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  • Huysmans, Charles-Marie-Georges (French author)

    Joris-Karl Huysmans, French writer whose major novels epitomize successive phases of the aesthetic, spiritual, and intellectual life of late 19th-century France. Huysmans was the only son of a French mother and a Dutch father. At 20 he began a long career in the Ministry of the Interior, writing

  • Huysmans, Joris-Karl (French author)

    Joris-Karl Huysmans, French writer whose major novels epitomize successive phases of the aesthetic, spiritual, and intellectual life of late 19th-century France. Huysmans was the only son of a French mother and a Dutch father. At 20 he began a long career in the Ministry of the Interior, writing

  • Huyssens, Pieter (Flemish architect)

    Western architecture: Flanders: Rubens’s friends Jacques Francart and Pieter Huyssens created an influential northern centre for vigorous expansive Baroque architecture to which France, England, and Germany turned. Francart’s Béguinage Church (1629) at Mechelen (Malines) and Huyssens’s St. Charles Borromeo (1615) at Antwerp set the stage for the more fully developed Baroque at St.…

  • Huysum, Jan van (Dutch painter)

    Jan van Huysum, Dutch painter known for his still lifes of flowers and fruits. He was the eldest son of Justus van Huysum, a versatile painter whose subjects included landscapes, seascapes, battle scenes, portraits, and flowers. Jan van Huysum studied under his father but soon surpassed him in

  • Hüyten Peak (mountain, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: The mountains: …14,350 feet (4,374 metres) at Khüiten Peak (Nayramadlyn Orgil) at the western tip of the country, Mongolia’s highest point. Extending eastward from the Mongolian Altai are the Gobi Altai Mountains (Govi Altain Nuruu), a lesser range of denuded hills that lose themselves in the expanses of the Gobi.

  • Huyton (England, United Kingdom)

    Huyton, former town, metropolitan borough of Knowsley, metropolitan county of Merseyside, historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It lies on the eastern periphery of Liverpool. It was mentioned (as Hitune and Rabil) in Domesday Book (1086), the record of William I the Conqueror’s land

  • Huyton with Roby (England, United Kingdom)

    Huyton, former town, metropolitan borough of Knowsley, metropolitan county of Merseyside, historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It lies on the eastern periphery of Liverpool. It was mentioned (as Hitune and Rabil) in Domesday Book (1086), the record of William I the Conqueror’s land

  • hüyük (mound)

    Tell, (“hill” or “small elevation”), in Middle Eastern archaeology, a raised mound marking the site of an ancient city. For specific sites, see under substantive word (e.g., Ḥasi, Tel). The shape of a tell is generally that of a low truncated cone. In ancient times, houses were constructed of

  • huza system (agriculture)

    Adangme: …is farming, based on the huza system. In this system a tract of land is acquired by a group of people, usually members of an extended family; the land is subdivided among them according to the amount each has paid, and each individual thereafter has complete control of his own…

  • Huzhou (China)

    Huzhou, city, northern Zhejiang sheng (province), southeastern China. It is situated close to the southern shore of Lake Tai, some 45 miles (75 km) north of the provincial capital Hangzhou and 39 miles (63 km) west of Jiaxing. Situated at the confluence of the Dongtiao and Xitiao rivers, which flow

  • Hūzī (ancient people)

    Ahvāz: …the Arabic name for the Hūzī (or Khūzī), a local warlike tribe that gave its name to the historical region of Khūzestān. Arab historians of the 12th century described Ahwāz as the centre of a large sugarcane- and rice-growing area irrigated by a system of great canals from a dam…

  • Huzziyas (Hittite king)

    Anatolia: The Middle Kingdom: …by which a Hittite king—presumably Zidantas II or Huzziyas—paid tribute to the pharaoh in return for certain frontier adjustments, but it is not clear to what extent Syria was dominated by Thutmose III between 1471 and his death. During this period the national unity of the Hurrians seems to have…

  • HVAC (mechanical system)

    mechanical system: …began to include electrical and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) engineers. Heating and cooling changed dramatically. Modern buildings, with their large heat gains, turned central heating into little more than a supplement. Heat removal is a much more serious burden, especially in warm weather. The roofs of high-rises are occupied…

  • Hvað ereldi Guðs (work by Bergsson)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: …the collection of short stories Hvað ereldi Guðs? (1970; “What Does God Eat?”) and a series of novels produced in the mid-1970s, were decidedly experimental in character, revealing an attempt by the author to go beyond ordinary reality to expose some of the more disgusting and grotesque aspects of life.

