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  • Harlech (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Harlech, castle and village, Gwynedd county, historic county of Merioneth (Meirionnydd), northwestern Wales. It lies on the coast of Cardigan Bay within the western edge of Snowdonia National Park. In 1283, after defeating Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the English king Edward I began construction of a

  • Harlech, William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron (British politician and scholar)

    William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech, British politician and scholar who was active in promoting education in the British colonies. Educated at Eton and at New College, Oxford (1907), Ormsby-Gore was elected to Parliament in 1910. During World War I he served in Egypt, where he

  • Harlem (work by Thurman and Rapp)

    Harlem Renaissance: Drama: …successful and somewhat controversial play Harlem, a fast-paced slice of the “lower” end of Harlem life, notable for its vernacular and slang-ridden dialogue. It landed on Broadway for 93 performances, and, while it drew much praise in the white press, it had a mixed reception among blacks, some of whom…

  • Harlem (building, Persepolis, Iran)

    Iranian art and architecture: Architecture: …of the building, called the Harlem by archaeologists, is to some extent self-explanatory. The character of the Treasury is indicated by security precautions in its planning. In this building the columns were of wood, heavily plastered and painted in bright colours. Elsewhere, columns are fluted in the Greek manner, while…

  • Harlem (district, New York City, New York, United States)

    Harlem, district of New York City, U.S., occupying a large part of northern Manhattan. Harlem as a neighbourhood has no fixed boundaries; it may generally be said to lie between 155th Street on the north, the East and Harlem rivers on the east, 96th Street (east of Central Park) and 110th Street

  • Harlem (poem by Hughes)

    Harlem, poem by Langston Hughes, published in 1951 as part of his Montage of a Dream Deferred, an extended poem cycle about life in Harlem. The 11-line poem, which begins: considers the potential consequences of white society’s withholding of equal

  • Harlem Book of the Dead, The (work by Van Der Zee)

    James VanDerZee: These works were collected in The Harlem Book of the Dead (1978), with a foreword by Toni Morrison.

  • Harlem Community Art Center (American art center)

    Augusta Savage: …the first director of the Harlem Community Art Center, which was established under the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project (WPA/FAP). The art centre in Harlem played a crucial role in the development of many young black artists. Savage also fought successfully for the inclusion of black artists in WPA…

  • Harlem Dance Theatre (American ballet company)

    Arthur Mitchell: …he and Karel Shook founded Dance Theatre of Harlem, an integrated school, whose associated company made its debut in 1971 in New York City. Mitchell choreographed a number of ballets for the company before it disbanded in 2004, heavily in debt; the troupe was revived in 2012. In 2009 Mitchell…

  • Harlem Document (work by Siskind)

    Aaron Siskind: …Dead End: The Bowery and Harlem Document show as much concern for pure design as for the plight of his subjects. After the late 1930s, Siskind no longer photographed people, concentrating instead on architectural photography, as in his series Old Houses of Bucks County, and on natural phenomena and still…

  • Harlem Experimental Theatre (American theatrical company)

    Regina M. Anderson: …Krigwa Players evolved into the Negro Experimental Theatre (also known as the Harlem Experimental Theatre), which in 1931 produced Anderson’s one-act play Climbing Jacob’s Ladder, about a lynching that happened while people prayed in church. The next year the theatre produced her one-act play Underground, about the Underground Railroad. Both…

  • Harlem Globetrotters (American basketball team)

    Harlem Globetrotters, predominantly black professional U.S. basketball team that plays exhibition games all over the world, drawing crowds as large as 75,000 to see the players’ spectacular ball handling and humorous antics. The team was organized in Chicago in 1926 as the all-black Savoy Big Five.

  • Harlem Heights, Battle of (United States history)

    Battles of Trenton and Princeton: The British campaign of 1776: …to be known as the Battle of Harlem Heights, cost the British perhaps 90 of their light infantry, with an additional 300 wounded. The temporary check to the British advance provided a much-needed reprieve to the reeling Americans.

