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  • hypovolemic shock (pathology)

    diagnosis: Emergency: …drop characterizes shock; for example, hypovolemic shock is caused by inadequate blood volume, cardiogenic shock is caused by reduced heart function, and neurogenic shock and septic shock are caused by malfunction of the vascular system. This malfunction, which can be caused by severe allergic reaction such as anaphylaxis or by…

  • hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (enzyme)

    metabolic disease: Purine and pyrimidine disorders: …a deficiency in the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The nervous system is affected, resulting in writhing movements in the first year of life, after a period of normal development. A particularly troublesome feature is the occurrence of self-mutilation. Intellectual disability is also common. Most individuals with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome excrete a large…

  • hypoxemia (medical condition)

    blood disease: Polycythemia: …with air) may produce chronic hypoxemia (reduced oxygen tension in the blood) and lead to polycythemia. Extreme obesity also may severely impair pulmonary ventilation and thereby cause polycythemia (pickwickian syndrome).

  • hypoxemic hypoxia (medical condition)

    blood disease: Polycythemia: …with air) may produce chronic hypoxemia (reduced oxygen tension in the blood) and lead to polycythemia. Extreme obesity also may severely impair pulmonary ventilation and thereby cause polycythemia (pickwickian syndrome).

  • hypoxia (medical condition)

    Hypoxia, in biology and medicine, condition of the body in which the tissues are starved of oxygen. In its extreme form, where oxygen is entirely absent, the condition is called anoxia. Four types of hypoxia are distinguished in medicine: (1) the hypoxemic type, in which the oxygen pressure in the

  • hypoxia-inducible factor (biology)

    hypoxia: …of a molecule known as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Under normal oxygen conditions, a protein called von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) undergoes chemical modification enabling it to bind to HIF, thereby marking HIF for degradation. However, when oxygen levels are low, VHL is not modified and therefore cannot attach to HIF; as a…

  • Hypsilophodon (dinosaur)

    Hypsilophodon, (genus Hypsilophodon), small to medium-sized herbivorous dinosaurs that flourished about 115 million to 110 million years ago during the Early Cretaceous Period. Hypsilophodon was up to 2 metres (6.5 feet) long and weighed about 60 kg (130 pounds). It had short arms with five fingers

  • hypsilophodont (dinosaur family)

    ornithopod: Fabrosauridae, Heterodontosauridae, Hypsilophodontidae, Iguanodontidae, and Hadrosauridae (the duck-billed dinosaurs). The fabrosaurs were the earliest and most primitive of the ornithopods; these small, lightly built dinosaurs reached lengths of 60–120 cm (2–4 feet). The heterodontosaurs began to develop the horny beaks and specialized teeth typical of ornithischians. The…

  • Hypsilophodontidae (dinosaur family)

    ornithopod: Fabrosauridae, Heterodontosauridae, Hypsilophodontidae, Iguanodontidae, and Hadrosauridae (the duck-billed dinosaurs). The fabrosaurs were the earliest and most primitive of the ornithopods; these small, lightly built dinosaurs reached lengths of 60–120 cm (2–4 feet). The heterodontosaurs began to develop the horny beaks and specialized teeth typical of ornithischians. The…

  • Hypsiprymnodon moschatus (marsupial)

    rat kangaroo: The musky rat kangaroo (Hypsiprymnodon moschatus) inhabits the tropical rainforests of northeastern Queensland. The only member of Hypsiprymnodontidae, it is more primitive than any potoroid or macropodid in that it retains the first digit of the hind foot and a small lateral incisor in the lower…

  • Hypsiprymnodontidae (marsupial family)

    rat kangaroo: constituting the families Potoroidae and Hypsiprymnodontidae, related to the kangaroo family, Macropodidae. Other potoroids are known only as fossils; the Potoroidae were already separated from the Macropodidae by the late Oligocene Epoch, some 25 million years ago.

