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  • hard bop (music)

    Art Blakey: …of bebop known as “hard bop” and gave the drums a significant solo status. His style was characterized by thunderous press rolls, cross beats, and drum rolls that began as quiet tremblings and grew into frenzied explosions.

  • hard candy

    candy: High-boiled, or hard, candy: Sugar has the property of forming a type of noncrystalline “glass” that forms the basis of hard candy products. Sugar and water are boiled until the concentration of the solution reaches a high level, and supersaturation persists upon cooling. This solution takes…

  • Hard Candy (album by Madonna)

    Madonna: This fact was clear on Hard Candy (2008), a hip-hop-infused effort with writing and vocal and production work by Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, and Pharrell Williams of the hit-making duo the Neptunes. With MDNA (2012), which featured cameos from women rappers M.I.A. and

  • Hard Cash (novel by Reade)

    Charles Reade: …attacked conditions in prisons, and Hard Cash (1863) exposed the ill-treatment of mental patients, especially in private asylums; Put Yourself in His Place (1870) dealt with the coercive activities of trade unionists. Foul Play (1868), written with Dion Boucicault, revealed the frauds of “coffin ships” (unseaworthy and overloaded ships, often…

  • hard cheese

    carboxylic acid: Saturated aliphatic acids: ” Some hard cheeses (e.g., Swiss cheese) contain natural propanoic acid. The higher even-numbered saturated acids, from C12 to C18 (lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic), are present in the fats and oils of many animals and plants, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most prevalent. Lauric…

  • Hard Choices (memoir by Clinton)

    Hillary Clinton: Secretary of state and 2016 presidential candidate: Hard Choices, a memoir of her experiences as secretary of state, was published in 2014. The following year it was revealed that she had used a private e-mail address and server while secretary of state, which raised concerns over both security and government transparency. The…

  • hard cider (alcoholic beverage)

    cider: …some natural fermentation is designated hard cider. The expressed juice of apples that has been treated by some method to prevent spoilage while in hermetically sealed cans or bottles is marketed as apple juice in most countries.

  • hard coal (mineral)

    Anthracite, the most highly metamorphosed form of coal. It contains more fixed carbon (86 percent or greater on a dry, ash-free basis) than any other form of coal and the least amount of volatile matter (14 percent or less on a dry, ash-free basis), and it has calorific values near 35 megajoules

  • hard coral (invertebrate)

    cnidarian: Size range and diversity of structure: …hydroids, hydrocorals, and soft and hard corals, however, proliferate asexually into colonies, which can attain much greater size and longevity than their component polyps. Certain tropical sea anemones (class Anthozoa) may be a metre in diameter, and some temperate ones are nearly that tall. Anthozoans are long-lived, both individually and…

  • Hard Day’s Night, A (film by Lester [1964])

    A Hard Day’s Night, British comedy-musical film, released in 1964, that starred the Beatles in their first feature movie. Released during the height of Beatlemania and the British Invasion, A Hard Day’s Night is now widely considered a classic. The musical presents a fictitious account of 36 hours

  • hard disk (computing)

    Hard disk, Magnetic storage medium for a microcomputer. Hard disks are flat, circular plates made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disks for personal computers can store up to several gigabytes (billions of bytes) of information. Data are stored on their surfaces in

  • hard drive (computing)

    computer memory: Magnetic disk drives: In 1956 the first magnetic hard drive (HD) was invented at IBM; consisting of 50 21-inch (53-cm) disks, it had a storage capacity of 5 megabytes. By the 1990s the standard HD diameter for PCs had shrunk to 3.5 inches (about 8.9 cm), with storage capacities in excess of 100…

  • Hard Eight (film by Anderson [1996])

    Paul Thomas Anderson: His first feature film, Hard Eight (1996), a modern film noir, followed. It included performances by Philip Baker Hall, John C. Reilly, and Philip Seymour Hoffman—all gifted character actors who would be recurring presences in Anderson’s films. Although Hard Eight was critically praised, Anderson’s breakout effort was Boogie Nights…

  • hard indenter (device)

    Hardness tester, device that indicates the hardness of a material, usually by measuring the effect on its surface of a localized penetration by a standardized rounded or pointed indenter of diamond, carbide, or hard steel. Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hardened steel or carbide ball

