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  • Hyland, C. T. (American businesswoman and philanthropist)

    MacArthur Foundation: …1970 by philanthropists John and Catherine MacArthur. The MacArthur Foundation’s mission is to “support creative people and effective institutions committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world.” Based in Chicago, the foundation also has offices in India, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia.

  • Hyland, Catherine T. (American businesswoman and philanthropist)

    MacArthur Foundation: …1970 by philanthropists John and Catherine MacArthur. The MacArthur Foundation’s mission is to “support creative people and effective institutions committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world.” Based in Chicago, the foundation also has offices in India, Mexico, Nigeria, and Russia.

  • Hyland, Frances (Canadian actress)

    Frances Hyland, Canadian actress (born April 25, 1927, Shaunavon, Sask.—died July 11, 2004, Toronto, Ont.), concentrated mostly on stage work, starring in and directing productions at the Stratford and Shaw festivals in Ontario in addition to performing in numerous theatres across Canada and o

  • Hyland, L. A. (American scientist)

    radar: First military radars: …at NRL in 1930 when L.A. Hyland observed that an aircraft flying through the beam of a transmitting antenna caused a fluctuation in the received signal. Although Hyland and his associates at NRL were enthusiastic about the prospect of detecting targets by radio means and were eager to pursue its…

  • Hylas (Greek mythology)

    Hylas, in ancient Greek legend, son of Theiodamas (king of the Dryopians in Thessaly), favourite and companion of Heracles on the Argonautic expedition. Having gone ashore at Cios in Mysia to fetch water, he was dragged down by the nymphs of the spring in which he dipped his pitcher. Heracles

  • hylid (amphibian, family Hylidae)

    Anura: Annotated classification: Family Hylidae (tree frogs) Miocene (23 million–5.3 million years ago) to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; pectoral girdle arciferal; intercalary cartilages present; omosternum absent; Bidder’s organ absent; maxillary teeth usually present; terminal phalanges claw-shaped; astragalus and calcaneum not fused; aquatic larvae or direct development; 37 genera and…

  • Hylidae (amphibian, family Hylidae)

    Anura: Annotated classification: Family Hylidae (tree frogs) Miocene (23 million–5.3 million years ago) to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; pectoral girdle arciferal; intercalary cartilages present; omosternum absent; Bidder’s organ absent; maxillary teeth usually present; terminal phalanges claw-shaped; astragalus and calcaneum not fused; aquatic larvae or direct development; 37 genera and…

  • Hylinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: … (Central and South America), and Hylinae (North and South America, Europe, Asia except Indian subregion, and Africa north of Sahara). Family Leptodactylidae Eocene to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; pectoral girdle arciferal; maxillary teeth present; Bidder’s organ and intercalary cartilages absent; omosternum cartilaginous or ossified; 49 genera, about 840 species; adult…

  • Hylleraas, Egil (Norwegian physicist)

    atom: Schrödinger’s wave equation: In 1929 Norwegian physicist Egil Hylleraas applied the Schrödinger equation to the helium atom with its two electrons. He obtained only an approximate solution, but his energy calculation was quite accurate. With Hylleraas’s explanation of the two-electron atom, physicists realized that the Schrödinger equation could be a powerful mathematical…

  • Hylobates (primate genus)

    gibbon: …divided into four genera: Hoolock, Hylobates, Nomascus, and Symphalangus. Molecular data indicate that the four groups are as different from one another as chimpanzees are from humans.

  • Hylobates agilis (primate)

    gibbon: The dark-handed gibbon (H. agilis), which lives on Sumatra south of Lake Toba and on the Malay Peninsula between the Perak and Mudah rivers, may be either tan or black and has white facial markings. The white-handed gibbon (H. lar), of northern Sumatra and most of…

  • Hylobates albibarbis (primate)

    gibbon: …of Java and in the white-bearded (H. albibarbis) and Müller’s (H. muelleri) gibbons, both from different parts of Borneo.