  • Hypsipyle (Greek mythology)

    Hypsipyle, in Greek legend, daughter of Dionysus’s son Thoas, king of the island of Lemnos. When the women of Lemnos, furious at their husbands’ betrayal, murdered all the men on the island, Hypsipyle hid her father and aided his escape. She became queen of the island and welcomed the Argonauts

  • hypsithermal (geology)

    global warming: Climatic variation since the last glaciation: …sometimes referred to as the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. The relative warmth of average near-surface air temperatures at this time, however, is somewhat unclear. Changes in the pattern of insolation favoured warmer summers at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, but these changes also produced cooler winters in the Northern Hemisphere…

  • hypsodent teeth (zoology)

    perissodactyl: Teeth: High-crowned teeth are termed hypsodont. The hollows between the lophs of hypsodont teeth are filled with a deposit of secondary cement, which strengthens the teeth and makes them more resistant to wear. A further evolutionary trend is for premolars to become as large as molars. Where the process of…

  • hypsodont teeth (zoology)

    perissodactyl: Teeth: High-crowned teeth are termed hypsodont. The hollows between the lophs of hypsodont teeth are filled with a deposit of secondary cement, which strengthens the teeth and makes them more resistant to wear. A further evolutionary trend is for premolars to become as large as molars. Where the process of…

  • hypsodont tooth (zoology)

    perissodactyl: Teeth: High-crowned teeth are termed hypsodont. The hollows between the lophs of hypsodont teeth are filled with a deposit of secondary cement, which strengthens the teeth and makes them more resistant to wear. A further evolutionary trend is for premolars to become as large as molars. Where the process of…

  • hypsographic curve (geology)

    Hypsometric curve, cumulative height frequency curve for the Earth’s surface or some part thereof. A hypsometric curve is essentially a graph that shows the proportion of land area that exists at various elevations by plotting relative area against relative height. In the hypsometric curve of the t

  • hypsographic tinting (cartography)

    map: Symbolization: Hypsographic tinting is relatively easy, particularly since photomechanical etching and other steps can be used to provide negatives for the respective elevation layers. Difficulty in the reproduction process is sometimes a deterrent to the use of treatments involving the manipulation of contours.

  • hypsometric curve (geology)

    Hypsometric curve, cumulative height frequency curve for the Earth’s surface or some part thereof. A hypsometric curve is essentially a graph that shows the proportion of land area that exists at various elevations by plotting relative area against relative height. In the hypsometric curve of the t

  • hypsometry (measurement)

    Hypsometry, the science of measuring the elevation and depth of features on Earth’s surface with respect to sea level. Data collected using hypsometers, wire sounders, echo sounders, and satellite-based altimeters is used to quantify the distribution of land at different elevations across a given

  • Hypsypops rubicunda (fish)

    damselfish: …aruanus) of the Indo-Pacific; the garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus), a bright orange California fish about 30 cm long; the beau gregory (Eupomacentrus leucostictus), a blue-and-yellow Atlantic species; and the sergeant major (Abudefduf saxatilis), a black-banded, bluish and yellow fish of the tropical Atlantic.

  • Hyptiotes (arachnid)

    spider: Spider webs: …group within this family (genus Hyptiotes) weaves only a partial orb. The spider, attached by a thread to vegetation, holds one thread from the tip of the hub until an insect brushes the web. The spider then alternately relaxes and tightens the thread, and the struggling victim becomes completely entangled.…

  • hyracodont (fossil mammal family)

    perissodactyl: Rhinoceroses: …branch, perhaps derived from primitive hyracodonts. Metamynodon and some other forms were about as large as hippopotamuses and may have lived in rivers. The premolars were simple and the incisors reduced, but canines and molars were enlarged.

  • Hyracodontidae (fossil mammal family)

    perissodactyl: Rhinoceroses: …branch, perhaps derived from primitive hyracodonts. Metamynodon and some other forms were about as large as hippopotamuses and may have lived in rivers. The premolars were simple and the incisors reduced, but canines and molars were enlarged.

