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  • Haarlemmermeer (polder, Netherlands)

    Haarlem Lake, polder (area 45,700 acres [18,486 hectares]) coextensive with the gemeente (municipality) of Haarlemmermeer in western Netherlands. Originally, a number of lakes—with a combined area of about 14,000 acres (5,700 hectares) in 1531—were formed into one by successive inundations, and by

  • Haarlemmermeer (Netherlands)

    Haarlemmermeer, gemeente (municipality), western Netherlands, occupying the reclaimed Haarlem Lake, which was drained between 1840 and 1852. There is a network of roads and ditches at right angles within the enclosing canal and dike. The population is concentrated in the villages of Hoofddorp,

  • HAARP (scientific facility, Alaska, United States)

    HAARP, scientific facility for studying the ionosphere, located near Gakona, Alaska. The main instrument is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), an array of 180 radio antennas spread over an area of 0.13 square kilometer (33 acres). The ionosphere is the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere.

  • Haarsalz (mineral)

    Alunogen, a sulfate mineral formed by sulfate solutions that attack aluminous minerals; alunogen is hydrated aluminum sulfate, formulated Al2(SO4)317H2O. It typically occurs as an efflorescence or crevice filling in pyrite-containing coal formations, shales, or slates, as well as in the gossan

  • HAART (medicine)

    protease inhibitor: …emergence of resistant virus is highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which combines three or more reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors.

  • Haas family (German harpsichord craftsmen)

    keyboard instrument: Germany: …by the work of the Hass family. The Hass instruments are among the most elaborate ever made, in both decoration and complexity. They are the only 18th-century harpsichords with 16-foot and 2-foot registers, and some have lute stops as well. Their tone does not, unfortunately, live up to the quality…

  • Haas Haus (building, Vienna, Austria)

    Hans Hollein: , and the Haas Haus commercial complex (1985–90) in Vienna. The plans for the latter building, located next to St. Stephen’s Cathedral in the historical area of the city, met with firm resistance from critics who protested that the stone and glass structure would not fit well with…

  • Haas, Ernst (Austrian photographer)

    Ernst Haas, Austrian-born photojournalist who was influential for his innovations in colour photography. Haas’s youthful interests were divided between medicine and painting, but after World War II he abandoned both in favour of photography. His early photographs were experimentations in abstract

  • Haas, Karl (American musicologist and music broadcaster)

    Karl Haas, American musicologist and music broadcaster (born Dec. 6, 1913, Speyer-am-Rhein, Ger.—died Feb. 6, 2005, Royal Oak, Mich.), hosted a daily radio program, Adventures in Good Music, which he originated on a Detroit radio station in 1959. The show was syndicated nationally in 1970 and c

  • Haas, Mary R. (American linguist)

    Mary R. Haas, U.S. linguist. She studied with Edward Sapir at Yale University, where her dissertation was on Tunica, a moribund American Indian language. She continued her fieldwork on, and comparative studies of, American Indian languages, especially of the southeastern U.S., including the Natchez

  • Haas, Mary Rosamond (American linguist)

    Mary R. Haas, U.S. linguist. She studied with Edward Sapir at Yale University, where her dissertation was on Tunica, a moribund American Indian language. She continued her fieldwork on, and comparative studies of, American Indian languages, especially of the southeastern U.S., including the Natchez

  • Haas, Peter (American business executive)

    Peter Haas, American business executive (born 1918, San Francisco, Calif.—died Dec. 3, 2005, San Francisco), was a great-grandnephew of denim blue jean manufacturer Levi Strauss and helped build Levi Strauss & Co. into a globally recognized brand. Haas joined the family business in 1945 and t

  • Haas, Peter M. (American professor)

    epistemic community: …Ruggie and then refined by Peter M. Haas. These scholars focused on the role played by networks of actors and the consensus they hold about causes and effects on state policy and interstate cooperation.

  • Haas, Richard (American artist)

    trompe l'oeil: …the late 20th century, muralist Richard Haas painted the exteriors of entire buildings in trompe l’oeil, primarily in Chicago and New York City. Aaron Bohrod was one of the foremost 20th-century practitioners of small-scale trompe l’oeil.