  • Harlem Hellfighters (United States army regiment)

    Harlem Hellfighters, nickname given to the 369th Infantry Regiment of the United States Army during World War I. The French government decorated the entire unit with the Croix de Guerre, its highest award for bravery, as well as 170 additional individual medals for valour. The 369th’s battlefield

  • Harlem Nights (film by Murphy [1989])

    Eddie Murphy: …wrote, directed, and starred in Harlem Nights (1989), which was a critical and commercial disappointment.

  • Harlem race riot of 1935 (United States history)

    Harlem race riot of 1935, a riot that occurred in the Manhattan neighbourhood of Harlem on March 19–20, 1935. It was precipitated by a teenager’s theft of a penknife from a store and was fueled by economic hardship, racial injustice, and community mistrust of the police. It is sometimes considered

  • Harlem race riot of 1943 (United States history)

    Harlem race riot of 1943, riot that occurred in the Manhattan neighbourhood of Harlem on August 1–2, 1943. It was set off when a white police officer shot an African American soldier after he attempted to intervene in the police officer’s arrest of an African American woman for disturbing the

  • Harlem race riot of 1964 (United States history)

    Harlem race riot of 1964, a six-day period of rioting that started on July 18, 1964, in the Manhattan neighbourhood of Harlem after a white off-duty police officer shot and killed an African American teenager. The rioting spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant and Brownsville in Brooklyn and to South

  • Harlem Renaissance (American literature and art)

    Harlem Renaissance, a blossoming (c. 1918–37) of African American culture, particularly in the creative arts, and the most influential movement in African American literary history. Embracing literary, musical, theatrical, and visual arts, participants sought to reconceptualize “the Negro” apart

  • Harlem River Drive (album by Palmeri)

    Eddie Palmieri: …recorded the influential solo album Harlem River Drive (1971), which fused African American musical styles such as soul, funk, and rhythm and blues with the salsa rhythms of his own Hispanic heritage. In 1974 The Sun of Latin Music (1973) won the first Grammy Award given for best Latin recording;…

  • Harlem Shadows (poetry by McKay)

    African American literature: Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen: …self-portrait “Outcast,” was collected in Harlem Shadows (1922), which some critics have called the first great literary achievement of the Harlem Renaissance. Admiring McKay as well as Dunbar, Hughes exchanged McKay’s formalism for the free verse of Walt Whitman and Carl Sandburg. Hughes also found ways to write in an…

  • Harlem Turns White (painting by Lewis)

    Norman Lewis: …one of his best-known paintings, Harlem Turns White (1955), which shows a mass of abstracted figures at the bottom of the canvas with a white haze settling over them. It is a work that can be interpreted in any number of ways but conjures questions of identity and tensions between…

  • Harlem Writers Club (American organization)

    Harlem Writers Guild, group of African American writers established in New York City in 1950 as the Harlem Writers Club by ambitious young black authors who felt excluded from the mainstream literary culture and who sought to express ethnic experiences and history in their work. Unlike their

  • Harlem Writers Guild (American organization)

    Harlem Writers Guild, group of African American writers established in New York City in 1950 as the Harlem Writers Club by ambitious young black authors who felt excluded from the mainstream literary culture and who sought to express ethnic experiences and history in their work. Unlike their

  • Harlequin (theatrical character)

    Harlequin, one of the principal stock characters of the Italian commedia dell’arte; often a facile and witty gentleman’s valet and a capricious swain of the serving maid. In the early years of the commedia (mid-16th century), the Harlequin was a zanni (a wily and covetous comic servant), and he was

  • Harlequin (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: Collage: …on during her illness (Harlequin [1915]) gives testimony to his grief—a half-Harlequin, half-Pierrot artist before an easel holds an unfinished canvas against a black background.