  • Hyracoidea (mammal)

    Hyrax, (order Hyracoidea), any of six species of small hoofed mammals (ungulates) native to Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Hyraxes and pikas are sometimes called conies or rock rabbits, but the terms are misleading, as hyraxes are neither lagomorphs nor exclusively rock dwellers. The term

  • Hyracotherium (fossil equine genus)

    Eohippus, (genus Hyracotherium), extinct group of mammals that were the first known horses. They flourished in North America and Europe during the early part of the Eocene Epoch (56 million to 33.9 million years ago). Even though these animals are more commonly known as Eohippus, a name given by

  • hyrax (mammal)

    Hyrax, (order Hyracoidea), any of six species of small hoofed mammals (ungulates) native to Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Hyraxes and pikas are sometimes called conies or rock rabbits, but the terms are misleading, as hyraxes are neither lagomorphs nor exclusively rock dwellers. The term

  • Hyrcania (ancient region, Iran)

    Hyrcania, (“Wolf’s Land”), ancient region located southeast of the Caspian Sea. Its capital was Zadracarta (Astrabad, modern Gorgān), and it formed part of the Median, Achaemenian, Seleucid, and Parthian empires, either as an independent province or joined with Parthia. In the list of Persian

  • Hyrcanus (king of Judaea)

    John Hyrcanus I, high priest and ruler of the Jewish nation from 135/134 to 104 bc. Under his reign the Hasmonean kingdom of Judaea in ancient Palestine attained power and great prosperity, and the Pharisees, a scholarly sect with popular backing, and the Sadducees, an aristocratic sect that

  • Hyrcanus (king of Judaea)

    John Hyrcanus II , high priest of Judaea from 76 to 40 bc, and, with his brother Aristobulus II, last of the Maccabean (Hasmonean) dynastic rulers. Under Hyrcanus’ vacillating leadership, Judaea (southern of the three traditional divisions of ancient Palestine, today mostly in Israel) fell into

  • Hyre, Laurent de La (French painter)

    Laurent de La Hyre, French Baroque classical painter whose best work is marked by gravity, simplicity, and dignity. He was the son of the painter Étienne de La Hire (c. 1583–1643) but was most influenced by the work of Georges Lallemont and Orazio Gentileschi. His picture of Pope Nicolas V at the

  • Hysing, Hans (Swedish painter)

    Allan Ramsay: …with the Swedish portrait painter Hans Hysing (1734). His style was also influenced by Francesco Imperiali and Francesco Solimena during his studies in Italy in 1736–38. On settling in London in 1739 Ramsay soon became a popular portraitist, although he reached the height of his powers only after his return…

  • Hyspaosines (king of Mesene)

    Mesene: …129 bc, a local prince, Hyspaosines (also called Aspasine, or Spasines), founded the Mesene kingdom, which survived until the rise of the Sāsānian empire. Hyspaosines refortified a town originally founded by Alexander the Great near the junction of the Eulaeus (Kārūn) and Tigris rivers and called it Spasinou Charax (“Fort…

  • hyssop (plant)

    Hyssop, (Hyssopus officinalis), evergreen garden herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae), grown for its aromatic leaves and flowers. The plant has a sweet scent and a warm bitter taste and has long been used as a flavouring for foods and beverages and as a folk medicine. Hyssop is native to the area

  • Hyssopus officinalis (plant)

    Hyssop, (Hyssopus officinalis), evergreen garden herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae), grown for its aromatic leaves and flowers. The plant has a sweet scent and a warm bitter taste and has long been used as a flavouring for foods and beverages and as a folk medicine. Hyssop is native to the area

  • Hystaspes (governor of Persis and Parthia)

    Hystaspes, son of Arsames, king of Parsa, and father of the Achaemenid king Darius I of Persia. According to the 5th-century-bc Greek historian Herodotus, Hystaspes was governor of Persis under Cyrus II the Great and Cambyses II and accompanied Cyrus on his last campaign against the Massagetai in

  • Hystaspes (ruler in Aryana Vaejah)

    Hystaspes, protector and follower of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster. Son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp) of the Naotara family, Hystaspes was a local ruler (kavi) in a country called in the Avesta (the Zoroastrian scripture) Aryana Vaejah, which may have been a Greater Chorasmian state abolished by the

  • Hysterangiales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Hysterangiales Most are saprotrophic; resembles puffballs when small, becoming pear-shaped and finally globose when mature; fruiting body may be pink to vibrant lilac in colour; mature internal tissue characterized by fetid odour; includes club-shaped stinkhorn; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Hysterangium, Phallogaster, Gallacea,…