  • Hylobates klossii (primate)

    gibbon: Kloss’s gibbon (H. klossii), from the Mentawai Islands west of Sumatra, is completely black throughout its life. The sexes look alike in the silvery gibbon (H. moloch) of Java and in the white-bearded (H. albibarbis) and Müller’s (H. muelleri) gibbons, both from different parts of…

  • Hylobates lar (primate)

    Malayan lar, species of gibbon

  • Hylobates moloch (primate)

    gibbon: …sexes look alike in the silvery gibbon (H. moloch) of Java and in the white-bearded (H. albibarbis) and Müller’s (H. muelleri) gibbons, both from different parts of Borneo.

  • Hylobates muelleri (primate)

    gibbon: albibarbis) and Müller’s (H. muelleri) gibbons, both from different parts of Borneo.

  • Hylobates pileatus (primate)

    gibbon: The pileated gibbon (H. pileatus), of southeastern Thailand and western Cambodia, has white hands and feet; the male is black and the female buff with a black cap and chest patch. The difference in colour comes about with age; the juveniles are buff and both sexes…

  • Hylobates syndactylus (primate)

    Siamang, (Symphalangus syndactylus), arboreal ape of the gibbon family (Hylobatidae), found in the forests of Sumatra and Malaya. The siamang resembles other gibbons but is more robust. The siamang is also distinguished by the webbing between its second and third toes and by a dilatable hairless

  • Hylobatidae (primate)

    Gibbon, (family Hylobatidae), any of approximately 20 species of small apes found in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Gibbons, like the great apes (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and bonobos), have a humanlike build and no tail, but gibbons seem to lack higher cognitive abilities and

  • Hylobius abietis (insect)

    Pine weevil, any wood-boring beetle of the insect family Curculionidae (order Coleoptera). Their most unusual physical characteristic is an elongated beak, or snout. The white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi) of North America kills the central growth shoot of white pine trees, forcing one of the side

  • Hylocichla minima (bird)

    migration: Origin and evolution of migration: …typically North American species, the gray-cheeked thrush (Hylocichla minima), which has extended its breeding area to northeastern Siberia, returns to spend the winter in the central regions of South America.

  • Hylocichla mustelina (bird)

    Wood thrush, One of the 11 species of thrushes (in the genus Hylocichla, or Catharus) called nightingale thrushes because of their rich songs. H. mustelina is common in eastern U.S. broadleaf forests; it is 8 in. (20 cm) long and has drab, spotted plumage and a rusty-colored

  • Hylocomium splendens (plant species)

    Stair-step moss, (Hylocomium splendens), moss in the subclass Bryidae that covers areas of coniferous forest floor of the Northern Hemisphere and also occurs on dunes, ledges, and tundra. The fernlike shoots have many branches and reddish, glossy caulids (stems) with phyllids (leaves) up to 3 mm

  • Hylodinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …and Central America, West Indies), Hylodinae (South America), and Leptodactylinae (South America and Central America). Family Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae Eocene to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; coccyx free, bicondylar; 21 genera, 110 species; adult length to about 10 cm (4 inches); 2 subfamilies: Limnodynastinae (New Guinea and Australia)

  • hylomorphism (philosophy)

    Hylomorphism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; morphē, “form”), in philosophy, metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential, namely, primary matter, and one actual, namely, substantial form. It was the central doctrine of Aristotle’s

  • Hylomys (mammal genus)

    gymnure: Asian gymnures (which make up the genera Hylomys, Neohylomys, and Neotetracus) inhabit tropical lowland rainforests and mountain forests, and the five species are either strictly nocturnal or active day and night. They live on the forest floor, sometimes traveling along a network of pathways. Their…

  • Hylomys megalotis (mammal)

    gymnure: The long-eared, or Laos, gymnure (H. megalotis) is restricted to limestone karst in the central part of Laos. The Hainan gymnure (Neohylomys hainanensis) is endemic to Hainan Island off the coast of southern China.