  • harlequin beetle (insect)

    Harlequin beetle, (Acrocinus longimanus), large tropical American beetle with an elaborate variegated pattern of black with muted red and greenish yellow markings on its wing covers. The common name refers to the beetle’s gaudy pattern; the Latin longimanus of the species name refers to the

  • harlequin bug (insect)

    Harlequin cabbage bug, (Murgantia histrionica), a species of insect in the stinkbug family, Pentatomidae (order Heteroptera), that sucks sap and chlorophyll from crops, such as cabbage, causing them to wilt and die. Though of tropical or subtropical origin, this insect now ranges from the Atlantic

  • harlequin cabbage bug (insect)

    Harlequin cabbage bug, (Murgantia histrionica), a species of insect in the stinkbug family, Pentatomidae (order Heteroptera), that sucks sap and chlorophyll from crops, such as cabbage, causing them to wilt and die. Though of tropical or subtropical origin, this insect now ranges from the Atlantic

  • harlequin fish (tropical fish)

    rasbora: …the most popular being the harlequin fish, or rasbora (R. heteromorpha), a reddish fish 4–5 cm (1.5–2 inches) long with a wedge-shaped black spot on each side.

  • harlequin frog (amphibian)

    toad: …which are also known as variegated toads (Atelopus), are found in South and Central America. They are commonly triangular-headed and have enlarged hind feet. Some are brightly coloured in black with yellow, red, or green. When molested, the small poisonous Melanophryniscus stelzneri of Uruguay bends its head and limbs over…

  • Harlequin Mother Goose (pantomime)

    Joseph Grimaldi: …Theatre, where, in the pantomime Harlequin Mother Goose, he enjoyed his greatest success. In this production he created a new type of clown combining rogue and simpleton, criminal and innocent dupe in one character, a role subsequently adopted by many other English clowns. His whiteface makeup and impudent thievery became…

  • harlequin snake (snake)

    coral snake: The eastern coral snake, or harlequin snake (M. fulvius), is about a metre (3.3 feet) long and has wide red and black rings separated by narrow rings of yellow. The Arizona coral snake (Micruroides euryxanthus) is a small (40–50-cm) inhabitant of the American Southwest. The rhyme…

  • harlequinade (theatre)

    Harlequinade, play or scene, usually in pantomime, in which Harlequin, a male character, has the principal role. Derived from the Italian commedia dell’arte, harlequinades came into vogue in early 18th-century England, with a standard plot consisting of a pursuit of the lovers Harlequin and

  • Harley 2253 (British library manuscript)

    English literature: The lyric: …best is British Library manuscript Harley 2253 from the early 14th century. In this collection, known as the Harley Lyrics, the love poems, such as “Alysoun” and “Blow, Northern Wind,” take after the poems of the Provençal troubadours but are less formal, less abstract, and more lively. The religious lyrics…

  • Harley J. Earl Perpetual Trophy (sports trophy)

    Harley Jefferson Earl: Daytona 500 is the Harley J. Earl Perpetual Trophy, so named to honour Earl’s contributions to automotive design.

  • Harley Lyrics (British literary collection)

    English literature: The lyric: …this collection, known as the Harley Lyrics, the love poems, such as “Alysoun” and “Blow, Northern Wind,” take after the poems of the Provençal troubadours but are less formal, less abstract, and more lively. The religious lyrics also are of high quality; but the most remarkable of the Harley Lyrics,…

  • Harley, Robert (English statesman)

    Robert Harley, 1st earl of Oxford, British statesman who headed the Tory ministry from 1710 to 1714. Although by birth and education he was a Whig and a Dissenter, he gradually over the years changed his politics, becoming the leader of the Tory and Anglican party. Harley came from a

  • Harley-Davidson (American company)

    Hells Angels: …are white males who ride Harley-Davidson motorcycles. Each is known by a “legal,” or official, name, which may be a colourful nickname. Membership status is tightly controlled. Prospective members face a long vetting and initiation process, and anyone who resigns is required to turn in all regalia bearing the Hells…

  • Harline, Leigh (American composer and conductor)
  • Harling, Frank (British-American musician and composer)
  • Harlingen (Netherlands)

    Friesland: …the only large town, and Harlingen, the only port, serves as its outlet. Other centres are Sneek, Heerenveen, Drachten, Bolsward, Franeker, and Dokkum. There is a nature reserve for seals that is located on the Frisian island of Terschelling. Area 2,217 square miles (5,741 square km). Pop. (2009 est.) 644,811.