  • Haas, Walter A. (American businessman)

    Walter A. Haas, American business executive credited with saving the foundering Levi Strauss & Co., the major manufacturer of “blue jean” denim pants. Haas’s efforts after World War II laid the groundwork for the company’s dramatic growth during the blue-jean boom of the 1960s and ’70s. Haas’s

  • Haase, Helga

    Olympic Games: Squaw Valley, California, U.S., 1960: …events for female contestants, with Helga Haase (Germany) capturing the first gold medal in the sport by winning the 500-metre race. Lidiya Skoblikova (U.S.S.R.) was the most successful female athlete at Squaw Valley, winning the 1,500- and 5,000-metre speed skating competitions. Figure skating was a family affair as David Jenkins,…

  • Haase, Hugo (German politician)

    Georg Ledebour: …he and his fellow socialist Hugo Haase formed a solitary opposition to the voting of German war credits (August 1914). He and Haase later led other party dissidents in the formation of the Independent Social Democratic Party (1917). A leading proponent of political and social revolution during the closing weeks…

  • Haasse, Hella S. (Dutch author)

    Hella S. Haasse, Dutch novelist noted for her innovative historical fiction. Haasse studied at the Amsterdam Toneelschool, a dramatic arts school, and published a volume of poetry, Stroomversnelling (1945; “Fast Current”). In her first novella, Oeroeg (1948), she explored race relations in the

  • Haavelmo, Trygve (Norwegian economist)

    Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegian economist who was a pioneer in what became the field of economic forecasting. He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize for Economics. After the outbreak of World War II, Haavelmo left Norway and delivered his doctoral dissertation, “The Probability Approach in Econometrics,”

  • Haavelmo, Trygve Magnus (Norwegian economist)

    Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegian economist who was a pioneer in what became the field of economic forecasting. He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize for Economics. After the outbreak of World War II, Haavelmo left Norway and delivered his doctoral dissertation, “The Probability Approach in Econometrics,”

  • Haavikko, Paavo (Finnish author)

    Paavo Haavikko, Finnish humanist poet, novelist, and dramatist whose work is modernistic, experimental, and linguistically innovative. With his first collection of poems, Tiet etäisyyksiin (1951; “The Roads That Lead Far Away”), Haavikko demonstrated a rare command of rhythm and image in his

  • Haavisto, Pekka (Finnish politician)

    Finland: Domestic affairs: …gay candidate for the presidency, Pekka Haavisto, of the Green Party. Later in the year Finland agreed to participate in the EU’s bailout of Spain, again on the condition that it receive collateral for its contribution.

  • Hába, Alois (Czech composer)

    Alois Hába, Czech composer noted for his experiments with microtonal music. Hába studied in Prague, Vienna, and Berlin, was influenced by the composer Arnold Schoenberg, and sought to free music from traditional formal and tonal constraints. A striking innovator and important teacher and writer,

  • Habacuc, The Prophecy of (Old Testament)

    The Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of 12 Old Testament books that bear the names of the Minor Prophets. The book betrays the influence of liturgical forms, suggesting that either Habakkuk was a cult prophet or that those responsible for the final form of the book were cult personnel. It is difficult

  • Ḥabad (Ḥasidism)

    Ḥabad, Jewish movement and its doctrine, an offshoot of the religious and social movement known as Ḥasidism; its name derives from the initial letters of three Hebrew words that distinguish and characterize the movement: ḥokhma (“wisdom”), bina (“intelligence”), and daʿat (“knowledge”). Ḥabad

  • Habakkuk (Hebrew prophet)

    biblical literature: Habakkuk: The Book of Habakkuk, the eighth book of the Twelve (Minor) Prophets, was written by a prophet difficult to identify. He may have been a professional prophet of the Temple from the 7th century bce (probably between 605–597 bce). Containing three chapters, Habakkuk combines…

  • Habakkuk (Ethiopian author)