  • Hard Labor (work by Pavese)

    Cesare Pavese: …lyric poetry, Lavorare stanca (1936; Hard Labor, 1976), followed his release from prison. An initial novella, Paesi tuoi (1941; The Harvesters, 1961), recalled, as many of his works do, the sacred places of childhood. Between 1943 and 1945 he lived with partisans of the anti-Fascist Resistance in the hills of…

  • Hard Labor, Treaty of (North America [1768])

    Treaties of Fort Stanwix: …now West Virginia at the Treaty of Hard Labor (October 1768) and the Treaty of Lochaber (October 1770). These three treaties launched a new period of eager land speculation, accompanied by a stream of homesteaders who quickly poured into the Ohio River region.

  • hard maple (plant)

    Sugar maple, (Acer saccharum), large tree in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to eastern North America and widely grown as an ornamental and shade tree. It is commercially important as a source of maple syrup, maple sugar, and hardwood lumber useful in furniture manufacture and flooring.

  • hard money (politics)

    Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002: Provisions: …amounts of permitted, lawful “hard money” contributions by individuals from $1,000 per candidate per election, where it had remained since 1974, to $2,000 per candidate per election (primary and general elections were counted separately, so $4,000 per election cycle was allowed) and provided for future adjustments in accordance with…

  • hard news (journalism)

    soft news: Traditionally, so-called hard news relates the circumstances of a recent event or incident considered to be of general local, regional, national, or international significance. By contrast, soft news usually centres on the lives of individuals and has little, if any, perceived urgency. Hard news generally concerns issues,…

  • hard palate (anatomy)

    palate: It consists of an anterior hard palate of bone and, in mammals, a posterior soft palate that has no skeletal support and terminates in a fleshy, elongated projection called the uvula.

  • hard pine (wood)

    pine: …designated as soft pines or hard pines. Soft pines, such as white, sugar, and piñon pines, have relatively soft timber, needles in bundles of five (less commonly, one to four), stalked cones with scales lacking prickles, and little resin. Their wood is close-grained, with thin, nearly white sapwood; the sheaths…

  • hard porcelain (pottery)

    porcelain: …of porcelain are true, or hard-paste, porcelain; artificial, or soft-paste, porcelain; and bone china. Porcelain was first made in China—in a primitive form during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and in the form best known in the West during the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). This true, or hard-paste, porcelain was made from…

  • Hard Problem, The (play by Stoppard)

    Tom Stoppard: In The Hard Problem (2015), Stoppard explores consciousness.

  • hard real-time system (computer science)

    computer: Reactive systems: …aircraft control system is a hard real-time system, as a single flight error might be fatal. An airline reservation system, on the other hand, is a soft real-time system, since a missed booking is rarely catastrophic.

  • hard red spring wheat

    cereal processing: Wheat: varieties and characteristics: …Canada (Manitoba) and the similar hard red spring (HRS) wheats of the United States. They yield excellent bread-making flour because of their high quantity of protein (approximately 12–15 percent), mainly in the form of gluten. Soft wheats, the major wheats grown in the United Kingdom, most of Europe, and Australia,…

  • hard red winter wheat

    cereal processing: Wheat: varieties and characteristics: …intermediate in character include the hard red winter (HRW) wheats of the central United States and wheat from Argentina. There are important differences between spring and winter varieties. Spring wheats, planted in the early spring, grow quickly and are normally harvested in late summer or early autumn. Winter wheats are…

  • hard sauce (sauce)

    sauce: Hard sauce, or brandy butter, is a stiff mixture of powdered sugar, butter, brandy, and spice that is served with mincemeat and Christmas puddings.

  • hard software (computing)

    software: …read-only (ROM) technology are called firmware, or “hard software.”