  • Hylomys parvus (mammal)

    gymnure: The dwarf, or Sumatran, gymnure (H. parvus) occurs in the mountains to 3,000 metres (about 9,800 feet) or more on Sumatra. The shrew gymnure (Neotetracus sinensis) lives in cool and damp mountain forests at elevations of 300–2,700 metres (roughly 1,000–9,000 feet) in southern China and adjacent regions of…

  • Hylomys sinensis (mammal)

    gymnure: The shrew gymnure (Neotetracus sinensis) lives in cool and damp mountain forests at elevations of 300–2,700 metres (roughly 1,000–9,000 feet) in southern China and adjacent regions of Myanmar (Burma) and northern Vietnam. The long-eared, or Laos, gymnure (H. megalotis) is restricted to limestone

  • Hylomys suillus (mammal)

    gymnure: The short-tailed, or lesser, gymnure (Hylomys suillus) ranges from continental Southeast Asia offshore to Tioman Island to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, and northern Borneo in hilly lowlands. The dwarf, or Sumatran, gymnure (H. parvus) occurs in the mountains

  • Hylonomus (fossil reptile genus)

    reptile: Fossil distribution: The earliest known reptiles, Hylonomus and Paleothyris, date from Late Carboniferous deposits of North America. These reptiles were small lizardlike animals that apparently lived in forested habitats. They are the Eureptilia (true reptiles), and their presence during this suggests that they were distinct from a more primitive group, the…

  • hylozoism (philosophy)

    Hylozoism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; zōē, “life”), in philosophy, any system that views all matter as alive, either in itself or by participation in the operation of a world soul or some similar principle. Hylozoism is logically distinct both from early forms of animism, which personify nature,

  • Hylton, R. Dale (American animal rights activist)

    R. Dale Hylton, animal rights activist and educator in the humane treatment of animals who served for more than three decades as adviser, consultant, and investigator for the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS). During World War II, Hylton’s parents divorced and his mother remarried. Hylton

  • Hylton, Robert Dale (American animal rights activist)

    R. Dale Hylton, animal rights activist and educator in the humane treatment of animals who served for more than three decades as adviser, consultant, and investigator for the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS). During World War II, Hylton’s parents divorced and his mother remarried. Hylton

  • Hylurgopinus rufipes

    Dutch elm disease: …multistriatus), less commonly by the American elm bark beetle (Hylurgopinus rufipes). Female beetles seek out dead or weakened elm wood to excavate an egg-laying gallery between the bark and the wood. If the fungus is present, tremendous numbers of fungal spores (conidia) are produced in the galleries. When young adult…

  • Hyman, Jeffrey (American singer)

    Joey Ramone, (Jeffrey Hyman), American rock singer (born May 19, 1951, New York, N.Y.—died April 15, 2001, New York), was the lead singer for the influential punk rock band the Ramones. Founded in 1974, the Ramones created a new style of vigorous, thrashing music that became the foundation of p

  • Hyman, Libbie Henrietta (American zoologist)

    Libbie Henrietta Hyman, U.S. zoologist and writer particularly noted for her widely used texts and reference works on invertebrate and vertebrate zoology. Hyman received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago (1915), where she had a research appointment (1916–31) under the distinguished

  • Hyman, Paula (American social historian)

    Paula Ellen Hyman, American social historian (born Sept. 30, 1946, Boston, Mass.—died Dec. 15, 2011, New Haven, Conn.), pioneered the study of Jewish women’s history. After she earned a Ph.D. (1975) from Columbia University, New York City, where she also taught, Hyman served on the faculties of the

  • Hyman, Phyllis (American singer)

    Phyllis Hyman, U.S. jazz and rhythm-and-blues singer whose commanding stage presence and husky low alto defined a singing career that later embraced rap; she was best remembered for precise timing in interpreting love songs and for a starring role in the Broadway musical Sophisticated Ladies (b.

  • Hymans, Paul (Belgian statesman)

    Paul Hymans, Belgian statesman who, as Belgium’s representative to the Paris Peace Conference after World War I, helped draft the covenant of the League of Nations. While teaching parliamentary history at the Free University of Brussels (1898–1914), Hymans entered the Chamber of Deputies (1900) and

  • hymen (anatomy)

    vagina: …of tissue known as the hymen. The opening (vaginal orifice) is partially covered by the labia majora.

  • Hymen (Greek mythology)

    Hymen, in Greek mythology, the god of marriage, whose name derives from the refrain of an ancient marriage song. Unknown to Homer, he was mentioned first by the 5th-century-bc lyric poet Pindar as the son of Apollo by one of the Muses. Various Muses are mentioned as his mother: Calliope (ancient

  • hymen vaginea (anatomy)

    vagina: …of tissue known as the hymen. The opening (vaginal orifice) is partially covered by the labia majora.