  • Hval Fjord (inlet, Iceland)

    Faxa Bay: …Bay includes two eastern arms: Hval Fjord (Hvalfjördhur) and Borgar Fjord (Borgarfjördhur). Hval Fjord provides shelter for ships and was used as an anchorage for Allied naval convoys during World War II. It is now a fishing and whaling base.

  • Hvalfjördhur (inlet, Iceland)

    Faxa Bay: …Bay includes two eastern arms: Hval Fjord (Hvalfjördhur) and Borgar Fjord (Borgarfjördhur). Hval Fjord provides shelter for ships and was used as an anchorage for Allied naval convoys during World War II. It is now a fishing and whaling base.

  • Hvammar (work by Benediktsson)

    Einar Benediktsson: (1913; “Waves”), Vogar (1921; “Billows”), Hvammar (1930; “Grass Hollows”)—show a masterful command of the language and the influence of his extensive travels, and they exemplify his patriotism, mysticism, and love of nature. A speculative citizen of the world, he wrote in an ornate style and, as one critic said, delighted…

  • Hvannadals Peak (mountain, Iceland)

    Öræfajökull: Its highest peak, Hvannadals Peak, reaches an elevation of 6,952 feet (2,119 metres) above sea level and is also the highest peak in Iceland.

  • Hvannadals, Mount (mountain, Iceland)

    Öræfajökull: Its highest peak, Hvannadals Peak, reaches an elevation of 6,952 feet (2,119 metres) above sea level and is also the highest peak in Iceland.

  • Hvannadalshnúkur (mountain, Iceland)

    Öræfajökull: Its highest peak, Hvannadals Peak, reaches an elevation of 6,952 feet (2,119 metres) above sea level and is also the highest peak in Iceland.

  • Hvar (island, Croatia)

    Hvar, island in the Adriatic Sea, part of Croatia. At 116 square miles (300 square km) in area and 43 miles (69 km) in length, it is the longest island in the Adriatic. A rocky island, it reaches 2,054 feet (626 m) in elevation at Mount Sveti Nikola and is separated from the island of Brač by a

  • Hvar (ancient city, Hvar Island, Croatia)

    Hvar: The main towns are Hvar and Stari Grad. Stari Grad Plain, a natural area containing the ruins of stone structures and evidence of the agricultural style of the ancient Greeks, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2008.

  • Hvar Khshaita (Iranian god)

    ancient Iranian religion: Mithra: …contained an individual sun god, Hvar Khshaita, in the eastern Iranian traditions reflected in the Avesta, Mithra has a hint of connection with the sun, more specifically with the first rays of dawn as he drives forth in his chariot. In western Iran the identification was complete, and the name…

  • hvarenah (Zoroastrianism)

    Hvarenah, in Zoroastrianism, the attribute of kingly glory. Introduced to the Persian religion from Iran as part of Mithraism, hvarenah is thought of as a shining halo that descends on a leader and makes him sacred. The king thus proclaims himself divine and can rule with absolute power in the

  • Hveger, Ragnhild (Danish swimmer)

    Ragnhild Hveger, (Ragnhild Tove Hveger-Andersen; “The Golden Torpedo”), Danish swimmer (born Dec. 10, 1920, Nyborg, Den.—died Dec. 1, 2011), was a swimming phenomenon in pre-World War II Europe, setting 44 world records in six events (200-, 400-, 800-, and 1,500-m freestyle, 4 × 100-m freestyle

  • Hveger-Andersen, Ragnhild Tove (Danish swimmer)

    Ragnhild Hveger, (Ragnhild Tove Hveger-Andersen; “The Golden Torpedo”), Danish swimmer (born Dec. 10, 1920, Nyborg, Den.—died Dec. 1, 2011), was a swimming phenomenon in pre-World War II Europe, setting 44 world records in six events (200-, 400-, 800-, and 1,500-m freestyle, 4 × 100-m freestyle

  • HVEM (device)