    Ethiopian literature: …converted to Christianity and, as Enbaqom (Habakkuk), became prior of the monastery of Debre Libanos, wrote Anqasʾa amin (“Gate of Faith”) to justify his conversion and to persuade apostates to recant. Other similar works were produced, and several were written to defend the miaphysite branch of the Christian faith. Meanwhile…

  • Habakkuk and the Angel (work by Bernini)

    Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Later years: …in the Lions’ Den and Habakkuk and the Angel (1655–61). These works show the beginnings of his late style: elongation of the body, expressive gesture, and simplified yet emphatic emotional expression. The same characteristics are already found in the figures supporting the Throne of St. Peter and culminate in the…

  • Habakkuk, The Book of (Old Testament)

    The Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of 12 Old Testament books that bear the names of the Minor Prophets. The book betrays the influence of liturgical forms, suggesting that either Habakkuk was a cult prophet or that those responsible for the final form of the book were cult personnel. It is difficult

  • Habana vieja, La (district, Havana, Cuba)

    Havana: City layout: …miles and hugging the harbour, Old Havana includes Spanish colonial structures, towering Baroque churches, and buildings in Neoclassic style, as well as commercial property and less pretentious homes on the fringes.

  • Habana, La (national capital, Cuba)

    Havana, city, capital, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. It also constitutes one of Cuba’s 15 provinces: Ciudad de la Habana (City of Havana). The city is located on La Habana (Havana) Bay on the island’s north coast. It is the largest city in the Caribbean region and has one of

  • Habaner faience ware (pottery)

    Haban: …and decoration of the so-called Habaner faience ware (jars, jugs, plates, bowls, tiles, and even small barrels) originally displayed Tyrolean and Italian influences. This was succeeded by a more Hungarian style that reflected Turkish influence as well as that of delftware in its floral motifs in blue, yellow, green, and…

  • Habans (religious community)

    Haban, member of the community of Anabaptists who moved from Switzerland through Austria to Bohemia and then, in the 16th century, migrated to northern Hungary. During the 17th century the renewed vigour of Roman Catholicism forced groups of Habans to leave Habsburg-ruled Hungary for Transylvania.

  • Habara (India)

    Haora, city, east-central West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies along the west bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River directly opposite Kolkata (Calcutta). Haora is Kolkata’s largest satellite city and is the second largest city in West Bengal state. Haora has major Grand Trunk Road connections

  • Ḥabash, George (Palestinian political leader)

    George Ḥabash, militant Palestinian and leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). Ḥabash was forced to flee Palestine in 1948, after the State of Israel was established there, and earned a medical degree at the American University of Beirut. In the early 1950s he was

  • Habashat (people)

    history of Arabia: The Tubbaʿ kings: …not very definable link with Habashite (“Abyssinian”) people settled in the Arabian coastal areas, who were throughout the 2nd and 3rd centuries a thorn in the flesh of both Sabaean and Ḥimyaro-Sabaean rulers, even at one point occupying Ẓafār. Tension between Aksum and Ḥimyar reached a climax in 517 or…

  • Habashite (people)

    history of Arabia: The Tubbaʿ kings: …not very definable link with Habashite (“Abyssinian”) people settled in the Arabian coastal areas, who were throughout the 2nd and 3rd centuries a thorn in the flesh of both Sabaean and Ḥimyaro-Sabaean rulers, even at one point occupying Ẓafār. Tension between Aksum and Ḥimyar reached a climax in 517 or…

  • Ḥabbāniyyah, Hawr Al- (lake, Iraq)

    Hawr Al-Ḥabbāniyyah, lake in Al-Anbār muḥāfaẓah (governorate), western Iraq. It is a shallow body of slightly saline water, 54 sq mi (140 sq km) in area, separated from the Euphrates River to the north by the Asibi and Zaban ridges. The lake has been used since antiquity for storing floodwater from

  • Habbema, Koos (Dutch author)

    Herman Heijermans, Dutch author and playwright, both naturalistic and didactic, who in his work attacked all aspects of bourgeois hypocrisy. After failing in business, Heijermans became a journalist in Amsterdam. His novel Kamertjeszonde (1898; “Petty Sin”), published under the pseudonym Koos

  • Habbie Simson stanza (poetry)

    Robert Sempill: …Allan Ramsay called its metre “Standart Habbie” and used it himself in several poems. “Standart Habbie,” sometimes called the “Habbie Simson stanza,” was later known, after its greatest exponent, Robert Burns, as “the Burns stanza.”

