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  • Hambletonian Stakes (horse race)

    Hambletonian Stakes, annual American horse race for three-year-old trotters, one of harness racing’s most widely known events. The Hambletonian was first held in 1926 at Syracuse, New York. It was later moved to Goshen, New York, in 1957 to Du Quoin, Illinois, and in 1981 to Meadowlands (New

  • Hambletonian Trot (horse race)

    Hambletonian Stakes, annual American horse race for three-year-old trotters, one of harness racing’s most widely known events. The Hambletonian was first held in 1926 at Syracuse, New York. It was later moved to Goshen, New York, in 1957 to Du Quoin, Illinois, and in 1981 to Meadowlands (New

  • hambo (dance)

    polska: The lively and very popular hambo is a 19th-century offshoot of the gammal polska. The Norwegian dance analogous to the Swedish polska is the pols.

  • Hamburg (Germany)

    Hamburg, city and Land (state), located on the Elbe River in northern Germany. It is the country’s largest port and commercial centre. The Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt) of Hamburg is the second smallest of the 16 Länder of Germany, with a territory of only 292 square miles (755

  • Hamburg (South Carolina, United States)

    Aiken: In 1848 Hamburg (near present-day North Augusta), across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia, was a centre of the slave trade, which was banned in Georgia. Aiken county was established in 1871 and named for the politician and railroad executive William Aiken. Race riots in Hamburg and…

  • Hamburg Art Gallery (art gallery, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg Art Gallery, art gallery in Hamburg, founded in 1850, with paintings and sculptures of all periods, drawings (notably by German Romantics), prints, coins, and medals. The collection of paintings is strongest in works of the later 19th and the 20th centuries. The building that originally

  • Hamburg Dramaturgy (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: …drama, under the title of Hamburgische Dramaturgie (1767–69). Here, too, Lessing argued against tragedy modeled on that of Corneille and Voltaire, although he praised the realism of the contemporary French writer Denis Diderot’s descriptions of middle-class life. Lessing interpreted Aristotle’s concept of tragic catharsis (purging) as meaning the emotional release…

  • Hamburg Hall of the Arts (art gallery, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg Art Gallery, art gallery in Hamburg, founded in 1850, with paintings and sculptures of all periods, drawings (notably by German Romantics), prints, coins, and medals. The collection of paintings is strongest in works of the later 19th and the 20th centuries. The building that originally

  • Hamburg National Theatre (theatre, Germany)

    theatre: Developments in northern Europe: …establishment in 1767 of the Hamburg National Theatre, the first noncommercial public theatre, subsidized by a group of rich citizens. This marked the beginning of a movement that gained force during the next decade and can be found even today in East German theatre. The prevailing attitude was that theatre…

  • Hamburg Opera (opera company, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Hamburg Staatsoper, which dates from 1678, has won world renown. Its performances of classical and contemporary works bear comparison with those given by the great opera houses of Vienna, Milan, London, and New York City. The Deutsche Schauspielhaus, a leading theatre, enjoyed a particularly high…

  • Hamburg Staatsoper (opera company, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Hamburg Staatsoper, which dates from 1678, has won world renown. Its performances of classical and contemporary works bear comparison with those given by the great opera houses of Vienna, Milan, London, and New York City. The Deutsche Schauspielhaus, a leading theatre, enjoyed a particularly high…

  • hamburg steak (food)

    Hamburger, ground beef. The term is applied variously to (1) a patty of ground beef, sometimes called hamburg steak, Salisbury steak, or Vienna steak, (2) a sandwich consisting of a patty of beef served within a split bread roll, with various garnishes, or (3) the ground beef itself, which is used

  • Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (physics laboratory, Hamburg, Germany)

    DESY: … and ultraviolet wavelengths) for the Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB). HASYLAB is a national user research facility administered within DESY that invites scientists to explore the applications of synchrotron-radiation research in molecular biology, materials science, chemistry, geophysics, and medicine.