    High-voltage electron microscope, type of electron microscope that has been constructed to operate at accelerating voltages in excess of the 200–300 kV normally used in the conventional transmission electron microscope. High-voltage microscopes now in commercial production are designed for

  • Hveragerdi (Iceland)

    Hveragerdi, village, southwestern Iceland. It lies midway between the lake of Thingvallavatn to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. The centre of Iceland’s hothouse industry, Hveragerdi is noted for its fruit (especially tomatoes and even bananas), vegetables, and flowers, all of which

  • Hvergelmir (Norse mythology)

    Niflheim: …Yggdrasill, Niflheim contained a well, Hvergelmir, from which many rivers flowed. In the Norse creation story, Niflheim was the misty region north of the void (Ginnungagap) in which the world was created.

  • Hviezdoslav (Slovak poet)

    Hviezdoslav, one of the most powerful and versatile of Slovak poets. Hviezdoslav was a lawyer until he became able to devote himself to literature. He originally wrote in Hungarian and was a Hungarian patriot, but in the 1860s he switched both activities to Slovak. By the time of his death the

  • Hvitá (river, Iceland)

    Langjökull: …feeds several rivers, including the Hvítá and Ölfusá. Haga Lake (Hagavatn) is at the foot of the glacier.

  • Hwabaek (ancient Korean government)

    Korea: The Three Kingdoms: …the Council of Nobles (Hwabaek), which made important decisions. The council’s membership consisted of men of chin’gol (“true-bone”) class, who were of the high aristocracy.

  • Hwagje-rŭl wihayŏ (work by Yi)

    Yi Munyŏl: Hwagje-rŭl wihayŏ (1982; Hail to the Emperor!), a jeu d’esprit, is a rambunctious satire on imperial delusions that showcases the author’s incredible erudition. In Yŏngung sidae (1984; The Age of Heroes), Yi imaginatively reconstructed what he imagined his father’s life might have been like after his defection to…

  • Hwai Ho (river, China)

    Huai River, river in east-central China that drains the plain between the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). The river has a length of 660 miles (1,100 km) and drains an area of 67,000 square miles (174,000 square km). It is fed by numerous tributary streams rising in the

  • Hwaian (China)

    Huai’an, city and river port, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). The city came into being in 2001, when what were then the cities of Huai’an and

  • Hwaiyin (former city, Huai’an, China)

    Huaiyin, former city, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). In 2001 Huaiyin and several other surrounding administrative entities were amalgamated to

  • hwan (Korean currency)

    Won, monetary units of South Korea and North Korea. The Bank of Korea has the exclusive authority to issue banknotes and coins for South Korea. Banknotes are issued in denominations ranging from 1,000 to 50,000 won. The notes are adorned on the obverse with early Yi (Chosŏn) dynasty figures,

  • Hwang Ho (river, China)

    Yellow River, principal river of northern China, east-central and eastern Asia. The Yellow River is often called the cradle of Chinese civilization. With a length of 3,395 miles (5,464 km), it is the country’s second longest river—surpassed only by the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)—and its drainage

  • Hwang Kyo-Ahn (South Korean politician)

    South Korea: The Sixth Republic: Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-Ahn was named acting president pending ratification of the impeachment by the Constitutional Court. The head of the national pension fund was also implicated in the influence-peddling scandal, as was the acting head of Samsung. The court upheld the impeachment on March 10, 2017,…

  • Hwang Tonggyu (Korean poet)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: The poet Hwang Tonggyu, for example, drew material not only from his own experiences but also from the common predicament of the Korean people, expressing what others know but do not think of saying or cannot say. The novelist Yun Hŭnggil is another example of a writer…

  • Hwang Woo-Suk (South Korean scientist)

    Hwang Woo-Suk, South Korean scientist whose revolutionary claims of having cloned human embryos from which he extracted stem cells were discredited as fabrications. In 2005 Hwang debuted the first cloned dog, Snuppy, an Afghan hound. Hwang studied at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Seoul

  • Hwang, David Henry (American playwright)

    David Henry Hwang, American playwright, screenwriter, and librettist whose work, by his own account, concerns the fluidity of identity. He is probably best known for his Tony Award-winning play M. Butterfly (1988), based on the true story of a French diplomat who had a long affair with a singer in

  • Hwange (Zimbabwe)

    Hwange, town, western Zimbabwe. It was founded about 1900 after the discovery of coal in the vicinity and was named for a local chief, Whanga, who was the dynastic head of the Abananza people. By 1908 a brickyard was established, utilizing local clays, and the production of coke began in 1913. The

  • Hwange National Park (national park, Zimbabwe)

    Hwange National Park, park in northwestern Zimbabwe, on the Botswana frontier. It was established in 1928 as a game reserve, and as a national park in 1930. The park’s area of 5,657 square miles (14,651 square km) is largely flat and contains fine hardwood forests of mukwa and Zimbabwean teak.