  • hard technology

    assistive technology: Assistive-technology classification and characterization: …aspects of assistive technology are hard technologies and soft technologies. Hard technologies are tangible components that can be purchased and assembled into assistive-technology systems. They include everything from simple mouth sticks to computers and software. Soft technologies include the human areas of decision making, strategy development, training, and concept formation.…

  • hard tick (arachnid)

    tick: Hard ticks, such as the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), attach to their hosts and feed continuously on blood for several days during each life stage. When an adult female has obtained a blood meal, she mates, drops from the host, and finds a suitable…

  • Hard Times (novel by Dickens)

    Hard Times, novel by Charles Dickens, published in serial form (as Hard Times: For These Times) in the periodical Household Words from April to August 1854 and in book form later the same year. The novel is a bitter indictment of industrialization, with its dehumanizing effects on workers and

  • Hard Times (film by Hill [1975])

    Charles Bronson: …as an aging boxer in Hard Times, set during the Great Depression. Many of his later films were action-thrillers, including Love and Bullets (1979), The Evil That Men Do (1984), and Murphy’s Law (1986). In other movies he revealed humanity and tenderness beneath the toughness, as in Sean Penn’s

  • Hard Times Require Furious Dancing (poetry by Walker)

    Alice Walker: …Traveled Down My Arm (2003), Hard Times Require Furious Dancing (2010), and Taking the Arrow Out of the Heart (2018). Her Blue Body Everything We Know: Earthling Poems (1991) collects poetry from 1965 to 1990.

  • Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression (work by Terkel)

    Arthur Miller: …vignettes based on Studs Terkel’s Hard Times (about the Great Depression), was produced at the 1980 American Spoleto Festival in Charleston, South Carolina. Miller’s later plays included The Ride Down Mount Morgan (1991), Mr. Peters’ Connections (1998), and Resurrection Blues (2002).

  • Hard to Handle (film by LeRoy [1933])

    Mervyn LeRoy: At Warner Brothers in the 1930s: Little Caesar, I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang, and Gold Diggers of 1933: Hard to Handle (1933) did not have any such social consciousness but remains a fine example of Warner Brothers’s pre-Production Code comedies, with James Cagney as a press agent who will promote anything and everything.

  • hard water (chemistry)

    Hard water, water that contains salts of calcium and magnesium principally as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates. Ferrous iron may also be present; oxidized to the ferric form, it appears as a reddish brown stain on washed fabrics and enameled surfaces. Water hardness that is caused by calcium

  • Hard Way, The (film by Sherman [1943])

    Vincent Sherman: Women’s pictures: Sherman’s first important movie was The Hard Way (1943), a gritty show-business melodrama with fine performances from Ida Lupino, Joan Leslie, and Jack Carson. Old Acquaintance (1943) was a popular drama starring Bette Davis and Miriam Hopkins as feuding writers. Sherman reteamed with Davis on Mr. Skeffington

  • hard wheat (grain)

    flour: Hard wheats, which are high in protein (approximately 12–15 percent), produce flours that are suitable for products requiring stronger structure, such as breads, buns, hard rolls, and yeast-raised sweet rolls.

  • Hard Workin’ Man (album by Brooks & Dunn [1993])

    Brooks & Dunn: ” Their second full-length recording, Hard Workin’ Man (1993), confirmed their popularity, debuting at number three on the Billboard country album chart. Brooks & Dunn continued to satisfy country music audiences with such releases as Waitin’ on Sundown (1994), If You See Her (1998), Steers & Stripes (2001), and Red…

  • hard X ray (physics)

    spectroscopy: Synchrotron sources: …and 200 angstroms), or the hard (high-energy) X-ray portion (1–20 angstroms) of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • Hard, Darlene (American tennis player)

    Maria Bueno: …the others were won with Darlene Hard. Adding to her titles in 1960, she also won the mixed doubles (with Bob Howe) at the French Open.

  • Hard, Fast and Beautiful (film by Lupino [1951])

    Ida Lupino: Directing: Their next venture was Hard, Fast and Beautiful (1951), a drama about a teenaged tennis star (Forrest) shamelessly exploited by her mother (Claire Trevor). Lupino’s direction was deft, but the picture suffered from a weak script. Lupino, who continued to act, was then cast as a lonely blind woman…

  • hard-boiled fiction (literature)

    Hard-boiled fiction, a tough, unsentimental style of American crime writing that brought a new tone of earthy realism or naturalism to the field of detective fiction. Hard-boiled fiction used graphic sex and violence, vivid but often sordid urban backgrounds, and fast-paced, slangy dialogue. Credit

  • hard-chromium plating (technology)

    electroplating: Development of electroplating.: So-called hard-chromium plating likewise created a new way of improving the wear resistance of machine parts and improving their operation owing to good frictional and heat resistance properties. Worn or undersized parts were built up with chromium plate.