  • hysterectomy (medical procedure)

    Hysterectomy, surgical removal of the complete uterus (total hysterectomy) or of the complete uterus except for the cervix (subtotal hysterectomy). The cervix is the outermost portion of the uterus, which projects into the vagina. Removal of the uterus is indicated in a number of abnormal

  • hysteresis (physics)

    Hysteresis, lagging of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic material, such as iron, behind variations of the magnetizing field. When ferromagnetic materials are placed within a coil of wire carrying an electric current, the magnetizing field, or magnetic field strength H, caused by the current

  • hysteresis curve (physics)

    magnetism: Remanence: The hysteresis curve is not unique unless saturation is attained in each direction; interruption and reversal of the cycle at an intermediate field strength results in a hysteresis curve of smaller size.

  • hysteresis damping (physics)

    damping: …structure itself that is called hysteresis damping or, sometimes, structural damping. In hysteresis damping, some of the energy involved in the repetitive internal deformation and restoration to original shape is dissipated in the form of random vibrations of the crystal lattice in solids and random kinetic energy of the molecules…

  • hysteresis loop (physics)

    magnetism: Remanence: The hysteresis curve is not unique unless saturation is attained in each direction; interruption and reversal of the cycle at an intermediate field strength results in a hysteresis curve of smaller size.

  • hysteresis loss (physics)

    hysteresis: …which is known as the hysteresis loss, in reversing the magnetization of the material is proportional to the area of the hysteresis loop. Therefore, cores of transformers are made of materials with narrow hysteresis loops so that little energy will be wasted in the form of heat.

  • hysteresis motor (mechanics)

    electric motor: Hysteresis motors: A distinctive feature of synchronous motors is that the speed is uniquely related to the supply frequency. As a result, several special types of synchronous motors have found wide application in devices such as clocks, tape recorders, and phonographs. One of the most…

  • hysteria (psychology)

    Conversion disorder, a type of mental disorder in which a wide variety of sensory, motor, or psychic disturbances may occur. It is traditionally classified as one of the psychoneuroses and is not dependent upon any known organic or structural pathology. The former term, hysteria, is derived from

  • Hysteria, Reflex, and Instinct (work by Kretschmer)

    Ernst Kretschmer: …Hysterie, Reflex und Instinkt (1923; Hysteria, Reflex, and Instinct, 1960), in which he suggested that the formation of symptoms in hysteria is initially conscious but is then taken over by automatic mechanisms and becomes unconscious, and Geniale Menschen (1929; The Psychology of Men of Genius, 1931). In 1933 Kretschmer resigned…

  • Hysteriales (fungus order)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Hysteriales Found on woody branches of trees; stroma is boat-shaped, opening by a longitudinal slit that renders it apothecium-like; asci borne among pseudoparaphyses; example genera include Hysterium and Hysteropatella. Order Jahnulales Found in freshwater environments; ascospores covered with sticky gelatin sheaths or apical

  • hysterical amnesia (psychology)

    memory abnormality: Hysterical amnesia: Hysterical amnesia is of two main types. One involves the failure to recall particular past events or those falling within a particular period of the patient’s life. This is essentially retrograde amnesia but it does not appear to depend upon an actual brain…

  • hysterical neurosis, dissociative type (psychology)

    Dissociative disorder, any of several mental disturbances in humans in which normally integrated mental functions, such as identity, memory, consciousness, or perception, are interrupted. Dissociative disorders can occur suddenly or gradually and may last for a short time or become chronic. There

  • Hysterie, Reflex und Instinkt (work by Kretschmer)

    Ernst Kretschmer: …Hysterie, Reflex und Instinkt (1923; Hysteria, Reflex, and Instinct, 1960), in which he suggested that the formation of symptoms in hysteria is initially conscious but is then taken over by automatic mechanisms and becomes unconscious, and Geniale Menschen (1929; The Psychology of Men of Genius, 1931). In 1933 Kretschmer resigned…

  • hystero-epilepsy (pathology)