  • Hwanghae (sea, Asia)

    Yellow Sea, large inlet of the western Pacific Ocean lying between mainland China on the west and north and the Korean peninsula on the east. It is situated to the north of the East China Sea, which it bounds on a line running from the mouth of the Yangtze River (Chiang Jiang) to Cheju Island off

  • Hwangjo ka (Korean song)

    Korean literature: Ancient times: “Hwangjo ka” (17 bce; “Orioles’ Song”), composed in Chinese, is a well-known example. “Hwangjo ka,” which is thought to be the first lyric poem in Korean literature, evokes the personal loneliness of the unfortunate Koguryŏ king Yuri.

  • Hwanung (Korean mythology)

    Tangun: …creator, and the son of Hwanung, who fathered his child by breathing on a beautiful young woman. Tangun reportedly became king in 2333 bc.

  • Hwaŏm (Buddhist sect)

    Kegon, (Japanese: “Flower Ornament”, ) Buddhist philosophical tradition introduced into Japan from China during the Nara period (710–784). Although the Kegon school can no longer be considered an active faith teaching a separate doctrine, it continues to administer the famous Tōdai Temple monastery

  • hwarangdo (Korean youth group)

    Hwarangdo, (Korean: “flower youth”) youth group following a unique military and philosophical code developed in the ancient Korean state of Silla about the 6th century ce. The hwarangdo were groups of elite youths (hwarang; the suffix -do means “group,” “disciple,” or “follower”) who were trained

  • Hwaseong (fortress, Suwŏn, South Korea)

    Suwŏn: The most notable is Hwasŏng (Hwaseong), a fortification built by King Chŏngjo (Jeongjo) in 1796 that formerly enclosed all of Suwŏn before the city’s expansion beyond its walls. The fortress was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. The annual Hwasŏng Cultural Festival (October) includes a reenactment of…

  • Hwasŏng (fortress, Suwŏn, South Korea)

    Suwŏn: The most notable is Hwasŏng (Hwaseong), a fortification built by King Chŏngjo (Jeongjo) in 1796 that formerly enclosed all of Suwŏn before the city’s expansion beyond its walls. The fortress was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. The annual Hwasŏng Cultural Festival (October) includes a reenactment of…

  • Hwei (people)

    Hui, an official nationality of China, composed of nearly 10 million people. The Hui are Chinese Muslims (i.e., neither Turkic nor Mongolian) who have intermingled with the Han Chinese throughout China but are relatively concentrated in western China—in the provinces or autonomous regions of

  • Hwicce (people)

    Hwicce, the inhabitants of one of the subkingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England that coincided with the medieval diocese of Worcester, a territory that then encompassed present Worcestershire, Gloucestershire, and southwest Warwickshire. The southern part had been wrested from the Britons by the West

  • Hwlffordd (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Haverfordwest, market town, historic and present county of Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), southwestern Wales. It is situated at the head of navigation on a deep inlet of the Irish Sea and is the administrative centre of Pembrokeshire county. The town grew up as a walled borough with a castle (c. 1120)

  • HWNS (Australian charitable organization)

    House with No Steps (HWNS), Australian charitable organization that provides support, services, and employment for people with disabilities. House with No Steps was founded in 1962 as an outgrowth of a motorized-wheelchair club that had been started by a group of individuals with disabilities in

  • Hy-Speed Longhand (writing method)

    shorthand: Modern abbreviated longhand systems: Another American method, Hy-Speed Longhand, was first published under that title in 1932. Based on Andrew J. Graham’s Brief Longhand, published in 1857, its principles include the omission of silent letters and most vowels, the substitution of letters, numbers, or signs, and the combination of certain letters.