  • Hamburg University (university, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Education: The Universität Hamburg, founded in 1919, is one of the largest in Germany, with some 46,000 students and faculties covering virtually every discipline except certain technological subjects. A second university, the Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, began classes in 1982. Hamburg also has state schools for music and…

  • Hamburg uprising (German history [1923])

    Weimar Republic: Threats of disintegration and civil war: The Hamburg rising was put down by the police, and the Reich government threatened drastic action if the Bavarian authorities did not fall into line. In a last effort to force the hand of the Bavarian government, Hitler attempted to stage a putsch in Munich on…

  • Hamburg, Treaty of (1701)

    Mecklenburg: …was permanently divided by the Treaty of Hamburg (1701). Most of the territory went to Mecklenburg-Schwerin, while Mecklenburg-Strelitz comprised the principality of Ratzeburg in the northwest and the lordship of Stargard in the southeast. In 1808 both duchies joined the Confederation of the Rhine set up by Napoleon I; the…

  • Hamburg, Treaty of (1641)

    history of Europe: The European war in Germany, 1635–45: By the terms of the Treaty of Hamburg (March 15, 1641), the two sides promised not to make a separate peace. Instead, joint negotiations with the emperor and the German princes for the satisfaction of the allies’ claims were to begin in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. And,…

  • Hamburg, University of (university, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Education: The Universität Hamburg, founded in 1919, is one of the largest in Germany, with some 46,000 students and faculties covering virtually every discipline except certain technological subjects. A second university, the Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, began classes in 1982. Hamburg also has state schools for music and…

  • hamburger (food)

    Hamburger, ground beef. The term is applied variously to (1) a patty of ground beef, sometimes called hamburg steak, Salisbury steak, or Vienna steak, (2) a sandwich consisting of a patty of beef served within a split bread roll, with various garnishes, or (3) the ground beef itself, which is used

  • Hamburger Kunsthalle (art gallery, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg Art Gallery, art gallery in Hamburg, founded in 1850, with paintings and sculptures of all periods, drawings (notably by German Romantics), prints, coins, and medals. The collection of paintings is strongest in works of the later 19th and the 20th centuries. The building that originally

  • Hamburger, Philip (American writer)

    Philip Hamburger, American writer (born July 2, 1914, Wheeling. W.Va.—died April 23, 2004, New York, N.Y.), worked under all five editors of The New Yorker magazine beginning in 1939. Hamburger, who was a reporter-at-large, wrote about all manner of subjects and people in pieces that included U

  • Hamburger, Viktor (German-American embryologist and zoologist)

    Viktor Hamburger, German-born American embryologist (born July 9, 1900, Landeshut, Ger. [now Kamienna Gora, Pol.]—died June 12, 2001, St. Louis, Mo.), was a pioneer in the field of neuroembryology; he was noted for having defined and classified the different stages of embryonic development and f

  • Hamburger, Yosef (Israeli Zionist and intelligence officer)

    Yossi Harel, (Yosef Hamburger), Israeli Zionist and intelligence officer (born Jan. 4, 1918?, Jerusalem, British Palestine [now in Israel]—died April 26, 2008, Tel Aviv, Israel), commanded the ship Exodus 1947, which sailed from the port of Sète (near Marseille) in July 1947, carrying more than

  • Hamburgian culture (anthropology)

    history of the Low Countries: Upper Paleolithic (35,000–10,000 bp): …sites from sites of the Hamburgian tradition (emanating from western Germany) in the northern Netherlands. The latter included reindeer-hunting peoples who were the first colonists of the North European Plain at the end of the last (Weichsel) ice age. Later cultural traditions (including the Federmesser, Creswellian, and Ahrensburgian) formed the…

  • Hamburgische Dramaturgie (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: …drama, under the title of Hamburgische Dramaturgie (1767–69). Here, too, Lessing argued against tragedy modeled on that of Corneille and Voltaire, although he praised the realism of the contemporary French writer Denis Diderot’s descriptions of middle-class life. Lessing interpreted Aristotle’s concept of tragic catharsis (purging) as meaning the emotional release…

  • Hamburgische Geschichte, Museum für (museum, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, which has grown from a collection of local antiquities started in 1839, contains a wide range of exhibits, from costumes to parts of old buildings and from architect’s drawings to models of ships, shown in such a way as to present…

  • hamd (plant)

    Arabia: Plant life: The leaves of varieties called hamd have enough salinity to satisfy the camel’s need for salt. The tough perennials are as essential to life as the tender annuals nourished by the rains of winter and spring. The rains also assist in growing the truffle, which the Bedouin dig out of…

  • Ḥamḍ, Wadi Al- (river, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabia: The Hejaz and Asir: Wadi Al-Ḥamḍ, an intermittent river drawing water from the Medina Basin on the inner side of the escarpment, breaks through the mountains to reach the Red Sea. Another pass leads to Mecca and Al-Ṭāʾif in the highlands. The mountains become higher again in Asir, where…