  • hard-cure salting

    fish processing: Curing: In heavy or hard-cure salting, an additional step is taken in which warm air is forced over the surface of the fish until the water content is reduced to about 20 percent and the salt content is increased to approximately 30 percent. Most dry-salted fish products are consumed…

  • hard-disk drive (computing)

    computer memory: Magnetic disk drives: In 1956 the first magnetic hard drive (HD) was invented at IBM; consisting of 50 21-inch (53-cm) disks, it had a storage capacity of 5 megabytes. By the 1990s the standard HD diameter for PCs had shrunk to 3.5 inches (about 8.9 cm), with storage capacities in excess of 100…

  • hard-edge painting (art)

    Minimalism: Hard-edge painting is characterized by large, simplified, usually geometric forms on an overall flat surface; precise, razor-sharp contours; and broad areas of bright, unmodulated colour that have been stained into unprimed canvas. It differs from other types of geometric abstraction in that it rejects both…

  • hard-ground etching

    printmaking: Hard-ground etching: Any acid-resistant coating used to make an etching is called a ground. In the past a great variety of different grounds were used, and each master had his own formula. Most of them had wax as a basis, combined with various oils and…

  • hard-paste porcelain (pottery)

    porcelain: …of porcelain are true, or hard-paste, porcelain; artificial, or soft-paste, porcelain; and bone china. Porcelain was first made in China—in a primitive form during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and in the form best known in the West during the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). This true, or hard-paste, porcelain was made from…

  • hard-shell clam (mollusk)

    clam: The northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as the cherrystone clam, littleneck clam, or hard-shell clam, and the southern quahog (M. campechiensis) belong to the family of venus clams (Veneridae). M. mercenaria is about 7.5 to 12.5 cm (3 to 5 inches) long. The dingy white…

  • hard-sphere molecule (chemistry)

    liquid: Associated and solvated solutions: …in particular to mixtures of hard-sphere (envisioned as billiard balls) molecules—i.e., idealized molecules that have finite size but no forces of attraction. These calculations have produced a better understanding of the structure of simple liquid solutions since the manner in which nonpolar and non-hydrogen-bonding molecules arrange themselves in space is…

  • hard-target munition (ammunition)

    Hard-target munition, ammunition capable of damaging and destroying reinforced targets such as tanks and hardened underground bunkers. Such munitions are specially designed to cause more-serious internal damage to such targets than that caused by standard conventional munitions. Hard-target

  • Hardanger fiddle (musical instrument)

    Hardanger fiddle, regional fiddle of western Norway, invented in the late 17th century. It has four bowed strings positioned above four or five metal sympathetic strings. Although slightly smaller than the concert violin, the instrument is held and played in the same manner. It is used to perform

  • Hardanger Fjord (inlet, Norway)

    Hardanger Fjord, inlet, southwestern Norway. The country’s second largest fjord and one of the most scenic, it extends inland northeastward for 70 miles (113 km) from Stord Island, at its entrance in the North Sea, to the Hardanger Plateau and has a maximum depth of 2,922 feet (891 metres).

  • Hardanger Plateau (plateau, Norway)

    Hardanger Plateau, plateau in southwestern Norway. The largest peneplain (an eroded, almost level plain) in Europe, it has an area of about 2,500 square miles (6,500 square km) and an average elevation of 3,500 feet (1,100 metres). It traditionally has been home to an important stock of wild

  • Hardangerfele (musical instrument)

    Hardanger fiddle, regional fiddle of western Norway, invented in the late 17th century. It has four bowed strings positioned above four or five metal sympathetic strings. Although slightly smaller than the concert violin, the instrument is held and played in the same manner. It is used to perform

  • Hardap Dam (dam, Namibia)

    Mariental: The Hardap Dam on the Fish River, 14 miles (22 km) northwest of Mariental, is Namibia’s first large earth-fill dam and supplies electricity and water to the area. Vegetables and citrus fruits are grown in the floodplain below the dam, and its reservoir has been developed…

  • Hardaway, Anfernee (American basketball player and coach)

    Orlando Magic: …the third selection, point guard Anfernee (“Penny”) Hardaway, and future draft picks.