  • Hymenaea (plant genus)

    amber: …to a modern leguminous tree, Hymenaea. Though in the past amber was believed to be completely amorphous, subsequent X-ray diffraction studies have revealed crystalline components in some fossil resins.

  • Hymenaeus (Greek mythology)

    Hymen, in Greek mythology, the god of marriage, whose name derives from the refrain of an ancient marriage song. Unknown to Homer, he was mentioned first by the 5th-century-bc lyric poet Pindar as the son of Apollo by one of the Muses. Various Muses are mentioned as his mother: Calliope (ancient

  • hymenial algae

    fungus: Form and function of lichens: …spores; such phycobionts are called hymenial algae. When the spores germinate, the algal cells multiply and gradually form lichens with the fungus. Other lichens form structures, especially soredia, that are effective in distributing the association. A soredium, consisting of one or several algal cells enveloped by threadlike fungal filaments, or…

  • hymenium (fungus tissue)

    Hymenium, a spore-bearing layer of tissue in fungi (kingdom Fungi) found in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. It is formed by end cells of hyphae—the filaments of the vegetative body (thallus)—which terminate elongation and differentiate into reproductive cells. The hymenium may also contain

  • Hymenochaetales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Hymenochaetales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass) Mycorrhizal or saprotrophic; many cause white rot; fruiting body may be inconspicuous; many with imperforate parenthesome; example genera include Hymenochaete, Phellinus, and Trichaptum. Order Polyporales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)

  • Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos (bird)

    anseriform: Anatomy: The blue duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos) has a rounded, expanded tip to the bill, which probably protects it when poking around sharp pebbles. The pochards have fewer lamellae and a narrower bill than the dabbling ducks. In the mergansers the lamellae have become toothlike projections in the…

  • Hymenolepis nana (flatworm)

    cestodiasis: Hymenolepis nana, or dwarf tapeworm, only a few centimetres long, releases eggs that require no intermediate hosts. It is possibly the most common cestode found in humans, affecting chiefly children. Symptoms of intestinal cestodiasis include abdominal pain that may be relieved by eating and that may be associated…

  • hymenomycetes (grouping of fungi)

    Hymenomycetes, name often given to an informal grouping of fungi that are members of the phylum Basidiomycota (kingdom Fungi). It includes more than 5,000 species characterized by an exposed spore-bearing layer (hymenium) and basidiospores that are forcibly discharged. Included are boletes,

  • Hymenophyllaceae (plant family)

    Hymenophyllaceae, the filmy fern family (order Hymenophyllales), containing 7 or more genera and some 600 species. The family is distributed in tropical regions around the world, with only a few species extending into the temperate zone. Members of Hymenophyllaceae are small delicate ferns and are

  • Hymenophyllum (fern genus)

    fern: Annotated classification: …filamentous, gemmiferous; principal genera are Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes; 7 genera (different authorities give anywhere from 2 to more than 28) with some 600 species found in tropical regions around the world, a few species extending into temperate areas. Order Gleicheniales Family Gleicheniaceae (

  • Hymenoptera (insect)

    Hymenopteran, (order Hymenoptera), any member of the third largest—and perhaps the most beneficial to humans—of all insect orders. More than 115,000 species have been described, including ants, bees, ichneumons, chalcids, sawflies, wasps, and lesser-known types. Except in the polar regions, they

  • hymenopteran (insect)

    Hymenopteran, (order Hymenoptera), any member of the third largest—and perhaps the most beneficial to humans—of all insect orders. More than 115,000 species have been described, including ants, bees, ichneumons, chalcids, sawflies, wasps, and lesser-known types. Except in the polar regions, they

  • Hymenostomatida (protozoan)

    Hymenostome, any member of the evenly ciliated protozoan order Hymenostomatida. Included in this order are the genus Paramecium, often used in laboratory studies, and the even more widely studied genus Tetrahymena, which can be easily cultured for biochemical and physiological research. The

  • hymenostome (protozoan)

    Hymenostome, any member of the evenly ciliated protozoan order Hymenostomatida. Included in this order are the genus Paramecium, often used in laboratory studies, and the even more widely studied genus Tetrahymena, which can be easily cultured for biochemical and physiological research. The

  • Hymer (Norse mythology)