  • hyacinth (plant)

    Hyacinth, (genus Hyacinthus), small genus of bulbous herbs (family Asparagaceae, formerly Hyacinthaceae), native primarily to the Mediterranean region and tropical Africa. The common garden hyacinths are derived from Hyacinthus orientalis and are popular spring ornamentals. Most species have four

  • hyacinth (gem)

    Hyacinth, a red, orange, or yellow variety of the gemstone zircon (

  • hyacinth macaw (bird)

    macaw: The cobalt-blue hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) of Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay is the largest of all parrots, measuring 95–100 cm (37.5–39.5 inches) long. The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is probably the best-known New World parrot. Its brilliant red, yellow, and blue plumage contrasts with a bare white…

  • Hyacinthia (Spartan festival)

    Hyacinthus: …important of Spartan festivals, the Hyacinthia, in the Spartan month Hyacinthius. Probably an early summer festival, it lasted three days, the rites gradually passing from mourning for Hyacinthus to rejoicing in the majesty of Apollo. This festival was clearly connected with vegetation and marked the passage from the youthful verdure…

  • Hyacinthoides (plant, genus Hyacinthoides)

    Bluebell, (genus Hyacinthoides), genus of 11 species of bulbous perennial plants (family Asparagaceae, formerly Hyacinthaceae) native to Eurasia. The bell-shaped blue flower clusters of English bluebell, or wild hyacinth (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), and Spanish bluebell (H. hispanica) are borne on

  • Hyacinthoides hispanica (plant)

    bluebell: …wild hyacinth (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), and Spanish bluebell (H. hispanica) are borne on plants about 30 cm (1 foot) tall. Both species are cultivated as garden ornamentals.

  • Hyacinthoides non-scripta (plant)

    bluebell: …clusters of English bluebell, or wild hyacinth (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), and Spanish bluebell (H. hispanica) are borne on plants about 30 cm (1 foot) tall. Both species are cultivated as garden ornamentals.

  • Hyacinthus (Greek mythology)

    Hyacinthus, in Greek legend, a young man of Amyclae in Laconia. According to the usual version, his great beauty attracted the love of Apollo, who killed him accidentally while teaching him to throw the discus; others related that Zephyrus (or Boreas) out of jealousy deflected the discus so that it

  • Hyacinthus (plant)

    Hyacinth, (genus Hyacinthus), small genus of bulbous herbs (family Asparagaceae, formerly Hyacinthaceae), native primarily to the Mediterranean region and tropical Africa. The common garden hyacinths are derived from Hyacinthus orientalis and are popular spring ornamentals. Most species have four

  • hyacynthine macaw (bird)

    macaw: The cobalt-blue hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) of Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay is the largest of all parrots, measuring 95–100 cm (37.5–39.5 inches) long. The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is probably the best-known New World parrot. Its brilliant red, yellow, and blue plumage contrasts with a bare white…

  • Hyades (astronomy)

    Hyades, cluster of several hundred stars in the zodiacal constellation Taurus. As seen from Earth, the bright star Aldebaran appears to be a member of the cluster, but in fact Aldebaran is much closer to the Earth than the Hyades’ distance of about 150 light-years. Five genuine members of the

  • Hyades (Greek mythology)

    Hyades, in Greek mythology, daughters of the Titan Atlas and the Oceanid Aethra, the five (or more) sisters of the Pleiades who nursed the infant wine god, Dionysus, and as a reward were made the five stars in the head of the constellation Taurus, the bull. According to another version, they so

  • hyaena (mammal)

    Hyena, (family Hyaenidae), any of three species of coarse-furred, doglike carnivores found in Asia and Africa and noted for their scavenging habits. Hyenas have long forelegs and a powerful neck and shoulders for dismembering and carrying prey. Hyenas are tireless trotters with excellent sight,

  • Hyaena brunnea (mammal)

    hyena: The smaller brown hyena weighs about 40 kg; the coat is shaggy and dark with an erectile white mane over the neck and shoulders and horizontal white bands on the legs. The brown hyena lives in Southern Africa and western coastal deserts, where it is called the…

