr River (a tributary of the Euphrates) at its confluence with the Jaghjaghah. Under the Ottoman Empire it lost its importance, but it revived with the settlement there of Assyrian refugees from Iraq during the French

  • Hasakeh, Al- (Syria)

    Al-Ḥasakah, town, northeastern Syria. The town lies on the banks of the Khābūr River (a tributary of the Euphrates) at its confluence with the Jaghjaghah. Under the Ottoman Empire it lost its importance, but it revived with the settlement there of Assyrian refugees from Iraq during the French

  • Ḥasan (Būyid ruler)

    Būyid Dynasty: …seized Isfahan and Fārs, while Ḥasan and Aḥmad took Jibāl, Khūzestān, and Kermān (935–936). In December 945 Aḥmad occupied the ʿAbbāsid capital of Baghdad as amīr al-umarāʾ (commander in chief) and, reducing the Sunnī caliphs to puppet status, established Būyid rule (January 946). Thereafter the brothers were known by their…

  • Ḥasan (grandson of Muḥammad)

    Ḥasan, a grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), the elder son of Muhammad’s daughter Fāṭimah. He belongs to the group of the five most holy persons of Shīʿah, those over whom Muhammad spread his cloak while calling them “The People of the House.” After his father, ʿAlī, he was

  • Hasan Abdal (Pakistan)

    Hasan Abdal, town, northern Pakistan. The town is a textile and communications centre that is connected by the Grand Trunk Road and by rail with Peshawar and Rawalpindi. It has government colleges affiliated with the University of the Punjab. The Buddhist site of Hasan Abdal, just east of the town,

  • Ḥasan ad-Dīn (king of Macassar)

    Islamic world: Indian Ocean Islam: …century, when its greatest monarch, Ḥasan al-Dīn (ruled 1631–70), was forced to cede his independence. Meanwhile, however, a serious Islamic presence was developing in Java, inland as well as on the coasts; by the early 17th century the first inland Muslim state in Southeast Asia, Mataram, was established. There Sufi…

  • Ḥasan al-Bannāʾ (Egyptian religious leader)

    Ḥasan al-Bannāʾ, Egyptian political and religious leader who established a new religious society, the Muslim Brotherhood, and played a central role in Egyptian political and social affairs. At age 12 Ḥasan al-Bannāʾ joined the Society for Moral Behaviour, thus demonstrating at an early age the deep

  • Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, al- (Muslim scholar)

    Al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, deeply pious and ascetic Muslim who was one of the most important religious figures in early Islam. Ḥasan was born nine years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. One year after the Battle of Ṣiffīn (657), he moved to Basra, a military camp town situated 50 miles (80 km)

  • Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī (Shiʿi imam)

    Shiʿi: Twelver (Ithnā ʿAshariyyah): …down to the 11th imam, Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī. All of these imams were persecuted by the Sunni ʿAbbāsid rulers. At the death of each, the community fragmented into different groups, following different sons or other relatives from the Ḥasanid or Ḥusaynid line. After the death of the 11th imam, the Shiʿah…

  • Ḥasan Bughra Khān (Turkic ruler)

    Qarakhanid Dynasty: …999 Hārūn (or Ḥasan) Bughra Khān, grandson of the paramount tribal chief of the Qarluq confederation, occupied Bukhara, the Sāmānid capital. The Sāmānid domains were split up between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorāsān and Afghanistan, and the Qarakhanids, who received Transoxania; the Oxus River thus became the boundary between the…

  • Ḥasan Buzurg (Mongol leader)

    Jalāyirid: Ḥasan Buzurg, founder of the dynasty, had served as governor of Anatolia (Rūm) under the Il-Khan Abū Saʿīd (reigned 1317–35). Following the death of Abū Saʿīd, Ḥasan Buzurg competed for real control of the empire with his rival, the Chūpānid amīr Ḥasan Küčük (“the Small,”…

  • Ḥasan Gaṅgū (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: The Bahmani sultanate: …the throne of Daulatabad as ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Bahman Shah in 1347 and soon moved his capital to the more centrally located Gulbarga on the Deccan plateau. Much of the political and military history of the Bahmanī sultanate can be described as a generally effective attempt to gain control of the…

  • Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad al-Wazzān al-Zayyātī, al- (Islamic scholar)

    Leo Africanus, traveler whose writings remained for some 400 years one of Europe’s principal sources of information about Islam. Educated at Fès, in Morocco, Leo Africanus traveled widely as a young man on commercial and diplomatic missions through North Africa and may also have visited the city of

  • Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (grandson of Muḥammad)

    Ḥasan, a grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), the elder son of Muhammad’s daughter Fāṭimah. He belongs to the group of the five most holy persons of Shīʿah, those over whom Muhammad spread his cloak while calling them “The People of the House.” After his father, ʿAlī, he was

  • Ḥasan Küčük (Mongol Chūpānid leader)

    Jalāyirid: …his rival, the Chūpānid amīr Ḥasan Küčük (“the Small,” so designated to distinguish him from Ḥasan Buzurg, “the Great”); they set up rival khanates. Soon afterward the empire broke down into local dynasties in Anatolia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.

  • Ḥasan madrasah (building, Cairo, Egypt)

    Islamic arts: Architecture: …the justly celebrated madrasah of Sultan Ḥasan in Cairo (1356–62) is one of the few perfect four-eyvān madrasahs in the Islamic world. Mausoleums were squares or polygons covered with domes. In other words, there were only minor modifications in the typology of architecture, and even the 15th-century buildings with interiors…

  • Ḥasan of Delhi (Indian author)

    Islamic arts: Zenith of Islamic literature: Khosrow’s younger contemporary, Ḥasan of Delhi (died 1328), is less well known and had a more simple style. He nevertheless surpassed Khosrow in warmth and charm, qualities that earned him the title of “the Saʿdī of Hindustan.”

  • Hasan Paşa (governor of Iraq)

    Iraq: The 18th-century Mamlūk regime: In Baghdad, Hasan Paşa (1704–24), the Ottoman governor of Georgian origin sent from Istanbul, and his son Ahmed Paşa (1724–47) established a Georgian mamlūk (slave) household, through which they exercised authority and administered the province. The mamlūks (Turkish: kölemen) were mostly Christian slaves from the Caucasus who…

  • Ḥasan the Small (Mongol Chūpānid leader)

    Jalāyirid: …his rival, the Chūpānid amīr Ḥasan Küčük (“the Small,” so designated to distinguish him from Ḥasan Buzurg, “the Great”); they set up rival khanates. Soon afterward the empire broke down into local dynasties in Anatolia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.

  • Ḥasan the Tall (Mongol leader)

    Jalāyirid: Ḥasan Buzurg, founder of the dynasty, had served as governor of Anatolia (Rūm) under the Il-Khan Abū Saʿīd (reigned 1317–35). Following the death of Abū Saʿīd, Ḥasan Buzurg competed for real control of the empire with his rival, the Chūpānid amīr Ḥasan Küčük (“the Small,”…

  • Ḥasan ʿAlī Shāh (Nizārī imam)

    Aga Khan I, imam, or spiritual leader, of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīte sect of the Shīʿite Muslims. He claimed to be directly descended from ʿAlī, the son-in-law of the Prophet Muḥammad, and ʿAlī’s wife Fāṭimah, Muḥammad’s daughter, and also from the Fāṭimid caliphs of Egypt. He was the governor of the

  • Hasan, Mount (mountain, Turkey)

    Turkey: The central massif: … (12,848 feet [3,916 metres]) and Hasan (10,686 feet [3,257 metres]).

  • Ḥasan, Muḥammad ibn al- (king of Morocco)

    Muḥammad VI, king of Morocco (1999– ). Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan completed primary and secondary schooling at the Royal Palace College before entering the Mohammed V University in Rabat; there he received a bachelor’s degree in law in 1985 and, three years later, a master’s degree in public law. For a

  • Ḥasan, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh (Somalian leader)

    Sayyid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan, Somali religious and nationalist leader (called the “Mad Mullah” by the British) who for 20 years led armed resistance to the British, Italian, and Ethiopian colonial forces in Somaliland. Because of his active resistance to the British and his vision of a Somalia

  • Hasan, Nidal M. (United States army officer)

    Anwar al-Awlaki: Army Major Nidal M. Hasan, who attended his sermons in Virginia. On November 5, 2009, Hasan opened fire in the Soldier Readiness Center at the Fort Hood army base in Texas, killing 13. According to reports, at least 18 e-mails had been sent between Hasan and Awlaki…

  • Ḥasan-e Ṣabbāḥ (Islamic religious leader)

    Ḥasan-e Ṣabbāḥ, leader of an Islamic sect, the Nizārī Ismāʿīlites, and commonly believed to be the founder of the order known as the Assassins. Ḥasan studied theology in the Iranian city of Rayy and at about the age of 17 adopted the Ismāʿīlite faith. He was an active believer and rose in the