    Hymir, in Norse mythology, giant who was the father of the god Tyr. Hymir owned a large kettle and it was to get this that Tyr and Thor paid a visit to him. During that visit Thor went fishing with Hymir and caught the monstrous World Serpent. According to one version Thor killed the monster, but

  • Hymettus, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Hymettus, limestone mountain southeast of Athens (Modern Greek: Athína), Greece. With a peak elevation of 3,366 ft (1,026 m), the 11-mi- (18-km-) long ridge is divided into two small series of peaks by the gorge of Pirnari in the southwest. The ancient quarries of Kara marble are located near

  • Hymir (Norse mythology)

    Hymir, in Norse mythology, giant who was the father of the god Tyr. Hymir owned a large kettle and it was to get this that Tyr and Thor paid a visit to him. During that visit Thor went fishing with Hymir and caught the monstrous World Serpent. According to one version Thor killed the monster, but

  • hymn (sacred song)

    Hymn, (from Greek hymnos, “song of praise”), strictly, a song used in Christian worship, usually sung by the congregation and characteristically having a metrical, strophic (stanzaic), nonbiblical text. Similar songs, also generally termed hymns, exist in all civilizations; examples survive, for

  • Hymn of Creation (work by Caedmon)

    English literature: Poetry: …Whitby), but only the “Hymn of Creation” survives. Caedmon legitimized the native verse form by adapting it to Christian themes. Others, following his example, gave England a body of vernacular poetry unparalleled in Europe before the end of the 1st millennium.

  • Hymn of Praise (work by Mendelssohn)

    cantata: …the so-called symphony-cantata Lobgesang (1840; Hymn of Praise), whereas the 20th-century English composer Benjamin Britten gave the title Spring Symphony (1949) to a work that is actually a cantata.

  • Hymn to Demeter (ancient Greek literature)

    Eleusinian Mysteries: …myth told in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, the earth goddess Demeter (q.v.) went to Eleusis in search of her daughter Kore (Persephone), who had been abducted by Hades (Pluto), god of the underworld. Befriended by the royal family of Eleusis, she agreed to rear the queen’s son. She was,…

  • Hymn to Intellectual Beauty (poem by Shelley)

    Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, poem in seven stanzas by Percy Bysshe Shelley, written in the summer of 1816. The poem, a philosophical musing, contains references to Shelley’s childhood, when he first recognized the intangible spirit of beauty alive in the world. By intellectual beauty Shelley refers

  • Hymn To The Pillory (poem by Defoe)

    Daniel Defoe: Mature life and works.: …to write the audacious “Hymn To The Pillory” (1703); and this helped to turn the occasion into something of a triumph, with the pillory garlanded, the mob drinking his health, and the poem on sale in the streets. In An Appeal to Honour and Justice (1715), he gave his…

  • Hymn to Zeus (work by Cleanthes)

    Stoicism: Early Greek Stoicism: …is best known for his Hymn to Zeus, which movingly describes Stoic reverence for the cosmic order and the power of universal reason and law. The third head of the school, Chrysippus of Soli, who lived to the end of the 3rd century, was perhaps the greatest and certainly the…

  • hymn tune (sacred song)

    Hymn, (from Greek hymnos, “song of praise”), strictly, a song used in Christian worship, usually sung by the congregation and characteristically having a metrical, strophic (stanzaic), nonbiblical text. Similar songs, also generally termed hymns, exist in all civilizations; examples survive, for

  • hymnal

    gospel music: Black gospel music: …be ultimately traced to the hymnals of the early 19th century. A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns Selected from Various Authors (1801) was the first hymnal intended for use in black worship. It contained texts written mostly by 18th-century British clergymen, such as Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley, but…

  • hymnal stanza (literature)

    Common metre, a metre used in English ballads that is equivalent to ballad metre, though ballad metre is often less regular and more conversational than common metre. Whereas ballad metre usually has a variable number of unaccented syllables, common metre consists of regular iambic lines with an

  • hymnbook

    gospel music: Black gospel music: …be ultimately traced to the hymnals of the early 19th century. A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns Selected from Various Authors (1801) was the first hymnal intended for use in black worship. It contained texts written mostly by 18th-century British clergymen, such as Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley, but…