  • Hamdallah, Rami (Palestinian government official)

    Rami Hamdallah, Palestinian educator and university administrator who served as prime minister (2013; 2014–19) of the Palestinian Authority (PA). He resigned in January 2019 but remained in a caretaker position until March, when a replacement was appointed. Hamdallah was born and raised in the West

  • Ḥamdān ibn Ḥamdūn (Arab leader)

    Ḥamdānid Dynasty: Ḥamdān ibn Ḥamdūn brought the family, already well established in Al-Jazīrah, to political prominence by taking part in uprisings against the ʿAbbāsid caliph late in the 9th century. His sons, however, became ʿAbbāsid officials, al-Ḥusayn serving as a military commander and Abū al-Hayjāʾ ʿAbd Allāh…

  • Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ (Islamic leader)

    Qarmatian: …centuries, taking their name from Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ, who led the sect in southern Iraq in the second half of the 9th century. The Qarmatians became notorious for an insurrection in Syria and Iraq in 903–906 and for the exploits of two Bahraini leaders, Abū Saʿīd al-Jannābī and his son and…

  • Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (law case)

    George W. Bush: Treatment of detainees: Supreme Court, in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, declared that the system of military commissions that the administration had intended to use to try selected prisoners at Guantánamo on charges of war crimes was in violation of the Geneva Conventions and the Uniform Code of Military Justice, which governs American…

  • Hamdānī, al- (Arab author)

    Al-Hamdānī, Arab geographer, poet, grammarian, historian, and astronomer whose chief fame derives from his authoritative writings on South Arabian history and geography. From his literary production al-Hamdānī was known as the “tongue of South Arabia.” Most of al-Hamdānī’s life was spent in Arabia

  • Ḥamdānid dynasty (Muslim Arab dynasty)

    Ḥamdānid Dynasty, Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazīrah) and Syria (905–1004) whose members were renowned as brilliant warriors and as great patrons of Arabic poets and scholars. Ḥamdān ibn Ḥamdūn brought the family, already well established in Al-Jazīrah, to political prominence by

  • Hamden (Connecticut, United States)

    Hamden, urban town (township), New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies immediately north of the city of New Haven. The area, which was settled in 1664, was named for John Hampden, an English parliamentarian. It was separated from New Haven and incorporated as a town in 1786. Eli

  • Hamdi Bey, Osman (Turkish statesman)

    Osman Hamdi Bey, Ottoman statesman, painter, and art expert who put forth legislation aimed at regulating finds made by various archaeological enterprises in the Ottoman Empire and preventing the antiquities from being smuggled abroad. Hamdi Bey founded the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul and

  • Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (law case)

    Johnson v. Eisentrager: Bush and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld—involving detainees in the war on terrorism. In their decisions, the court reversed the ruling it had made more than 50 years earlier in Johnson v. Eisentrager. In a 6–3 decision, the court held that U.S. courts may respond to the habeas corpus…

  • Ḥamdī, Ibrāhīm al- (Yemeni leader)

    Yemen: Security: Ibrāhīm al-Ḥamdī in 1974. Internal security is a major concern of the government. The Political Security Organization is the major intelligence organ of the state; police and paramilitary groups provide security, and the Criminal Investigation Department conducts criminal investigations.

  • Hamdismál (Scandinavian literature)

    Icelandic literature: The heroic lays: …of all is perhaps the Hamdismál (“Lay of Hamdir”), which forcefully expressed the heroic ideals of Germanic tribal life. The story closely resembles one told by Jordanes, a Gothic historian of the mid-6th century, and his account suggests that his source was an even earlier poem about Hamdir. Another of…

  • Hamdok, Abdalla (prime minister of Sudan)

    Sudan: Transition: Abdalla Hamdok, selected by the civilian groups’ alliance, was appointed prime minister, and he formed a cabinet on September 5. Citing the civilian-led government now in place, the AU lifted its suspension of Sudan the following day.