    Hystero-epilepsy, hysterical seizures that resemble epilepsy and, in diagnosis, must be distinguished from it. In hystero-epilepsy the reflexes and responses to stimulation in the part of the body affected are normal, and the electroencephalogram shows no significant abnormality in the brain

  • Hysterocarpus traski (fish)

    Tule perch, the sole freshwater species of surfperch

  • hysterosalpingography (medicine)

    infertility: Damage of the fallopian tubes: …is a radiological exam called hysterosalpingography. Dye injected through the cervix flows into the uterus and through the fallopian tubes. X-rays can then precisely define abnormalities in the fallopian tubes; spillage of the dye into the abdominal cavity is an indication of tubal patency. A more direct procedure for evaluating…

  • hysterotomy (surgical procedure)

    abortion: Hysterotomy, the surgical removal of the uterine contents, may be used during the second trimester or later. In general, the more advanced the pregnancy, the greater the risk to the female of mortality or serious complications following an abortion.

  • Hystoria de menina e moça (novel by Ribeiro)

    Portuguese literature: The novel and other prose: …prose with his pastoral novel Hystoria de menina e moça (1554; “Story of My Childhood and Adolescence”), a tale of rustic love and melancholy with chivalric elements. It adopted themes and emotions previously found only in poetry. From it Jorge de Montemayor, a musician and poet, drew some part of…

  • Hystricidae (rodent)

    porcupine: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines (Erethizontidae) single quills are interspersed with bristles, underfur, and hair. No porcupine can throw its quills, but they detach easily and will remain embedded in an attacker. Base coloration ranges from…

  • Hystricognatha (rodent suborder)

    rodent: Evolution and classification: Suborder Hystricognatha (porcupine-like rodents) 16 extant families (8 extinct families containing 26 genera). Late Eocene to present. Family Echimyidae (American spiny rats) 71 species in 17 genera, 21 extinct genera. Late Oligocene to present in South America, Pleistocene to present in

  • Hystricomorpha (rodent suborder)

    rodent: Evolution and classification: Suborder Hystricognatha (porcupine-like rodents) 16 extant families (8 extinct families containing 26 genera). Late Eocene to present. Family Echimyidae (American spiny rats) 71 species in 17 genera, 21 extinct genera. Late Oligocene to present in South America, Pleistocene to present in

  • Hystrix (rodent)

    porcupine: Old World porcupines (family Hystricidae): Short-tailed porcupines (genus Hystrix) are the largest, weighing up to 30 kg, with bodies almost a metre long and a tail 8–17 cm long. They move slowly in a ponderous walk but will break into a trot or gallop when alarmed. Like the North American…

  • Hystrix cristata (mammal)

    porcupine: Old World porcupines (family Hystricidae): European populations of the African crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) retreat into their dens during storms and cold spells, but they do not hibernate. This species lives in Italy and Sicily, where it may have been introduced by man, and in Britain, where it was certainly introduced. Old World porcupines…

  • Hythe (England, United Kingdom)

    Hythe, town (parish), Shepway district, administrative and historic county of Kent, southeastern England. It is situated on the English Channel coast at the eastern end of Romney Marsh and on the Royal Military Canal. (The canal was built as a defensive moat when Napoleon I threatened invasion of

  • Hytner, Sir Nicholas (English director)

    Sir Nicholas Hytner, English director of theatre and film who served as artistic director of the Royal National Theatre (RNT) from 2003 to 2015. Hytner was credited with reinvigorating London’s theatre scene and attracting new audiences to the RNT complex on the South Bank of the River Thames.

  • Hytner, Sir Nicholas Robert (English director)

    Sir Nicholas Hytner, English director of theatre and film who served as artistic director of the Royal National Theatre (RNT) from 2003 to 2015. Hytner was credited with reinvigorating London’s theatre scene and attracting new audiences to the RNT complex on the South Bank of the River Thames.

  • Hytrel (chemical compound)

    copolyester elastomer: A prominent copolyester elastomer is Hytrel, a trademarked product of DuPont Company in the United States.