  • Hymne to God the Father, A (work by Donne)

    pun: …seriously, as in John Donne’s “A Hymne to God the Father”:

  • Hymnen an die Nacht (work by Novalis)

    Novalis: …Hymnen an die Nacht (1800; Hymns to the Night), six prose poems interspersed with verse. In this work Novalis celebrates night, or death, as an entry into a higher life in the presence of God and anticipates a mystical and loving union with Sophie and with the universe as a…

  • Hymnes (poems by Ronsard)

    Pierre de Ronsard: …antiquity; these poems, published as Hymnes (following the 3rd-century-bc Greek poet Callimachus, who had inspired them), contain passages of stirring eloquence and vivid description, though few of them can hold the modern reader’s interest from beginning to end. Reminiscences of his boyhood inspired other poems, such as his “Complainte contre…

  • Hymnes and Songs of the Church, The (work by Wither)

    George Wither: The Hymnes and Songs of the Church (1623) is the first hymnbook in English not based entirely on the Psalms; it contains passages of rugged, simple prose. He was in London during the plague of 1625 and published Britain’s Remembrancer (1628), a voluminous poem on…

  • Hymnis (work by Caecilius)

    Statius Caecilius: …finibus he could name Caecilius’s Hymnis without any indication of the author is perhaps proof of its popularity. The fragments are free from topical allusions to Roman life. Gellius (Attic Nights) quotes three passages of his Plocium (“Necklace”) along with Menander’s original Greek to show how freely Caecilius modified his…

  • hymnody (sacred song)

    Hymn, (from Greek hymnos, “song of praise”), strictly, a song used in Christian worship, usually sung by the congregation and characteristically having a metrical, strophic (stanzaic), nonbiblical text. Similar songs, also generally termed hymns, exist in all civilizations; examples survive, for

  • Hymns (work by Callimachus)

    Callimachus: In the Hymns, Callimachus adapted the traditional religious form of the Homeric Hymns to an original and purely literary use. The Epigrams treat a variety of personal themes with consummate artistry. Of his prolific prose works, certainly the most famous was the Pinakes (“Tables of Those Who…

  • Hymns Ancient and Modern (music collection)

    hymn: …dates from the publication of Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861; last rev. ed., 2013, as Ancient & Modern: Hymns and Songs for Refreshing Worship), characterized by austerity of style, conformity to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, and the setting of each hymn to its proper tune.

  • Hymns of Faith and Hope (work by Bonar)

    Horatius Bonar: His three series of Hymns of Faith and Hope (1857–66) were sung throughout the English-speaking world, although now they are considered lacking in scriptural imagery and doctrinal content.

  • Hymns to the Night (work by Novalis)

    Novalis: …Hymnen an die Nacht (1800; Hymns to the Night), six prose poems interspersed with verse. In this work Novalis celebrates night, or death, as an entry into a higher life in the presence of God and anticipates a mystical and loving union with Sophie and with the universe as a…

  • Hymnusz (song by Erkel)

    Ferenc Erkel: Also in 1844, “Hymnusz,” with lyrics taken from an 1823 poem of the same name by Ferenc Kölcsey and with music composed by Erkel, was adopted as Hungary’s national anthem.

  • Hymnusz (poem by Kölcsey)

    Ferenc Kölcsey: …Romantic poet whose poem “Hymnusz” (1823), evoking the glory of Hungary’s past, became the national anthem of Hungary.

  • Hyndburn (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Hyndburn, borough (district), administrative and historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It lies between the denser urban areas of Blackburn and Burnley, with the moorlands of the Forest of Rossendale to the south and the agricultural Ribble valley to the north. Accrington is the

  • Hynde, Chrissie (American musician)

    Kent State shooting: Commemoration: (Chrissie Hynde, later founder of the band the Pretenders, also was a Kent State student and witness to shooting-related events.)