  • Hardaway, Ben (American animator)

    Bugs Bunny: Animator Ben (“Bugs”) Hardaway inadvertently christened him when his casual sketch of a proposed rabbit character was labeled “Bugs’s Bunny” by a fellow employee. Robert McKimson drew the model sheet for the character, Freleng developed Bugs’s personality, Avery and Jones made further refinements, and Blanc infused…

  • Hardaway, Penny (American basketball player and coach)

    Orlando Magic: …the third selection, point guard Anfernee (“Penny”) Hardaway, and future draft picks.

  • Hardaway, Tim (American basketball player)

    Golden State Warriors: …high-scoring trio of point guard Tim Hardaway, shooting guard Mitch Richmond, and small forward Chris Mullin. While Nelson’s teams were entertaining, they failed to advance past the second round in the playoffs over this period, and Nelson left the Warriors during the 1994–95 season. Golden State then entered into a…

  • Hardayal, Lala (Indian revolutionary)

    Lala Har Dayal, Indian revolutionary and scholar who was dedicated to the removal of British influence in India. Har Dayal graduated from the Government College, Lahore (University of the Punjab). On a Government of India scholarship to St. John’s College at Oxford, he became a supporter of the

  • Hardball (novel by Paretsky)

    Sara Paretsky: …returned to Warshawski’s investigations in Hardball (2009), which saw her intrepid protagonist pursuing a cold case and, in the process, discovering a long history of physical violence against African Americans by the Chicago police. Warshawski investigates the case of an Iraq War veteran wrongfully accused of murder in Body Work…

  • hardball roller hockey (sport)

    roller-skating: Roller sports: …roller hockey, also known as hardball roller hockey, is played with quad skates, a small hard ball, and curved sticks similar to those used in field hockey, and the sport’s rules are derived largely from polo. In-line roller hockey uses a puck, sticks, and many of the rules of ice…

  • hardball squash rackets (sport)

    squash rackets: …“British,” or “international,” version) and hardball (the “American” version). In softball, which is the standard game internationally, the game is played with a softer, slower ball on the kind of wide, tall court shown in the accompanying diagram. The ball stays in play far longer, and there is more court…

  • Hardball with Chris Matthews (American television program)

    Chris Matthews: …known as the host of Hardball with Chris Matthews, a nightly talk show on the television news network MSNBC.

  • hardboard

    furniture industry: Materials: laminated board, chipboard, and hardboard as distinct from natural solid wood. It is not merely that manufacturers prefer the one to the other but rather that these substances are free from the great drawback fundamental to wood—movement. Natural wood shrinks as it dries or swells as it absorbs moisture…

  • hardcore (music)

    electronic dance music: London and Berlin: …scene in Rotterdam, Netherlands, birthed hardcore (or gabber), a very fast and hard form of techno that is frequently noisy and garnished with screaming heavy-metal samples (a later variant was dubbed “hardstyle”). Meanwhile, Germany, especially Frankfurt, was the origin of trance. Trance began as hard, minimalist, and hypnotic—as on “The…

  • Hardcore (film by Schrader [1979])

    George C. Scott: … (1977), Movie, Movie (1978), and Hardcore (1979). During his later years, Scott’s appearances on television and on the New York stage overshadowed his film work. On Broadway, he starred in Uncle Vanya (1973), Death of a Salesman (1975), and Sly Fox (1976), and he reached television audiences with memorable roles…

  • hardcore punk (music)

    Black Flag: …prolific recording helped to popularize hard-core punk, the genre that arose in California in the early 1980s in response to the punk movement of the 1970s. The original members were guitarist Greg Ginn (b. June 8, 1954, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.), bassist Chuck Dukowski (b. February 1, 1954), lead singer Keith…

  • Hardecanute (king of Denmark and England)

    Hardecanute, king of Denmark from 1028 to 1042 and of England from 1040 to 1042. Son of King Canute and Emma, daughter of Richard I, duke of Normandy, Hardecanute was made co-king of Denmark by Canute about 1030. On Canute’s death in 1035, a party led by Emma and Godwine, earl of Wessex, wished to

  • Hardee, William J. (Confederate general)

    William J. Hardee, Confederate general in the American Civil War (1861–65) who wrote a popular infantry manual used by both the North and the South. An 1838 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., Hardee wrote the popular Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics in 1855. In 1856–60 he

  • Hardee, William Joseph (Confederate general)