  • Ḥamdollāh Mostowfī (Persian writer)

    Islamic arts: Belles lettres: The cosmography of Ḥamdollāh Mostowfī (died after 1340), Nuzhat al-qulūb (“Pleasure of the Hearts”), like many earlier works of this genre, underlined the mysterious aspects of the marvels of creation and was the most famous of several instructive collections of mixed folkloristic and scientific material. Early miniaturists, too,…

  • Häme (province, Finland)

    Häme, historic region, southwestern Finland. It lies north of Helsinki and includes part of Lake Päijänne, which serves as much of its eastern boundary. The region produces lumber, rye, oats, barley, and potatoes; livestock and dairy cows are also important. It is the home of the Hämäläiset

  • Hamed, Naseem (British athlete)

    Yemen: Sports and recreation: …living abroad enjoyed great success: Naseem Hamed, a British boxer of Yemeni ancestry, held the world featherweight title during the late 1990s and early 21st century; and Isra Girgrah, a female boxer born in Yemen and fighting out of the United States, held several lightweight belts during that same period.

  • Hamed, Prince Naseem (British athlete)

    Yemen: Sports and recreation: …living abroad enjoyed great success: Naseem Hamed, a British boxer of Yemeni ancestry, held the world featherweight title during the late 1990s and early 21st century; and Isra Girgrah, a female boxer born in Yemen and fighting out of the United States, held several lightweight belts during that same period.

  • Hämeen Lääni (province, Finland)

    Häme, historic region, southwestern Finland. It lies north of Helsinki and includes part of Lake Päijänne, which serves as much of its eastern boundary. The region produces lumber, rye, oats, barley, and potatoes; livestock and dairy cows are also important. It is the home of the Hämäläiset

  • Hämeenlinna (Finland)

    Hämeenlinna, city, southwestern Finland. It lies on the shore of Lake Vanaja, northwest of Helsinki. The city’s name is derived from the castle of Häme, parts of which date from about 1250. The town, originally chartered in 1639, was first located north of the castle but moved to its present site,

  • Hamel, Hendrik (Dutch navigator)

    Korea: The introduction of Roman Catholicism: Thirteen years later Hendrik Hamel and seven others escaped and returned home. Hamel wrote an account of his experiences—the first book on Korea published in Europe.

  • HaMelaẖ, Yam (lake, Asia)

    Dead Sea, landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan in southwestern Asia. Its eastern shore belongs to Jordan, and the southern half of its western shore belongs to Israel. The northern half of the western shore lies within the Palestinian West Bank and has been under Israeli occupation since

  • Hamelin (Germany)

    Hameln, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany. It lies along the Weser River, southwest of Hannover. Originating around the Abbey of St. Boniface, which was founded by monks from Fulda at the end of the 8th century, Hameln was a market centre dependent on the Abbey of Fulda until

  • Hamelin, Ferdinand Alphonse (French naval officer)

    Ferdinand Alphonse Hamelin, French naval officer who was an early advocate of armour for naval vessels. Hamelin’s naval career began in 1806 when he served as shipboy aboard the frigate Vénus, commanded by his uncle, Baron Jacques-Félix-Emmanuel Hamelin. He later took part in the expedition to

  • Hamelin, Louis (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: …to as Generation X writers, Louis Hamelin (La Rage [1989; “Rabies”]) and Christian Mistral (Vamp [1988]) began in the late 1980s to focus literary attention on the social concerns of their age.

  • Hameln (Germany)

    Hameln, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany. It lies along the Weser River, southwest of Hannover. Originating around the Abbey of St. Boniface, which was founded by monks from Fulda at the end of the 8th century, Hameln was a market centre dependent on the Abbey of Fulda until

  • Hamels, Cole (American baseball player)

    Philadelphia Phillies: …behind the dominant pitching of Cole Hamels and Brad Lidge. There they defeated the Tampa Bay Rays in five games to win the franchise’s second World Series title. In 2009 the Phillies won their second consecutive NL pennant but lost to the New York Yankees in the World Series. Between…

  • Hamengkubuwana I (sultan of Yogyakarta)

    Yogyakarta: …intervention in Javanese politics, Sultan Hamengkubuwana I moved his court from Kuta Gede to Yogya in Mataram in 1755 and renamed the town Yogyakarta. The British captured Yogyakarta in 1811, and Sultan Hamengkubuwana II was deposed and exiled. In 1816 the Dutch repossessed the island of Java, and by 1830…

  • Hamengkubuwana II (sultan of Yogyakarta)

    Yogyakarta: …Yogyakarta in 1811, and Sultan Hamengkubuwana II was deposed and exiled. In 1816 the Dutch repossessed the island of Java, and by 1830 Dutch colonial rule was firmly established in the sultanate. After the period of Japanese occupation during World War II, the Republic of Indonesia was formed. The national…