  • Hyaena hyaena (mammal)

    hyena: Five races of striped hyenas live in scrub woodland as well as in arid and semiarid open country from Morocco to Egypt and Tanzania, Asia Minor, the Arabian Peninsula, the Caucasus, and India. These small hyenas average 30–40 kg. Colour is pale gray with black throat fur and…

  • Hyaenidae (mammal family)

    carnivore: genets, and related species), and Hyaenidae (hyenas). There are three aquatic families: Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), Phocidae (true, or earless, seals), and Odobenidae (the walrus). These aquatic families are

  • Hyaenodon (fossil mammal genus)

    Hyaenodon, extinct genus of carnivorous mammals that first appeared in the fossil record about 42 million years ago during the middle of the Eocene Epoch and persisted until about 25 million years ago near the end of the Oligocene Epoch. The genus, in the order Creodonta, contained about 30

  • hyaenodont (fossil mammal family)

    Creodonta: …distinguished: the Oxyaenidae and the Hyaenodontidae. The oxyaenids had relatively short faces and powerful limbs, perhaps resembling badgers, wolverines, and bears. They first appeared in the early Paleocene Epoch (about 65.5 million years ago) and became extinct at the end of the Eocene (about 33.9 million years ago). Oxyaenids lived…

  • Hyaenodontidae (fossil mammal family)

    Creodonta: …distinguished: the Oxyaenidae and the Hyaenodontidae. The oxyaenids had relatively short faces and powerful limbs, perhaps resembling badgers, wolverines, and bears. They first appeared in the early Paleocene Epoch (about 65.5 million years ago) and became extinct at the end of the Eocene (about 33.9 million years ago). Oxyaenids lived…

  • Hyakuren (Japanese artist)

    Tomioka Tessai, Japanese artist of bunjinga, or “literati painting” (which originated in China and was also called Nanga, or the Southern school of Chinese art). Tomioka’s philosophical view was deeply rooted in Confucianism; and, as a creative and original artist, he managed to avoid the turmoil

  • hyakushō (Japanese society)

    Japan: Commerce, cities, and culture: …the nationwide farming populace (hyakushō) of independent landowners, although subject to heavy taxes and various kinds of labour services, sought the means to enjoy a better standard of living. In addition to their primary efforts as cultivators, they reclaimed new lands and produced various commercial crops and handicraft goods…

  • hyakushō ikki (Japanese revolt)

    Ikki, peasant uprisings in Japan beginning in the Kamakura period (1192–1333) and continuing through the Tokugawa (Edo) period (1603–1867). Though the welfare of the city dweller improved during Tokugawa times, the welfare of poor peasants worsened: excessive taxation and rising numbers of famines

  • Hyakutake Yuji (Japanese astronomer)

    Yuji Hyakutake, Japanese amateur astronomer (born 1951, Japan—died April 10, 2002, Kokubu, Japan), discovered the comet that came to be named after him, Comet Hyakutake, almost by accident. On Jan. 30, 1996—attempting to photograph a comet he had discovered the previous month but finding its l

  • Hyakutake, Comet (astronomy)

    Comet Hyakutake, long-period comet that, because of its relatively close passage to Earth, was observed as one the brightest comets of the 20th century. It was discovered on January 30, 1996, by the Japanese amateur astronomer Hyakutake Yuji, using large binoculars. Visible to the naked eye in late

  • hyaline cartilage (anatomy)

    cartilage: Hyaline cartilage is the most widespread and is the type that makes up the embryonic skeleton. It persists in human adults at the ends of bones in free-moving joints as articular cartilage, at the ends of the ribs, and in the nose, larynx, trachea, and…

  • hyaline layer (anatomy)

    integument: Skin structure: …a clear layer, called the stratum lucidum, can be distinguished between the stratum granulosum and the stratum corneum.

  • hyaline membrane disease (pathology)

    Respiratory distress syndrome of newborns, a common complication in infants, especially in premature newborns, characterized by extremely laboured breathing, cyanosis (a bluish tinge to the skin or mucous membranes), and abnormally low levels of oxygen in the arterial blood. Before the advent of

  • hyaline rock (geology)

    igneous rock: Crystallinity: The subaphanitic, or hyaline, rocks are referred to as glassy, or vitric, in terms of granularity.