  • Habbus (caliph of Granada)

    Samuel ha-Nagid: …commended Samuel to the caliph Ḥabbūs. The caliph made Samuel the new vizier, and as such he assumed direction of Granada’s diplomatic and military affairs.

  • Habdalah (Jewish ceremony)

    Havdala, (Hebrew: “Separation”, ) a ceremony in Jewish homes and in synagogues concluding the Sabbath and religious festivals. The ceremony consists of benedictions that are recited over a cup of wine (and, on the night of the Sabbath, over spices and a braided candle) to praise God, who deigned to

  • habeas corpus (common law)

    Habeas corpus, an ancient common-law writ, issued by a court or judge directing one who holds another in custody to produce the person before the court for some specified purpose. Although there have been and are many varieties of the writ, the most important is that used to correct violations of

  • Habeas Corpus Act (United States [1867])

    Ex Parte McCardle: …of the Radicals’ recently passed Habeas Corpus Act, designed to protect newly freed slaves against Southern state courts.

  • Habeas Corpus Act (England [1679])

    habeas corpus: …rights were provided by the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, which authorized judges to issue the writ when courts were on vacation and provided severe penalties for any judge who refused to comply with it. Its use was expanded during the 19th century to cover those held under private authority.…

  • Habeler, Peter (Austrian explorer and mountaineer)

    Reinhold Messner: In 1978 he and Austrian Peter Habeler were the first to climb Mount Everest (29,035 feet [8,850 metres]; see Researcher’s Note: Height of Mount Everest), the highest mountain in the world, without the use of contained oxygen for breathing, and two years later he completed the first solo ascent of…

  • Habeneck, François-Antoine (French musician)

    François-Antoine Habeneck, French violinist, conductor, and composer. Habeneck studied violin first with his father, a military bandsman of German descent, and then with Pierre Baillot at the Paris Conservatory. In 1804 he won the institution’s first prize for violin and took a position with the

  • Haber ammonia process (chemistry)

    Haber-Bosch process, method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen, developed by the German physical chemist Fritz Haber. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for this method, which made the manufacture of ammonia economically feasible. The method was translated

  • Haber, Fritz (German chemist)

    Fritz Haber, German physical chemist and winner of the 1918 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his successful work on nitrogen fixation. The Haber-Bosch process combined nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia in industrial quantities for production of fertilizer and munitions. Haber is also well known

  • Haber, Ludwig (German economist and historian)

    Fritz Haber: Personal life: Ludwig Haber became a well-known economist and historian of industrial chemistry. In 1986 he published The Poisonous Cloud, a definitive history of the use of gas warfare during World War I.

  • Haber, Robert Alan (American activist)

    Students for a Democratic Society: …Arbor, Michigan, in 1960, and Robert Alan Haber was elected president of SDS. Initially, SDS chapters throughout the nation were involved in the civil rights movement. Operating under the principles of the “Port Huron Statement,” a manifesto written by Tom Hayden and Haber and issued in 1962, the organization grew…

  • Haber-Bosch process (chemistry)

    Haber-Bosch process, method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen, developed by the German physical chemist Fritz Haber. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for this method, which made the manufacture of ammonia economically feasible. The method was translated

  • Haberlandt, Gottlieb (Austrian botanist)

    Gottlieb Haberlandt, Austrian botanist, pioneer in the development of physiological plant anatomy, and the first person to study plant tissue culture (1921). Haberlandt’s first botanical paper appeared in 1874, one year after he entered the University of Vienna, where he obtained his Ph.D. (1876).