  • Hyundai Corporation (South Korean corporation)

    Hyundai Group, major diversified corporation in South Korea. The international company supplies a product line that ranges from ships to stereo equipment. Headquarters are in Seoul. Hyundai began as a construction firm founded by Chung Ju Yung in 1947. The company operated within South Korea until

  • Hyundai Group (South Korean corporation)

    Hyundai Group, major diversified corporation in South Korea. The international company supplies a product line that ranges from ships to stereo equipment. Headquarters are in Seoul. Hyundai began as a construction firm founded by Chung Ju Yung in 1947. The company operated within South Korea until

  • Hyundai Heavy Industries (South Korean corporation)

    Hyundai Group, major diversified corporation in South Korea. The international company supplies a product line that ranges from ships to stereo equipment. Headquarters are in Seoul. Hyundai began as a construction firm founded by Chung Ju Yung in 1947. The company operated within South Korea until

  • Hyundai Motor Company (South Korean corporation)

    Hyundai Group, major diversified corporation in South Korea. The international company supplies a product line that ranges from ships to stereo equipment. Headquarters are in Seoul. Hyundai began as a construction firm founded by Chung Ju Yung in 1947. The company operated within South Korea until

  • hyung (martial arts)

    tae kwon do: …in traditional sets known as hyung. (Proficiency in the graded series of hyung determines rank in the lower grades.) Students also practice basic sparring combinations (id-bo tueryon, “one-step sparring”); these are short, set sequences of attack and counter practiced between partners, after which the students may practice free sparring as…

  • Hyvastijatto Lintukodolle (work by Lehtonen)

    Joel Lehtonen: …Spirits”) and in his poems, Hyvästijättö Lintukodolle (1934; “Farewell to the Bird’s Nest”), which were written shortly before his suicide. Lehtonen’s influence on Finnish literature has increased over the years.

  • Hyvinge (Finland)

    Hyvinkää, city, southern Finland, north of Helsinki. It is the centre of Finland’s woollen industry, and is an important rail junction with direct lines to the ports of Hanko (Hangö, the southernmost in Finland), Helsinki, and Porvoo (Borgå). The city also has railway workshops, a granite quarry,

  • Hyvinkää (Finland)

    Hyvinkää, city, southern Finland, north of Helsinki. It is the centre of Finland’s woollen industry, and is an important rail junction with direct lines to the ports of Hanko (Hangö, the southernmost in Finland), Helsinki, and Porvoo (Borgå). The city also has railway workshops, a granite quarry,

  • Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (Welsh warrior-prince and poet)

    Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Welsh warrior-prince and poet who was the first to develop the courtly love lyric in Welsh in the manner of the troubadours. Among his eight extant compositions is a gorhoffedd, or “boasting poem,” which gives exuberant expression to his love for his country. The son of

  • Hywel ap Cadell (Welsh ruler)

    Hywel Dda, chieftain called in the prologues to the Welsh lawbooks “king of all Wales.” This epithet was indeed appropriate for Hywel, particularly during the last years of his reign. Hywel became ruler of Seisyllwg (roughly the area of Dyfed and the Towy Valley) jointly with his brother Clydog

  • Hywel Dda (Welsh ruler)

    Hywel Dda, chieftain called in the prologues to the Welsh lawbooks “king of all Wales.” This epithet was indeed appropriate for Hywel, particularly during the last years of his reign. Hywel became ruler of Seisyllwg (roughly the area of Dyfed and the Towy Valley) jointly with his brother Clydog

  • Hywel the Good (Welsh ruler)

    Hywel Dda, chieftain called in the prologues to the Welsh lawbooks “king of all Wales.” This epithet was indeed appropriate for Hywel, particularly during the last years of his reign. Hywel became ruler of Seisyllwg (roughly the area of Dyfed and the Towy Valley) jointly with his brother Clydog

  • Hz (unit of measurement)

    Hertz, unit of frequency. The number of hertz (abbreviated Hz) equals the number of cycles per second. The frequency of any phenomenon with regular periodic variations can be expressed in hertz, but the term is used most frequently in connection with alternating electric currents, electromagnetic

  • HZDS (political party, Slovakia)

    Slovakia: Political process: …of the Hungarian Coalition, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, and the Christian Democratic Movement.