  • Hyndman, Henry Mayers (British Marxist)

    Henry Mayers Hyndman, the first important British Marxist, who strongly influenced, especially in the 1880s, many other leading British Socialists, although his difficult personality antagonized most of them and lessened his political effectiveness. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Hyndman

  • Hynek, J. Allen (American astronomer)

    unidentified flying object: Other investigations of UFOs: …scientists and engineers, most notably J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, who had been involved with projects Sign, Grudge, and Blue Book, concluded that a small fraction of the most-reliable UFO reports gave definite indications for the presence of extraterrestrial visitors. Hynek founded the Center…

  • Hynobiidae (amphibian family)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Family Hynobiidae (Asiatic salamanders) Generalized, medium-sized (to about 250 mm), semiaquatic and terrestrial; lacrimal and septomaxillary bones present in the skull; vomerine teeth not parallel to marginal teeth; no fossil record; northern Asia from the Ural Mountains to Japan and Taiwan; 9 genera (including Hynobius) and…

  • Hynobius (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: …and Taiwan; 9 genera (including Hynobius) and about 72 species. Family Cryptobranchidae (Asiatic giant salamanders and hellbenders) Very large, to about 180 cm; aquatic; no lacrimal or septomaxillary bones in skull; vomerine teeth parallel to marginal teeth; Late Paleocene (58.7 million–56 million years ago) to present; Japan, China, and eastern…

  • hynocardia oil

    Malpighiales: Achariaceae: …Hydnocarpus are a source of chaulmoogra oil, at one time important in the treatment of leprosy. The presumed active agent in the oil, hydnocarpic acid, is believed to have antibiotic properties. The seeds of Caloncoba echinata, from west-central Africa, are the source of gorli oil, also used in the treatment…

  • hyoglossus muscle (anatomy)

    hyoid bone: The hyoglossus muscles originate on each side from the whole length of the greater cornua and also from the body of the hyoid. They are inserted into the posterior half or more of the sides of the tongue. The hyoid bone anchors them when they contract…

  • Hyōgo (historical town, Japan)

    Ōsaka-Kōbe metropolitan area: Kōbe: …River from the town of Hyōgo, the chief port of the area. Hyōgo, also known as Ōwada and Muko, was an important port for trade with China and Korea as early as the 8th century. For many centuries it continued to be Japan’s chief port for foreign trade, prospering especially…

  • Hyōgo (prefecture, Japan)

    Hyōgo, ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. The prefectural capital is Kōbe on Ōsaka Bay. Hyōgo is bounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the north and the Inland Sea to the south and includes Awaji Island, the largest island of the Inland Sea. Hyōgo is dominated by Kōbe and other southern

  • Hyogoken (prefecture, Japan)

    Hyōgo, ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. The prefectural capital is Kōbe on Ōsaka Bay. Hyōgo is bounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the north and the Inland Sea to the south and includes Awaji Island, the largest island of the Inland Sea. Hyōgo is dominated by Kōbe and other southern

  • hyoid apparatus (anatomy)

    Hyoid bone, U-shaped bone situated at the root of the tongue in the front of the neck and between the lower jaw and the largest cartilage of the larynx, or voice box. The primary function of the hyoid bone is to serve as an anchoring structure for the tongue. It has no articulation with other

  • hyoid arch (anatomy)

    muscle: Jawed fishes: …the gill septum of the hyoid arch is greatly modified to become a single, movable, bony covering for the whole gill chamber—the operculum. The individual gill septa are lost, and there is a great modification of the posterior branchial muscles, with many of the elements found in sharks (e.g., levators…

  • hyoid bone (anatomy)

    Hyoid bone, U-shaped bone situated at the root of the tongue in the front of the neck and between the lower jaw and the largest cartilage of the larynx, or voice box. The primary function of the hyoid bone is to serve as an anchoring structure for the tongue. It has no articulation with other

  • Hyōjō-shū (Japanese history [13th century])

    Japan: The Hōjō regency: …a Council of State (Hyōjō-shū). In 1232 the council drew up a legal code known as the Jōei Formulary (Jōei Shikimoku). Its 51 articles set down in writing for the first time the legal precedents of the bakufu. Its purpose was simpler than that of the ritsuryō, the old…

  • hyoscine (drug)

    Scopolamine, alkaloid drug obtained from a number of plants of the family Solenaceae, including nightshade, henbane, and jimsonweed. Scopolamine is an effective remedy for motion sickness, probably because of its ability to depress the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Like atropine,

  • Hyosciurus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Tropical ground squirrels: The two species of Sulawesi ground squirrel (genus Hyosciurus) have elongated snouts and use their long, strong claws to dig for beetle larvae in rotting wood; they also eat acorns.

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