  • Haberlandt, Ludwig (Austrian physiologist)

    birth control: Methods: …this time an Austrian physiologist, Ludwig Haberlandt, was carrying out experiments on rabbits to apply the new-found knowledge of hormones for contraceptive ends. By 1927 he was able to write, “It needs no amplification, of all methods available, hormonal sterilization based on biologic principles, if it can be applied unobjectionably…

  • Haberler, Gottfried von (American economist, writer, and educator)

    Gottfried von Haberler, Austrian-born American economist, writer, and educator whose major field of expertise was international trade. Haberler studied economics at the University of Vienna under Friedrich von Wieser and Ludwig von Mises, receiving his doctorate in 1925. After further study in

  • Habermas, Jürgen (German philosopher)

    Jürgen Habermas, the most important German philosopher of the second half of the 20th century. A highly influential social and political thinker, Habermas was generally identified with the critical social theory developed from the 1920s by the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt am Main,

  • Ḥabīb al-siyār (work by Khwāndamīr)

    Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad Khwāndamīr: …author Mir ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī; Ḥabīb al-siyār (“The Friend of Biographies”), a general history finished in 1524, the most valuable sections of which deal with the reigns of Sultan Ḥusayn Bāyqarā and Shāh Esmāʿīl I Ṣafavi; the seventh and final volume of the history Rawḍat al-ṣafā (“The Garden of Purity”)…

  • Habib Bank, Ltd. (Pakistani company)

    Pakistan: Finance: Habib Bank, Ltd., is one of the oldest. The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was founded in Pakistan in 1972; BCCI’s collapse in 1991 precipitated a major international banking scandal.

  • Habib v. Bush (law case)

    Rasul v. Bush: The court later dismissed Habib v. Bush on the same grounds. After these decisions were affirmed by a court of appeals, the Supreme Court granted a writ of certiorari to hear the consolidated cases as Rasul v. Bush, and oral arguments were heard on April 20, 2004. (While the…

  • Habib, Philip Charles (United States diplomat)

    Philip Charles Habib, U.S. diplomat who had a distinguished 30-year career as a U.S. foreign-service officer, notably in his efforts in the Middle East in the 1970s and ’80s. Habib, the son of a Lebanese grocer, was raised in a Jewish section of Brooklyn. He graduated from the University of Idaho

  • Habibi, Emile (Israeli Arab writer)

    Emile Habibi, Israeli Arab writer (born Aug. 29, 1922, Haifa, Palestine [now in Israel]—died May 2, 1996, Nazareth, Israel), became one of the most popular authors in the Middle East as a result of works depicting the conflicts in loyalties experienced by Palestinians living as an Arab minority i

  • Habibie, B. J. (president of Indonesia)

    B.J. Habibie, Indonesian aircraft engineer and politician who was president of Indonesia (1998–99) and a leader in the country’s technological and economic development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Brilliant in science and mathematics from childhood, Habibie received his postsecondary

  • Habibie, Bacharuddin Jusuf (president of Indonesia)

    B.J. Habibie, Indonesian aircraft engineer and politician who was president of Indonesia (1998–99) and a leader in the country’s technological and economic development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Brilliant in science and mathematics from childhood, Habibie received his postsecondary

  • Ḥabībullāh Khan (emir of Afghanistan)

    Ḥabībullāh Khan, ruler of Afghanistan from 1901 to 1919. Maintaining satisfactory relations with British India, he introduced needed reforms in Afghanistan and steered his country on a moderate political course. The eldest son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khan, Ḥabībullāh succeeded peacefully to the throne

  • Habima (Hebrew theatrical company)

    Habima, (Hebrew: “Stage”), Hebrew theatre company originally organized as Habima ha-ʿIvrit (Hebrew: “the Hebrew Stage”) in Białystok, in Russian Poland, in 1912 by Nahum Zemach. The troupe traveled in 1913 to Vienna, where it staged Osip Dymov’s Hear O Israel before the 11th Zionist Congress. In 1

  • Habima ha-ʿIvrit (Hebrew theatrical company)

    Habima, (Hebrew: “Stage”), Hebrew theatre company originally organized as Habima ha-ʿIvrit (Hebrew: “the Hebrew Stage”) in Białystok, in Russian Poland, in 1912 by Nahum Zemach. The troupe traveled in 1913 to Vienna, where it staged Osip Dymov’s Hear O Israel before the 11th Zionist Congress. In 1