  • H̱adera (Israel)

    H̱adera, city, western Israel. It lies on the Plain of Sharon midway between Tel Aviv–Yafo and Haifa, near the Mediterranean Sea. The first Jewish settlement on the northern coastal plain, H̱adera (from Arabic khadhīr, “green”) was founded in 1890 by Jewish immigrants from tsarist-ruled Poland and

  • H̱adera, Naẖal (river, Israel)

    H̱adera: The seasonal watercourse Naẖal H̱adera (then called by its Arabic name of Nahr Mufjir), which flowed through the town, flooded the low-lying area annually during the winter rains and created malarial swamps. Many of the early settlers died from the disease. With the aid of the French-Jewish philanthropist…

  • H̱alaf Period (ancient Mesopotamia)

    Mesopotamian art and architecture: Hence, Hassuna, Hassuna-Sāmarrāʾ, and Halaf in northern Iraq are the names given to the first three periods during which known early settlements were successively occupied by peoples whose relations were apparently with Syria and Anatolia. The designs on their pottery, sometimes in more than one colour, usually consist of…

  • H̱amei Teverya (hot springs, Israel)

    Tiberias: …hot springs of Tiberias (Hebrew H̱ammat or H̱amei Teverya; from ḥam, “hot”), known for over 2,000 years for their supposed medicinal qualities, and the adjacent tomb of Rabbi Meir, 2nd-century Talmudic authority, known as Rabbi Meir Baʿal ha-Nes (Rabbi Meir the Miracle-Worker). The combination of warm winter climate, thermal baths,…

  • H̱efa (Israel)

    Haifa, city, northwestern Israel. The principal port of the country, it lies along the Bay of Haifa overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. Haifa is first mentioned in the Talmud (c. 1st–4th century ce). Eusebius, the early Christian theologian and biblical topographer, referred to it as Sykaminos. The

  • H̱olon (Israel)

    H̱olon, city, west-central Israel. It lies on the Plain of Sharon near the Mediterranean Sea, just south of Tel Aviv–Yafo. A part of the Tel Aviv–Yafo metropolitan area, H̱olon resulted from the union and incorporation of several district residential settlements, the earliest dating from 1925.

  • H̱orbat Qesari (ancient city, Israel)

    Caesarea, (“Ruins of Caesarea”), ancient port and administrative city of Palestine, on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Israel south of Haifa. It is often referred to as Caesarea Palaestinae, or Caesarea Maritima, to distinguish it from Caesarea Philippi near the headwaters of the Jordan

  • H̱orbat ʿAdullam (ancient city, Israel)

    ʿAdullam, ancient city and modern development region, in the upper part of Ha-Shefela, central Israel. The mound of Tel ʿAdullam, or H̱orbat (“Ruins of”) ʿAdullam (Arabic: Tall Ash-Shaykh Madhkūr), 22.5 miles (36 km) southwest of Jerusalem, is generally accepted as the site of the ancient city.

  • H̱orvot Dor (Israel)

    Dor, modern settlement and ancient port in northwestern Israel, on the Mediterranean coast, south of Haifa. Ancient Dor was a strategic site on the Via Maris, the historic road that ran largely along the Palestine coast. Ruins found at the site date back to the Late Bronze Age (1500–1200 bc), and

  • H̱orvot Meẕada (ancient fortress, Israel)

    Masada, ancient mountaintop fortress in southeastern Israel, site of the Jews’ last stand against the Romans after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 ce. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001. Masada occupies the entire top of an isolated mesa near the southwest coast of the Dead Sea. The

  • H̱ula Basin (valley, Israel)

    H̱ula Valley, valley in upper Galilee, northeastern Israel. The valley occupies most of the course of the Jordan River north of the Sea of Galilee. It is bounded by Dan and the settlement of Maʿyan Barukh (north), the Golan Heights (east), and the Hills of Naphtali (west), and on the south it

  • H̱ula Valley (valley, Israel)

    H̱ula Valley, valley in upper Galilee, northeastern Israel. The valley occupies most of the course of the Jordan River north of the Sea of Galilee. It is bounded by Dan and the settlement of Maʿyan Barukh (north), the Golan Heights (east), and the Hills of Naphtali (west), and on the south it

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