  • Harlingen (Texas, United States)

    Harlingen, city, Cameron county, southern Texas, U.S., located 28 miles (45 km) northwest of Brownsville, with which it forms an industrial-agribusiness-port complex. Founded in the early 1900s and named after Harlingen, Netherlands, by its pioneer settler, Lon C. Hill, Sr., it became a station on

  • Harlot High and Low, A (novel by Balzac)

    A Harlot High and Low, novel in four parts by Honoré de Balzac, published in 1839–47 as Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. It was also translated into English as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans and A (or The) Harlot’s Progress. It belongs to the “Scenes of Parisian Life” portion of

  • Harlot’s Ghost (work by Mailer)

    American literature: New fictional modes: …his most effective work was Harlot’s Ghost (1991), about the Central Intelligence Agency. His final novels took Jesus Christ (The Gospel According to the Son [1997]) and Adolf Hitler (The Castle in the Forest [2007]) as their subjects.

  • Harlot’s Progress, A (paintings by Hogarth)

    comedy: The comic outside the theatre: …A Rake’s Progress (1735) and A Harlot’s Progress (1732), also make a didactic point about the wages of sin, using realistic details heightened with grotesquerie to expose human frailty and its sinister consequences. The grotesque is a recurrent feature of the satiric tradition in England, where comedy serves social criticism.…

  • Harlot’s Progress, A (novel by Balzac)

    A Harlot High and Low, novel in four parts by Honoré de Balzac, published in 1839–47 as Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. It was also translated into English as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans and A (or The) Harlot’s Progress. It belongs to the “Scenes of Parisian Life” portion of

  • Harlot’s Progress, The (novel by Balzac)

    A Harlot High and Low, novel in four parts by Honoré de Balzac, published in 1839–47 as Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. It was also translated into English as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans and A (or The) Harlot’s Progress. It belongs to the “Scenes of Parisian Life” portion of

  • Harlow (England, United Kingdom)

    Harlow, new town and coextensive district, administrative and historic county of Essex, England. It was designated by British planners in 1947 as one of London’s eight post-World War II new towns to promote the decentralization of the metropolis. The planned growth took place in neighbourhoods west

  • Harlow (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Harlow: district, administrative and historic county of Essex, England. It was designated by British planners in 1947 as one of London’s eight post-World War II new towns to promote the decentralization of the metropolis.

  • Harlow, Harry F. (American psychologist)

    infant stimulation program: Emergence of modern infant stimulation programs: In the 1950s, American psychologist Harry Harlow showed that monkeys raised in isolation (i.e., without maternal stimulation) displayed abnormal development. These findings indicated a potential need for infant stimulation programs to promote normal development.

  • Harlow, Jean (American actress)

    Jean Harlow, American actress who was the original “Blonde Bombshell.” Known initially for her striking beauty and forthright sexuality, Harlow developed considerably as an actress, but she died prematurely at the height of her career. The daughter of a prosperous Kansas City dentist, Harlow moved

  • Harlowe, Clarissa (fictional character)

    Clarissa Harlowe, fictional character, the virtuous and forbearing heroine of Samuel Richardson’s novel Clarissa

  • HARM (weapon)

    HARM, supersonic air-to-surface tactical missile with the purpose of finding and destroying radar-equipped air defense systems. It can detect, attack, and destroy an enemy target almost automatically and therefore requires little human assistance. The missile hones in on enemy radar after detecting

  • harm principle (philosophy)

    sports: Human performance and the use of drugs: …argument based on the “harm principle” is said to treat athletes as children. Adult athletes should be allowed to decide for themselves whether they want to harm their health by drug use.

  • Harman, Denham (American gerontologist)

    aging: Oxidative damage theory: …the 1950s by American gerontologist Denham Harman and was supported in part by evidence that antioxidant proteins, which neutralize free radicals, are more abundant in aging cells, indicating a response to oxidative stress.