  • Hamer, Fannie Lou (American civil-rights activist)

    Fannie Lou Hamer, African American civil rights activist who worked to desegregate the Mississippi Democratic Party. The youngest of 20 children, Fannie Lou was working the fields with her sharecropper parents at the age of six. Amid poverty and racial exploitation, she received only a sixth-grade

  • Hamer, Robert (British director and screenwriter)

    Kind Hearts and Coronets: Production notes and credits:

  • hamerkop (bird)

    Hammerhead, (Scopus umbretta), African wading bird, the sole species of the family Scopidae (order Ciconiiformes or Pelecaniformes). The hammerhead ranges over Africa south of the Sahara and occurs on Madagascar and in southwestern Arabia. It is about 60 cm (2 feet) long, nearly uniform umber or

  • Hamerling, Robert (German poet)

    Robert Hamerling, Austrian poet remembered chiefly for his epics. After studying in Vienna, he became a teacher in Trieste (1855–66). He wrote several popular collections of lyrics, including Ein Schwanenlied der Romantik (1862; “A Swan Song of the Romantic”), which have some attractive rhythms but

  • Hamersley Basin (geological feature, Western Australia, Australia)

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …Australia, studied deposits in the Hamersley Basin and found that individual thin layers could be traced for more than 100 kilometres. Such continuity suggests that evaporation played a major role in precipitating both the iron minerals and the silica. A second remarkable feature of Lake Superior-type deposits is that they…

  • Hamersley Range (mountains, Western Australia, Australia)

    Hamersley Range, mountains in the Pilbara region, northwestern Western Australia, extending east-southeast for 160 miles (260 km) south of the Fortescue River. Part of an ancient tableland broken by faults and gorges, the range terminates in rocky headlands and coral islets at the Indian Ocean. It

  • Hamerton treaty (British-East African history)

    eastern Africa: The Omani ascendancy: …been to accept the so-called Hamerton Treaty of 1845, by which the export of slaves to his Arabian dominions was forbidden.

  • hames collar (harness)

    horse collar: A hames collar is heavily padded; iron projections (hames) that surround the padding contain eyepieces for the reins and traces.

  • ḥametz (leavened food)

    Judaism: Pilgrim Festivals: …and foods containing leaven (ḥametz) are neither to be owned nor consumed during Pesaḥ. Aside from meats, fresh fruits, and vegetables, it is customary to consume only food prepared under rabbinic supervision and labelled “kosher for Passover,” warranting that they are completely free of contact with leaven. In many…

  • Hamgyŏng Mountains (mountains, North Korea)

    Hamgyŏng Mountains, mountain range, northeastern North Korea. The range forms a watershed that separates the northern frontier area along the Chinese border from the eastern Sea of Japan (East Sea) area. The Hamgyŏng Mountains lie on the northeastern edge of the Kaema Highlands and stretch

  • Hamgyŏng-sanmaek (mountains, North Korea)

    Hamgyŏng Mountains, mountain range, northeastern North Korea. The range forms a watershed that separates the northern frontier area along the Chinese border from the eastern Sea of Japan (East Sea) area. The Hamgyŏng Mountains lie on the northeastern edge of the Kaema Highlands and stretch

  • Hamhŭng (North Korea)

    Hamhŭng, city, capital of South Hamgyŏng do (province), east-central North Korea. It was the commercial and local administrative centre of northeastern Korea during the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910). It began to develop rapidly as a modern industrial city with the construction in 1928 of a large

  • Hami (China)

    Hami, city and oasis, eastern Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. An important stage on the roads from Gansu province into Central Asia and to the west, Hami was known to the Chinese in early times as Yiwu, the name Hami being the Chinese rendering of the Mongolian version (Khamil) of the

  • Hami Basin (basin, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: …the Turfan Depression is the Hami (Qomul) Basin; both basins are bounded to the north by the Bogda Mountains, with elevations of up to 17,864 feet (5,445 metres), and by the eastern extremity of the Tien Shan, the Karlik Mountains, which reach a maximum elevation of 16,158 feet (4,925 metres).