  • Hasanlu (archaeological site, Iran)

    Hasanlu, ancient Iranian site located in the Solduz Valley of Azerbaijan. Excavations there have been important for knowledge of the prehistory of northwestern Iran, especially during the late 2nd and early 1st millennia bc. The site was inhabited from about 2100 to about 825 bc, but the richest

  • Ḥasanūyah ibn Ḥusayn (Kurdish ruler)

    Ḥasanwayhid dynasty: The dynasty’s founder was Ḥasanwayh (Ḥasanūyah) ibn Ḥusayn, a Barzikānī leader who was able to acquire a number of holdings in the region. He fortified his position through affiliation with the local Būyid leaders, whom he assisted in campaigns against their adversaries, and, being in their favour, he was…

  • Ḥasanūyid dynasty (Kurdish dynasty)

    Ḥasanwayhid dynasty, Kurdish dynasty (c. 961–1015) that ruled a principality around Kermānshāh in the central Zagros Mountains region of what is now Iran. The Ḥasanwayhids, with their power base in the Kurdish Barzikānī tribe, were later superseded by a rival Kurdish dynasty, the ʿAnnazid dynasty.

  • Ḥasanwayh ibn Ḥusayn (Kurdish ruler)

    Ḥasanwayhid dynasty: The dynasty’s founder was Ḥasanwayh (Ḥasanūyah) ibn Ḥusayn, a Barzikānī leader who was able to acquire a number of holdings in the region. He fortified his position through affiliation with the local Būyid leaders, whom he assisted in campaigns against their adversaries, and, being in their favour, he was…

  • Ḥasanwayhid dynasty (Kurdish dynasty)

    Ḥasanwayhid dynasty, Kurdish dynasty (c. 961–1015) that ruled a principality around Kermānshāh in the central Zagros Mountains region of what is now Iran. The Ḥasanwayhids, with their power base in the Kurdish Barzikānī tribe, were later superseded by a rival Kurdish dynasty, the ʿAnnazid dynasty.

  • Hasard et la nécessité, Le (book by Monod)

    Jacques Monod: …Hasard et la nécessité (1970; Chance and Necessity) argued that the origin of life and the process of evolution are the result of chance. Monod joined the staff of the Pasteur Institute in Paris in 1945 and became its director in 1971.

  • Ḥāṣbānī (river, Lebanon)

    Jordan River: Physical environment: …longest of those is the Ḥāṣbānī, which rises in Lebanon, near Ḥāṣbayyā, at an elevation of 1,800 feet (550 metres). From the east, in Syria, flows the Bāniyās River. Between the two is the Dan River, the waters of which are particularly fresh.

  • Ḥāṣbayyā (Lebanon)

    Marj ʿUyūn: The nearby town of Ḥāṣbayyā contains the principal sanctuary of the Druze, who practice a form of Islam. Pop. (latest est.) 4,275.

  • Hasbrouck House (museum, Newburgh, New York, United States)

    Newburgh: The Jonathan Hasbrouck House (1750), Washington’s headquarters, is now a state historical site with an adjacent museum. Nearby are the New Windsor Cantonment (a reconstruction of a winter camp of the Continental Army) and the preserved headquarters (the John Ellison House, 1754) of General Henry Knox.

  • Hasbún, Francis Miguel (Salvadoran activist)

    Mauricio Funes: Early life and movement from journalism to politics: …greatly influenced by sociology professor Francis Miguel (“Hato”) Hasbún, a leftist activist. The violent death of Funes’s older brother, who was killed by police during a student protest in August 1980, induced Funes to leave the university before completing his degree. Yet, despite his leftist leanings, he did not join…

  • Hasbún, Hato (Salvadoran activist)

    Mauricio Funes: Early life and movement from journalism to politics: …greatly influenced by sociology professor Francis Miguel (“Hato”) Hasbún, a leftist activist. The violent death of Funes’s older brother, who was killed by police during a student protest in August 1980, induced Funes to leave the university before completing his degree. Yet, despite his leftist leanings, he did not join…

  • Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut (Spanish-Jewish physician and writer)

    Ḥisdai ibn Shaprut, Jewish physician, translator, and political figure who helped inaugurate the golden age of Hebrew letters in Moorish Spain and who was a powerful statesman in a number of major diplomatic negotiations. After becoming court physician to the powerful Umayyad caliph ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān

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