    William J. Hardee, Confederate general in the American Civil War (1861–65) who wrote a popular infantry manual used by both the North and the South. An 1838 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., Hardee wrote the popular Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics in 1855. In 1856–60 he

  • Hardeknud (king of Denmark and England)

    Hardecanute, king of Denmark from 1028 to 1042 and of England from 1040 to 1042. Son of King Canute and Emma, daughter of Richard I, duke of Normandy, Hardecanute was made co-king of Denmark by Canute about 1030. On Canute’s death in 1035, a party led by Emma and Godwine, earl of Wessex, wished to

  • Harden, James (American basketball player)

    Houston Rockets: …including the outstanding shooting guard James Harden. The team signed star centre Dwight Howard in the following off-season, and the Rockets bettered the previous season’s record and again advanced to the playoffs. In 2014–15 the team posted its best record (56–26) since the Olajuwon era and advanced to the Western…

  • Harden, Marcia Gay (American actress)

    Marcia Gay Harden, American actress who was known for her ability to play a wide variety of characters in movies, onstage, and on television. Harden was the daughter of an American naval officer, and during her childhood she spent time in Texas, Japan, Germany, Italy, and Greece. She began taking

  • Harden, Maximilian Felix Ernst (German journalist)

    Maximilian Felix Ernst Harden, political journalist, a spokesman for extreme German nationalism before and during World War I and a radical socialist after Germany’s defeat. Initially an actor, Harden founded and edited the weekly Die Zukunft (1892–1923; “The Future”), which attained great

  • Harden, Sir Arthur (British biochemist)

    Sir Arthur Harden, English biochemist and corecipient, with Hans von Euler-Chelpin, of the 1929 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for work on the fermentation of sugar and the enzyme action involved. After studies at Manchester and at Erlangen, Germany, Harden became a lecturer-demonstrator at the

  • Hardenberg und die Geschichte des preussischen Staates von 1793 bis 1813 (work by Ranke)

    Leopold von Ranke: The search for objectivity.: …Revolutionskriege 1791 und 1792, 1875; Hardenberg und die Geschichte des preussischen Staates von 1793 bis 1813, 1877) are subtle accounts of complex political events but address themselves only indirectly to the central problems of a changing age. Like the Englische Geschichte, these books exhibit a certain bias against political and…

  • Hardenberg, Friedrich Leopold, Baron von (German poet)

    Novalis, early German Romantic poet and theorist who greatly influenced later Romantic thought. Novalis was born into a family of Protestant Lower Saxon nobility and took his pseudonym from “de Novali,” a name his family had formerly used. He studied law at the University of Jena (1790), where he

  • Hardenberg, Karl August, Fürst von (Prussian statesman)

    Karl August von Hardenberg, Prussian statesman and administrator, who preserved the integrity of the Prussian state during the Napoleonic Wars. Domestically, he was able to continue the reforms introduced by Karl, Reichsfreiherr (imperial baron) vom und zum Stein. In foreign affairs, he exchanged

  • Hardenberg, Karl August, von (Prussian statesman)

    Karl August von Hardenberg, Prussian statesman and administrator, who preserved the integrity of the Prussian state during the Napoleonic Wars. Domestically, he was able to continue the reforms introduced by Karl, Reichsfreiherr (imperial baron) vom und zum Stein. In foreign affairs, he exchanged

  • hardened target munition (ammunition)

    Hard-target munition, ammunition capable of damaging and destroying reinforced targets such as tanks and hardened underground bunkers. Such munitions are specially designed to cause more-serious internal damage to such targets than that caused by standard conventional munitions. Hard-target

  • hardening (network security)

    nuclear electromagnetic pulse: …EMP are known as “hardening.”

  • hardening (technology)

    cement: Setting time: The setting and hardening of a cement is a continuous process, but two points are distinguished for test purposes. The initial setting time is the interval between the mixing of the cement with water and the time when the mix has lost plasticity, stiffening to a certain degree.…

  • hardening off (horticulture)

    horticulture: Frost control: This is known as hardening off. Hardening off of plants prior to transplanting can be accomplished by withholding water and fertilizer, especially nitrogen. This prevents formation of succulent tissue that is very frost-tender. Gradual exposure to cold is also effective for hardening. Induced cold resistance in crops such as…

  • Harder They Come, The (film by Henzell [1972])

    Jimmy Cliff: …performance in the landmark film The Harder They Come (1972).