  • Hamid dynasty (Turkmen dynasty)

    Hamid Dynasty, Turkmen dynasty (c. 1300–1423) that ruled in southwestern Anatolia. It was founded by Felekuddin Dündar, whose father, Ilyas, was a frontier ruler under the Seljuqs and who named it after his grandfather; Dündar governed the Hamid principality jointly with his brother Yunus, with two

  • Hamid-Abad (Turkey)

    Isparta, city, western Turkey. It is located at the western end of the Taurus Mountains. Known as Baris under the Byzantine Empire, it was taken by the Seljuq Turks in 1203–04. Later it belonged to the Turkmen Hamid principality, the last ruler of which sold it to the Ottoman sultan about 1381. The

  • Hamideli (Turkey)

    Isparta, city, western Turkey. It is located at the western end of the Taurus Mountains. Known as Baris under the Byzantine Empire, it was taken by the Seljuq Turks in 1203–04. Later it belonged to the Turkmen Hamid principality, the last ruler of which sold it to the Ottoman sultan about 1381. The

  • Hamidian massacres (Ottoman and Armenian history)

    Hamidian massacres, series of atrocities carried out by Ottoman forces and Kurdish irregulars against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire between 1894 and 1896. They are generally called the Hamidian massacres—after the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II, during whose reign they were carried out—to

  • Hamilcar Barca (Carthaginian general)

    Hamilcar Barca, general who assumed command of the Carthaginian forces in Sicily during the last years of the First Punic War with Rome (264–241 bce). Until the rise to power of his son Hannibal, Hamilcar was the finest commander and statesman that Carthage had produced. Nothing is known of

  • Hamill camel (figure skating)

    Dorothy Hamill: Hamill invented the Hamill camel, a camel spin that is followed by a sit spin.

  • Hamill, Dorothy (American figure skater)

    Dorothy Hamill, American figure skater who won the gold medal for women’s figure skating in the 1976 Olympic Winter Games in Innsbruck, Austria. Hamill first skated at age eight on a backyard pond. By 14 she was being privately tutored so that she could skate up to seven hours per day. In the 1970s

  • Hamill, Dorothy Stuart (American figure skater)

    Dorothy Hamill, American figure skater who won the gold medal for women’s figure skating in the 1976 Olympic Winter Games in Innsbruck, Austria. Hamill first skated at age eight on a backyard pond. By 14 she was being privately tutored so that she could skate up to seven hours per day. In the 1970s

  • Hamilton (New Zealand)

    Hamilton, city, Waikato regional council, north-central North Island, New Zealand. It lies 80 miles (130 km) above the mouth of the Waikato River. Hamilton originated as a military settlement on the site of a deserted Maori village. Declared a borough in 1877 and a city in 1945, it was named for

  • Hamilton (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Hamilton, large burgh (town), South Lanarkshire council area, historic county of Lanarkshire, west-central Scotland, situated near the junction of Avon Water and the River Clyde, just southeast of the metropolitan complex of Glasgow. The area has been settled since prehistoric times. Cadzow Castle,

  • Hamilton (musical play by Miranda)

    Lin-Manuel Miranda: The resulting Hamilton was energetic and infectious, and it featured a racially diverse cast, with Miranda starring in the title role. In January 2015 the musical opened Off-Broadway at New York City’s Public Theater, where its huge success led to an early move to Broadway in July.…

  • Hamilton (county, New York, United States)

    Hamilton, county, northeastern New York state, U.S., consisting of a mountainous region located in the centre of Adirondack Park (1892), which is one of the largest parks in the United States and the nation’s first forest preserve. The area is heavily wooded with spruce and balsam fir trees.

  • Hamilton (Victoria, Australia)

    Hamilton, city in the fertile western region of Victoria, Australia, on the Grange Burn River. The original village (founded in 1850) grew around an inn on the north bank of the river and was called The Grange. It became an important way station for coach traffic in the 1850s between Portland and

  • Hamilton (Bermuda)

    Hamilton, capital of the British overseas territory of Bermuda. It lies on Main Island (Great Bermuda) in the western Atlantic Ocean, along the northern shore of a deepwater harbour. The name also applies to one of the nine parishes on the island. Founded in 1790 and incorporated in 1793, Hamilton

  • Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    Hamilton, city, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies at the extreme western end of Lake Ontario, on the southern shore of landlocked Hamilton Harbour (Burlington Bay). The site was visited by the French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, in 1669. Settlement began with the arrival of

  • Hamilton (Ohio, United States)