  • Harman, Hugh (American animator)

    Looney Tunes: …subcontracted the work to animators Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising, who were using the then novel innovation of synchronized sound to create animated talkies. Their first animated film for Schlesinger, Sinkin’ in the Bathtub (1930), featured Bosko, a wide-eyed character that bore an uncanny resemblance to Otto Messmer’s Felix the…

  • Harman, Martin Coles (British financier)

    Martin Coles Harman, English financier and one of the few private individuals—particularly, one of the few persons while alive—to have his portrait on coins. Harman engaged in questionable dealings that led to bankruptcy in 1932 and imprisonment in 1933–34 for fraud. In 1925 he purchased for

  • Harman, Sidney (American entrepreneur and philanthropist)

    Sidney Harman, American entrepreneur and philanthropist (born Aug. 4, 1918, Montreal, Que.—died April 12, 2011, Washington, D.C.), cofounded (1953) the consumer electronics company Harman/Kardon, which in 1954 produced the first integrated audio receiver. Harmon earned a degree in physics (1939)

  • Harmandir Sahib (temple, Amritsar, India)

    Harmandir Sahib, the chief gurdwara, or house of worship, of Sikhism and the Sikhs’ most important pilgrimage site. It is located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab state, northwestern India. The first Harmandir Sahib was built in 1604 by Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, who symbolically had it placed on a

  • harmattan (wind)

    Harmattan, cool dry wind that blows from the northeast or east in the western Sahara and is strongest in late fall and winter (late November to mid-March). It usually carries large amounts of dust, which it transports hundreds of kilometres out over the Atlantic Ocean; the dust often interferes

  • Harmel, Pierre (prime minister of Belgium)

    Pierre Harmel, (Pierre-Charles-José-Marie Harmel), Belgian statesman (born March 16, 1911, Uccle, Belg.—died Nov. 15, 2009, Brussels, Belg.), was briefly prime minister of Belgium (1965–66), but he was best known for promoting NATO as a peacekeeping organization in a document that became known as

  • Harmensen, Jacob (Dutch theologian)

    Jacobus Arminius, theologian and minister of the Dutch Reformed Church who opposed the strict Calvinist teaching on predestination and who developed in reaction a theological system known later as Arminianism. His father died when Arminius was an infant, and one Theodore Aemilius adopted the child

  • harmine (drug)

    Harmine, hallucinogenic alkaloid found in the seed coats of a plant (Peganum harmala) of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East, and also in a South American vine (Banisteriopsis caapi) from which natives of the Andes Mountains prepared a drug for religious and medicinal use. Chemically,

  • Harmless People, The (work by Thomas)

    economic system: Prehistoric and preliterate economic systems: … describes this distributive system in The Harmless People:

  • Harmodius (Greek tyrannicide)

    Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the tyrannoktonoi, or “tyrannicides,” who, according to popular but erroneous legend, freed Athens from the Peisistratid tyrants. They were celebrated in drinking songs as the deliverers of the city, their descendants were entitled to free hospitality in the prytaneion

  • Harmon Foundation (American organization)

    Palmer Hayden: …came with $400) from the Harmon Foundation, which also recognized achievement among African Americans in the fields of education, industry, literature, music, race relations, and science. Hayden spent from 1927 to 1932 in Paris, where he socialized with other émigré artists Henry Ossawa Tanner and Hale Woodruff and fell under…

  • Harmon, Ellen Gould (American religious leader)

    Ellen Gould Harmon White, American religious leader who was one of the founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and whose prophecies and other guidance were central to that denomination’s early growth. Ellen Harmon sustained a serious injury at the age of nine that left her facially disfigured

  • Harmon, Thomas Dudley (American athlete)

    Tom Harmon, American football player, a Heisman Trophy winner, who was one of the greatest tailbacks in collegiate football history. Harmon grew up in Gary, Ind., where he had a superior athletic career at Horace Mann High School. He entered the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1937 and gained

  • Harmon, Tom (American athlete)

    Tom Harmon, American football player, a Heisman Trophy winner, who was one of the greatest tailbacks in collegiate football history. Harmon grew up in Gary, Ind., where he had a superior athletic career at Horace Mann High School. He entered the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1937 and gained

  • Harmonia (Greek mythology)

    Harmonia, in Greek mythology, the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, according to the Theban account; in Samothrace she was the daughter of Zeus and the Pleiad Electra. She was carried off by Cadmus, and all the gods honoured the wedding with their presence. Cadmus or one of the gods presented the