  • Harder They Fall, The (film by Robson [1956])

    Primo Carnera: In 1956 the film The Harder They Fall, adapted from Budd Schulberg’s novel, was released. Based upon Carnera’s life, the film examined the role of organized crime in boxing. Carnera sued the studio for defamation but lost. Carnera became a United States citizen in 1953 but returned to his…

  • Harder They Fall, The (novel by Schulberg)

    Budd Schulberg: …he published his second novel, The Harder They Fall (film 1956), a fictional exposé of corrupt practices in professional boxing. His 1950 novel, The Disenchanted, won an American Library Award for fiction. That book was made into a play, which opened on Broadway in 1958. In 1955 his screenplay for…

  • Harderwijk (Netherlands)

    Harderwijk, gemeente (municipality), central Netherlands. Chartered in 1231, Harderwijk was an important port on the former Zuiderzee and was a member of the Hanseatic League. It now lies opposite Flevoland Oost, one of the polders created by the Dutch in their 20th-century project to drain part of

  • Hardey, Mary Ann (Roman Catholic nun)

    Mother Mary Aloysia Hardey, American religious leader who expanded the presence of the Society of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic educational order, in the United States. Hardey attended the school conducted by the Society of the Sacred Heart (lately introduced into America by Mother Philippine

  • Hardey, Mother Mary Aloysia (Roman Catholic nun)

    Mother Mary Aloysia Hardey, American religious leader who expanded the presence of the Society of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic educational order, in the United States. Hardey attended the school conducted by the Society of the Sacred Heart (lately introduced into America by Mother Philippine

  • Hardgrove Grindability Index (geology)

    coal utilization: Grindability: …is used to calculate the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI). The index is used as a guideline for sizing the grinding equipment in a coal-preparation plant.

  • Hardgrove test (geology)

    coal utilization: Grindability: …for assessing grindability is the Hardgrove test, which consists of grinding a specially prepared coal sample in a laboratory mill of standard design. The percent by weight of the coal that passes through a 200-mesh sieve (a screen with openings of 74 micrometres, or 0.003 inch) is used to calculate…

  • Hardicanute (king of Denmark and England)

    Hardecanute, king of Denmark from 1028 to 1042 and of England from 1040 to 1042. Son of King Canute and Emma, daughter of Richard I, duke of Normandy, Hardecanute was made co-king of Denmark by Canute about 1030. On Canute’s death in 1035, a party led by Emma and Godwine, earl of Wessex, wished to

  • Hardie, J. Keir (British labour leader)

    J. Keir Hardie, British labour leader, first to represent the workingman in Parliament as an Independent (1892) and first to lead the Labour Party in the House of Commons (1906). A dedicated socialist, he was also an outspoken pacifist (from the time of the South African, or Boer, War, 1899–1902)

  • Hardie, James Keir (British labour leader)

    J. Keir Hardie, British labour leader, first to represent the workingman in Parliament as an Independent (1892) and first to lead the Labour Party in the House of Commons (1906). A dedicated socialist, he was also an outspoken pacifist (from the time of the South African, or Boer, War, 1899–1902)

  • Hardin, Frieda Mae (American naval yeomanette)

    Frieda Mae Hardin, (Frieda Mae Green), American naval “yeomanette” (born Sept. 22, 1896, Eden Valley, Minn.—died Aug. 9, 2000, Livermore, Calif.), enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1918, at a time when many women were denied the vote. She worked as a clerk at the Norfolk (Va.) Naval Shipyard in P

  • Hardin, Garrett (American ecologist)

    tragedy of the commons: …popular by the American ecologist Garrett Hardin, who used the analogy of ranchers grazing their animals on a common field. When the field is not over capacity, ranchers may graze their animals with few limitations. However, the rational rancher will seek to add livestock, thereby increasing profits. Thinking logically but…

  • Hardin, John Wesley (American outlaw)

    John Wesley Hardin, most notorious killer and quick-draw gunman of the Texas frontier. He killed at least 21 men in gun duels and ambushes in the period 1868–77. Reaching adolescence as the defeated South entered the Reconstruction period, Hardin was virulently antiblack and anti-Yankee and, in

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