  • hyalocytes of Balazs (physiology)

    human eye: The vitreous body: …population of specialized cells, the hyalocytes of Balazs, which may contribute to the breakdown and renewal of the hyaluronic acid. The vitreous body serves to keep the underlying retina pressed against the choroid.

  • hyalophane (mineral)

    Hyalophane, a barium-rich variety of potassium feldspar; see

  • Hyalophora cecropia (insect)

    saturniid moth: The cecropia moth is the largest moth native to North America, attaining a wingspread of about 15 cm (6 inches). It is brown with white, red, and gray markings and large, distinctive, crescent-shaped eye spots. The larva grows to 10 cm (4 inches) in length.

  • Hyaloraphidium (fungus genus)

    fungus: Evolution and phylogeny of fungi: >Hyaloraphidium. Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in mammals, including humans with weakened immune systems; pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has been a major cause of death in people with AIDS. Pneumocystis was initially described…

  • Hyaloraphidium curvatum (fungus)

    fungus: Evolution and phylogeny of fungi: Hyaloraphidium curvatum was previously classified as a colourless green alga; however, it has since been recognized as a fungus on the basis of molecular sequence data, which show it to be a member of the order Monoblepharidales in the phylum Chytridiomycota.

  • Hyalospongiae (invertebrate)

    Glass sponge, any of a class (Hexactinellida, also called Hyalospongiae, or Triaxonia) of sponges characterized by a skeleton that consists of silica spicules (needlelike structures) often united into a delicate geometric network—e.g., that of Venus’s flower basket (q.v.). Glass sponges occur

  • hyaluronan (biochemistry)

    joint: The synovial layer: …only cells capable of secreting hyaluronic acid, the characteristic component of synovial fluid.

  • hyaluronic acid (biochemistry)

    joint: The synovial layer: …only cells capable of secreting hyaluronic acid, the characteristic component of synovial fluid.

  • hyaluronidase (enzyme)

    Hyaluronidase, any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (chemical decomposition involving the elements of water) of certain complex carbohydrates such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfates. The enzymes have been found in insects, leeches, snake venom, mammalian tissues (testis

  • hyang’ak (Korean music)

    Korean music: Court instrumental music: …court music was divided into hyang’ak, Korean music; tang’ak, Tang and Song Chinese music; and a’ak, Confucian ritual music. The instruments used for these ensembles were of Chinese derivation and included sets of tuned stones (in Korean p’yŏn’gyŏng) and bells (p’yŏnjong), mouth organ (saeng), and instruments in all the other…

  • hyang-p’iri (musical instrument)

    p'iri: The largest is the hyang-p’iri, which is about 27 cm (11 inches) long and has a reed that is 7 cm (3 inches) long. Because its tone is loud and nasal, the instrument often plays the main melodic part in ensembles. It appears in court, shaman, and folk genres,…

  • hyangch’al (Korean writing)

    Korean literature: …extended system of transcription, called hyangch’al, followed shortly thereafter, in which entire sentences in Korean could be written in Chinese. In another system, kugyŏl, abridged versions of Chinese characters were used to denote grammatical elements and were inserted into texts during transcription. Extant literary works indicate, however, that before the…

  • hyangga (Korean verse form)

    Korean language: General considerations: …from the 25 poems (called hyangga) that were composed as early as the 10th century and reflect the language of the Silla kingdom. Written with Chinese characters used in various ways to stand for Korean meanings and sounds, the poems are difficult to decipher, and there is no consensus on…

  • Hyannis (Massachusetts, United States)

    Hyannis, unincorporated village in Barnstable city, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S., on the southern coast of Cape Cod. Its name is that of a local 17th-century Algonquian Indian chief. A popular summer beach and yachting resort with ferryboat services to Nantucket Island and Martha’s Vineyard, it

  • Hyas (crab genus)

    spider crab: …crabs of the genera Libinia, Hyas, Sternorhynchus, Pitho, and Lambrus are common on the Atlantic coast of North America. Pacific coast spider crabs include the genera Loxorhynchus, Pugettia, and Epialtus.

  • Hyatt Corporation (American company)

    Pritzker family: In 1957 they bought the Hyatt House hotel in Los Angeles and built this investment over the years into a chain of more than 150 Hyatt hotels in the United States and abroad. Jay and Robert specialized in buying financially troubled companies and rejuvenating them into profit-making enterprises. By the…

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