  • harmonia (music)

    mode: Ancient Greek modes: …scales, or octave species, called harmoniai, characterized by the different positions of their semitones. They were termed as follows (semitones shown by unspaced letters):

  • Harmonia Caelestis (work by Esterházy)

    Hungarian literature: Writing after 1945: …internationally for Harmonia Caelestis (2000; Celestial Harmonies), which chronicles some seven centuries of his own distinguished family’s history. Esterházy’s Semmi művészet (2008; Not Art: A Novel) depicts a football- (soccer-) obsessed mother’s relationship with her son.

  • harmonic (physics)

    speech: Harmonic structure: A second attribute of vocal sound, harmonic structure, depends on the wave form produced by the vibrating vocal cords. Like any musical instrument, the human voice is not a pure tone (as produced by a tuning fork); rather, it is composed of a…

  • harmonic analysis (mathematics)

    Harmonic analysis, mathematical procedure for describing and analyzing phenomena of a periodically recurrent nature. Many complex problems have been reduced to manageable terms by the technique of breaking complicated mathematical curves into sums of comparatively simple components. Many physical

  • harmonic analyzer (mathematics)

    analog computer: Stratton built in 1898 a harmonic analyzer (q.v.) having 80 components. Each of these was capable of generating a sinusoidal motion, which could be multiplied by constant factors by adjustment of a fulcrum on levers. The components were added by means of springs to produce a resultant. Another milestone in…

  • harmonic construction (mathematics)

    Harmonic construction, in projective geometry, determination of a pair of points C and D that divides a line segment AB harmonically (see Figure), that is, internally and externally in the same ratio, the internal ratio CA/CB being equal to the negative of the external ratio DA/DB on the extended

  • Harmonic Drive (machine component)

    Harmonic Drive, mechanical speed-changing device, invented in the 1950s, that operates on a different principle from, and has capabilities beyond the scope of, conventional speed changers. It consists of a thin ring that deflects elastically as it rolls on the inside of a slightly larger rigid

  • harmonic function (mathematics)

    Harmonic function, mathematical function of two variables having the property that its value at any point is equal to the average of its values along any circle around that point, provided the function is defined within the circle. An infinite number of points are involved in this average, so that

  • harmonic mean (mathematics)

    mean: …−1 is also called the harmonic mean. Weighted pth-power means are defined by

  • harmonic mode (physics)

    mechanics: Coupled oscillators: …frequencies, are known as the normal modes of the system.

  • harmonic motion, simple (physics)

    Simple harmonic motion, in physics, repetitive movement back and forth through an equilibrium, or central, position, so that the maximum displacement on one side of this position is equal to the maximum displacement on the other side. The time interval of each complete vibration is the same. The

  • harmonic number (physics)

    sound: Fundamentals and harmonics: Here n is called the harmonic number, because the sequence of frequencies existing as standing waves in the string are integral multiples, or harmonics, of the fundamental frequency.

  • harmonic oscillation (physics)

    Simple harmonic motion, in physics, repetitive movement back and forth through an equilibrium, or central, position, so that the maximum displacement on one side of this position is equal to the maximum displacement on the other side. The time interval of each complete vibration is the same. The

  • harmonic oscillator, simple (physics)

    mechanics: Simple harmonic oscillations: The potential energy of a harmonic oscillator, equal to the work an outside agent must do to push the mass from zero to x, is U = 12kx2. Thus, the total initial energy in the situation described above is 12kA2; and since the kinetic energy is always 12mv2, when the…

  • harmonic rhythm (music)

    harmony: The regulation of dissonance: …said to be a rapid harmonic rhythm. Similarly, a leisurely pace of chord change is a slow harmonic rhythm. The slow or fast harmonic rhythm of a composition helps define its musical character, and by varying the harmonic rhythm within a piece a composer can create contrast, thereby defining sections…

  • harmonic sequence (mathematics)