  • Habimah (Hebrew theatrical company)

    Habima, (Hebrew: “Stage”), Hebrew theatre company originally organized as Habima ha-ʿIvrit (Hebrew: “the Hebrew Stage”) in Białystok, in Russian Poland, in 1912 by Nahum Zemach. The troupe traveled in 1913 to Vienna, where it staged Osip Dymov’s Hear O Israel before the 11th Zionist Congress. In 1

  • Habiru (people)

    Moses: The date of Moses: …Habiru, a variant spelling of Ḫapiru (Apiru), a designation of a class of people who made their living by hiring themselves out for various services. The biblical Hebrews had been in Egypt for generations, but apparently they became a threat, so one of the pharaohs enslaved them. Unfortunately, the personal…

  • habit (religious dress)

    Roman Catholicism: The priesthood: …clerical identity, symbolized by clerical garb, which sets priests as a class apart from lay Catholics. The priesthood is also set apart by gender; only men may become Catholic priests. The most striking feature of this class, celibacy, has stirred up considerable dissatisfaction in the modern church. Many priests and…

  • habit (behaviour)

    Habit, in psychology, any regularly repeated behaviour that requires little or no thought and is learned rather than innate. A habit—which can be part of any activity, ranging from eating and sleeping to thinking and reacting—is developed through reinforcement and repetition. Reinforcement

  • habit (crystallography)

    amphibole: Physical properties: Long prismatic, acicular, or fibrous crystal habit, Mohs hardness between 5 and 6, and two directions of cleavage intersecting at approximately 56° and 124° generally suffice to identify amphiboles in hand specimens. The specific gravity values of amphiboles range from about 2.9 to 3.6. Amphiboles yield water when heated in…

  • Habit of Art, The (play by Bennett)

    Alan Bennett: Bennett’s later plays included The Habit of Art (2009), which explores issues of aging and creativity through an imagined encounter between the poet W.H. Auden and the composer Benjamin Britten. In People (2012) an aristocratic former model whose wealth is gone must decide what to do with her family’s…

  • habitable zone (astrobiology)

    Habitable zone, the orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet can possess liquid water on its surface and possibly support life. Liquid water is essential to all life on Earth, and so the definition of a habitable zone is based on the hypothesis that extraterrestrial life would

  • habitant (people)

    Habitant, independent landowner who farmed properties in New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. Habitants differed from hired agricultural labourers and temporary workers. By the end of the 18th century, the term habitant applied to all those who inhabited rural areas and made a living by

  • Habitat (British company)

    Terence Conran: In 1964 Conran opened Habitat, a store selling his furniture as well as a range of then-obscure housewares such as woks, in London’s Chelsea neighbourhood. Conran’s innovative “flat-packaging”—which required the purchaser to assemble the furniture at home—allowed for substantially lower pricing. This accessibility, combined with the elegant and utilitarian…

  • habitat (ecology)

    Habitat, place where an organism or a community of organisms lives, including all living and nonliving factors or conditions of the surrounding environment. A host organism inhabited by parasites is as much a habitat as a terrestrial place such as a grove of trees or an aquatic locality such as a

  • Habitat ’67 (building, Montreal, Quebec, Canada)

    Moshe Safdie: …architect best known for designing Habitat ’67 at the site of Expo 67, a yearlong international exhibition at Montreal. Habitat ’67 was a prefabricated concrete housing complex comprising three clusters of individual apartment units arranged like irregularly stacked blocks along a zigzagged framework. This bold experiment in prefabricated housing using…

  • Habitat Company (American company)

    Valerie Jarrett: …executive vice president of the Habitat Company, a property management firm responsible for overseeing portions of Chicago’s public housing system. Jarrett became CEO of the company in 2007.

  • habitat corridor (ecology)

    conservation: Habitat connections: …of connecting fragments by wildlife corridors. These corridors can be created from currently unprotected land between existing reserves or by restoring land between existing habitat fragments.