    Hamilton, city, seat (1803) of Butler county, southwestern Ohio, U.S., on the Great Miami River, about 25 miles (40 km) north of Cincinnati. In 1794 a town called Fairfield was laid out adjoining Fort Hamilton, which was used in 1791–96 by Gen. Arthur St. Clair and Gen. “Mad” Anthony Wayne against

  • Hamilton circuit (mathematics)

    graph theory: …path, later known as a Hamiltonian circuit, along the edges of a dodecahedron (a Platonic solid consisting of 12 pentagonal faces) that begins and ends at the same corner while passing through each corner exactly once. The knight’s tour (see number game: Chessboard problems) is another example of a recreational…

  • Hamilton College (college, Clinton, New York, United States)

    Hamilton College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Clinton, New York, U.S. It is a liberal arts college and offers a curriculum in the humanities, social sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. It awards the bachelor’s degree. Students can choose to study abroad in

  • Hamilton Fish, The Inner History of the Grant Administration (work by Nevins)

    Allan Nevins: …Study in Courage (1932) and Hamilton Fish, The Inner History of the Grant Administration (1936). In 1948 he inaugurated the oral history movement in the United States, establishing at Columbia a project for preserving on tape interviews with notable figures whose views of current affairs would interest future historians.

  • Hamilton Gardens (public gardens, Hamilton, New Zealand)

    Hamilton: …its constituent galleries, and the Hamilton Gardens, a multifunctional facility featuring botanical displays, public art, educational programs, and special events facility. Pop. (2006) 155,262; (2012 est.) 176,900.

  • Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution (university, Hamilton, New York, United States)

    Colgate University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hamilton, New York, U.S. The university offers a liberal arts curriculum for undergraduates and several master’s degree programs. Campus facilities include an automated observatory, the Dana Arts Center, and the Longyear

  • Hamilton of Gilbertfield, William (Scottish writer)

    William Hamilton of Gilbertfield, Scottish writer whose vernacular poetry is among the earliest in the 18th-century Scottish literary revival. After serving in the British Army, he retired to the life of a country gentleman. He became closely acquainted with the poet Allan Ramsay, with whom he

  • Hamilton Oneida Academy (college, Clinton, New York, United States)

    Hamilton College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Clinton, New York, U.S. It is a liberal arts college and offers a curriculum in the humanities, social sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. It awards the bachelor’s degree. Students can choose to study abroad in

  • Hamilton River (river, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Churchill River, largest river of Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. It is formed from several river-lakes on the central plateau of western Labrador (a region of extensive iron-ore development) and meanders more than 200 miles (300 km) to Churchill Falls. There, the course is broken by a series of c

  • Hamilton Standard (American company)

    United Technologies Corporation: Luttrell) to form Hamilton Standard Propeller Corporation. Hamilton Standard became the leading maker of aircraft propellers, producing more than 500,000 during World War II. In 1949 the subsidiary removed Propeller from its name and began to diversify, starting with the development of aircraft fuel controls and satellite control…

  • Hamilton Technologies (American company)

    Margaret Hamilton: …Software in 1976 and established Hamilton Technologies 10 years later.

  • Hamilton Tiger-Cats (Canadian football team)

    Canadian Football League: …the East Division are the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Ottawa Redblacks, Montreal Alouettes, and Toronto Argonauts.

  • Hamilton Tigers (Canadian football team)

    Canadian Football League: …the East Division are the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Ottawa Redblacks, Montreal Alouettes, and Toronto Argonauts.

  • Hamilton’s equations (mathematics)

    mechanics: Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s equations: …even more powerful method called Hamilton’s equations. It begins by defining a generalized momentum pi, which is related to the Lagrangian and the generalized velocity q̇i by pi = ∂L/∂q̇i. A new function, the Hamiltonian, is then defined by H = Σi q̇i pi − L. From

  • Hamilton’s principle

    principles of physical science: Manifestations of the extremal principle: …the Irish mathematician and scientist William Rowan Hamilton in 1835. Though very general, it is well enough illustrated by a simple example, the path taken by a particle between two points A and B in a region where the potential ϕ(r) is everywhere defined. Once the total energy E of…

  • Hamilton’s rule (biology)

    animal behaviour: Function: Hamilton devised a formula—now called Hamilton’s rule—that specifies the conditions under which reproductive altruism evolves: r × B > C where B is the benefit (in number of offspring equivalents) gained by the recipient of the altruism, C is the cost (in number of offspring equivalents) suffered by the donor…

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