    Harmonic sequence, in mathematics, a sequence of numbers a1, a2, a3,… such that their reciprocals 1/a1, 1/a2, 1/a3,… form an arithmetic sequence (numbers separated by a common difference). The best-known harmonic sequence, and the one typically meant when the harmonic sequence is mentioned, is 1,

  • harmonic series (music)

    wind instrument: The production of sound: …divisions (the overtones) create the harmonic series, theoretically obtainable in toto on any tube with the appropriate increase in the force of the generating vibration and theoretically extending to infinity. In addition to the successive individual pitches created by overblowing, a column (or any division of a column) of air…

  • harmonic wave (physics)

    light: Characteristics of waves: …a periodic wave is a harmonic wave. The wavelength λ of the wave is the physical separation between successive crests. The maximum displacement of the wave, or amplitude, is denoted by A. The time between successive oscillations is called the period τ of the wave. The number of oscillations per…

  • harmonic-pair division (mathematics)

    Harmonic construction, in projective geometry, determination of a pair of points C and D that divides a line segment AB harmonically (see Figure), that is, internally and externally in the same ratio, the internal ratio CA/CB being equal to the negative of the external ratio DA/DB on the extended

  • harmonic-tone generator (music)

    music synthesizer: The harmonic-tone generator developed by James Beauchamp at the University of Illinois, in contrast, used additive synthesis—building tones from signals for pure tones, i.e., without overtones (sine-wave signals)—and offered certain advantages in the nuances of tone colours produced.

  • harmonica (musical instrument)

    Harmonica, either of two musical instruments, the friction-sounded glass harmonica or a mouth organ, a free-reed wind instrument whose invention is often attributed to Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann (maker of the Mundäoline, Berlin, c. 1821). Whatever its origins, the contemporary harmonica

  • harmonica, glass (musical instrument)

    Glass harmonica, musical instrument consisting of a set of graduated, tuned glass bowls sounded by the friction of wetted fingers on their rims. It was invented by Benjamin Franklin and was derived from the vérillon (musical glasses), a set of glasses, holding different amounts of water and thus

  • Harmonice Mundi (work by Kepler)

    Johannes Kepler: Astronomical work: …1619 his Harmonice Mundi (Harmonies of the World, which contained Kepler’s third law) brought together more than two decades of investigations into the archetypal principles of the world: geometrical, musical, metaphysical, astrological, astronomical, and those principles pertaining to the soul. All harmonies were geometrical, including musical ones that derived…

  • Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (work by Petrucci)

    Ottaviano dei Petrucci: …printer whose collection of chansons, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (1501), was the first polyphonic music printed from movable type.

  • harmonicity, theorem of (mathematics)

    harmonic construction: The theorem of harmonicity states that if the external point of division of a line segment is given, then the internal point can be constructed by a purely projective technique; that is, by using only intersections of straight lines. To accomplish this, an arbitrary triangle is…

  • Harmonics (work by Ptolemy)

    Ptolemy: Mathematician: Among Ptolemy’s earliest treatises, the Harmonics investigated musical theory while steering a middle course between an extreme empiricism and the mystical arithmetical speculations associated with Pythagoreanism. Ptolemy’s discussion of the roles of reason and the senses in acquiring scientific knowledge have bearing beyond music theory.

  • Harmonie (Indiana, United States)

    New Harmony, town, Posey county, southwestern Indiana, U.S. It is located on the Wabash River at the Illinois border, 28 miles (45 km) northwest of Evansville. The site was first occupied by prehistoric mound builders and later was a camping ground for Piankashaw and other Indians. The settlement

  • Harmonies of the World (work by Kepler)

    Johannes Kepler: Astronomical work: …1619 his Harmonice Mundi (Harmonies of the World, which contained Kepler’s third law) brought together more than two decades of investigations into the archetypal principles of the world: geometrical, musical, metaphysical, astrological, astronomical, and those principles pertaining to the soul. All harmonies were geometrical, including musical ones that derived…

  • Harmonies poétiques et religieuses (work by Lamartine)

    Alphonse de Lamartine: Early life and Méditations poétiques: …published the two volumes of Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, a sort of alleluia, filled with deist—and even occasionally Christian (“L’Hymne au Christ”)—enthusiasm.

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