  • Habitat for Humanity (philanthropic organization)

    Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), Christian ministry that builds and renovates housing for families in need. HFHI was founded in 1976 by American philanthropist Millard Dean Fuller and his wife, Linda Fuller. The group gained wide recognition because of the involvement of former president

  • Habitat for Humanity International (philanthropic organization)

    Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), Christian ministry that builds and renovates housing for families in need. HFHI was founded in 1976 by American philanthropist Millard Dean Fuller and his wife, Linda Fuller. The group gained wide recognition because of the involvement of former president

  • habitat fragmentation (ecology)
  • habitat loss (ecology)

    biodiversity loss: Human-driven biodiversity loss: drivers of biodiversity loss:

  • habitat restoration (conservation)

    Ecological restoration, the process of repairing sites in nature whose biological communities (that is, interacting groups of various species in a common location) and ecosystems have been degraded or destroyed. In many ecosystems, humans have altered local native populations of plants and animals,

  • Habitat Stores (British company)

    industrial design: Design in the 21st century: technology and democracy: …his pioneering designs for the Habitat Stores (1964 and later).

  • habitation name (toponymy)

    toponymy: …place-names into two broad categories: habitation names and feature names. A habitation name denotes a locality that is peopled or inhabited, such as a homestead, village, or town, and usually dates from the locality’s inception. Feature names refer to natural or physical features of the landscape and are subdivided into…

  • Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (work by Bellah)

    communitarianism: The common good versus individual rights: …in an oft-cited communitarian work, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (1985), by the American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah, who observed that by the early 1980s most Americans had become self-centred. Increasing prosperity from the 1950s, among other factors, had contributed to a decline in respect…

  • habitual buying behaviour (business)

    marketing: Low-involvement purchases: Habitual buying behaviour occurs when involvement is low and differences between brands are small. Consumers in this case usually do not form a strong attitude toward a brand but select it because it is familiar. In these markets, promotions tend to be simple and repetitive…

  • habitual offender (criminology)

    Habitual offender, person who frequently has been convicted of criminal behaviour and is presumed to be a danger to society. In an attempt to protect society from such criminals, penal systems throughout the world provide for lengthier terms of imprisonment for them than for first-time offenders.

  • habitual offender law (law)

    child abuse: Legal issues: …provide for indefinite incarceration for habitual sexual offenders. The treatment or cure of offenders is thought to be more difficult when the victims are young children or toddlers, and compulsive pedophiles are viewed as intractable problems for both therapy and the justice system.

  • habituation (behaviour)

    Habituation, the waning of an animal’s behavioral response to a stimulus, as a result of a lack of reinforcement during continual exposure to the stimulus. It is usually considered to be a form of learning involving the elimination of behaviours that are not needed by the animal. Habituation may

  • habitus (sociology)

    Pierre Bourdieu: Bourdieu’s concept of habitus (socially acquired dispositions) was influential in recent postmodernist humanities and social sciences.

  • Hable con ella (film by Almodóvar [2002])

    bullfighting: Bullfighting and the arts: …and Hable con ella (2002; Talk to Her), which deals with, among other things, the relationship between a female bullfighter and her lover. In art as in society, bullfighting’s “dance with death” sparks commentary, controversy, and endless interpretation.

  • Håblose slaegter (novel by Bang)

    Herman Bang: His first novel, Håblose slaegter (1880; “Hopeless Generations”), was confiscated as immoral for its depiction of the life of a decadent homosexual writer. Although he also wrote plays, poetry, short stories, and criticism, Bang is best known for his novels, some of which have been translated into English:…

  • haboku (Japanese painting style)

    Japanese art: Painting and calligraphy: …for his landscapes in the haboku (“splashed-ink”) technique, a style promulgated by Chinese Chan Buddhist painters who likened the spontaneous brushwork and intuitively understood (rather than realistically depicted) forms to the spontaneous, intuitive experience of Chan enlightenment.

  • Haboku-sansui (scroll by Sesshu)

    Sesshū: Mature years and works: …usually referred to as the “Haboku-sansui” scroll (formally titled Landscape). Painted in 1495, this work was given by Sesshū to his pupil Sōen when he returned to Kamakura after studying under the master.

  • haboob (wind storm)

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