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  • Humulus (plant)

    Hop, either of two species of the genus Humulus, nonwoody annual or perennial vines in the hemp family (Cannabinaceae) native to temperate North America, Eurasia, and South America. The hops used in the brewing industry are the dried female flower clusters (cones) of the common hop (H. lupulus).

  • Humulus japonicus (plant)

    hop: The Japanese hop (H. japonicus) is a quick-growing annual species used as a screening vine.

  • Humulus lupulus (plant)

    beer: Hops: …varieties of the hop (Humulus lupulus) are selected and bred for the bitter and aromatic qualities that they lend to brewing. The female flowers, or cones, produce tiny glands that contain the chemicals of value in brewing. Humulones are the chemical constituents extracted during wort boiling. One fraction of…

  • humus (soil component)

    Humus, nonliving, finely divided organic matter in soil, derived from microbial decomposition of plant and animal substances. Humus, which ranges in colour from brown to black, consists of about 60 percent carbon, 6 percent nitrogen, and smaller amounts of phosphorus and sulfur. As humus

  • Hun (people)

    Hun, member of a nomadic pastoralist people who invaded southeastern Europe c. 370 ce and during the next seven decades built up an enormous empire there and in central Europe. Appearing from beyond the Volga River some years after the middle of the 4th century, they first overran the Alani, who

  • hun (Daoism)

    Hun, in Chinese Daoism, the heavenly (and more spiritual) “souls” of the human being that leave the body on death, as distinguished from po, the earthly (and more material) souls. These souls are multiple; each person is usually said to have three hun and seven po. Following the cosmological

  • hun (musical instrument)

    Korean music: Court instrumental music: The globular flute (hun), mentioned as one of the very earliest artifacts of Chinese music, has been played in Korean Confucian temples since the 12th century, as has a chi flute, which has a bamboo mouthpiece plugged into the mouth-hole with wax. In addition to five finger holes…

  • hun partridge (bird)

    partridge: …partridge of Europe is the gray partridge (Perdix perdix), called Hungarian (or hun) partridge in North America, where it was introduced in 1889 (Virginia) and again, much more successfully, in 1908–09 (Alberta). It ranges throughout the British Isles and across Europe to the Caspian region. The gray partridge has a…

  • Hun River (river, China)

    Liao River: Its principal tributary is the Hun River, which flows into the Liao not far above its mouth and drains the foothills of the Liaodong Peninsula and Changbai Mountains, passing through Shenyang (Mukden) in Liaoning province.

  • Hun Sen (prime minister of Cambodia)

    Hun Sen, Cambodian politician, who was prime minister of Cambodia from 1985. Hun Sen was educated at a Buddhist monastery in Phnom Penh. In the late 1960s he joined the Communist Party of Kampuchea and in 1970 joined the Khmer Rouge. During the regime of Pol Pot (1975–79), when an estimated two

  • Hunab Ku (Mayan deity)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Creation: …worshiped a creator deity called Hunab Ku, “One-God.” Itzamná (“Iguana House”), head of the Maya pantheon of the ruling class, was his son, whose wife was Ix Chebel Yax, patroness of weaving.

  • Hunan (province, China)

    Hunan, landlocked sheng (province) of southern China. A major rice-producing area, Hunan is situated to the south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). It is bounded by the provinces of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, and Guangdong to the southeast; by the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi

  • Hunan Army (Chinese history)

    China: The Taiping Rebellion: …“Hunan Braves” (later called the Hunan Army), organized by Zeng Guofan in 1852, and the “Huai Braves” (later called the Huai Army), organized by Li Hongzhang in 1862. These armies were composed of the village farmers, inspired with a strong sense of mission for protecting the Confucian orthodoxy, and were…

  • Hunan Braves (Chinese history)

    China: The Taiping Rebellion: …“Hunan Braves” (later called the Hunan Army), organized by Zeng Guofan in 1852, and the “Huai Braves” (later called the Huai Army), organized by Li Hongzhang in 1862. These armies were composed of the village farmers, inspired with a strong sense of mission for protecting the Confucian orthodoxy, and were…

  • Hunan language (Chinese language)

    Xiang language, Chinese language that is spoken in Hunan province. The two major varieties of Xiang are New Xiang and Old Xiang. New Xiang, which is spoken predominantly around Changsha, the capital of Hunan, has been strongly influenced by Mandarin Chinese. Old Xiang, which is spoken in other

  • Hunan-Guangxi railroad (railway, China)

    Guangxi: Transportation: The Hunan-Guangxi railroad runs diagonally across the region from the northeast to the southwest. It forms a vital continental artery that connects with the Beijing-Guangzhou railroad and, south of Pingxiang, with the Vietnamese railroad system. A branchline runs from Litang to the port city of Zhanjiang…

  • Hunanese language (Chinese language)

    Xiang language, Chinese language that is spoken in Hunan province. The two major varieties of Xiang are New Xiang and Old Xiang. New Xiang, which is spoken predominantly around Changsha, the capital of Hunan, has been strongly influenced by Mandarin Chinese. Old Xiang, which is spoken in other

  • Hūṇas (people)

    Hephthalite, member of a people important in the history of India and Persia during the 5th and 6th centuries ce. According to Chinese chronicles, they were originally a tribe living to the north of the Great Wall and were known as Hoa or Hoadun. Elsewhere they were called White Huns or Hunas. They

  • Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (Arab scholar)

    Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq, Arab scholar whose translations of Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Hippocrates, and the Neoplatonists made accessible to Arab philosophers and scientists the significant sources of Greek thought and culture. Ḥunayn was a Nestorian Christian who studied medicine in Baghdad and became well

  • Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-Ibādi (Arab scholar)

    Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq, Arab scholar whose translations of Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Hippocrates, and the Neoplatonists made accessible to Arab philosophers and scientists the significant sources of Greek thought and culture. Ḥunayn was a Nestorian Christian who studied medicine in Baghdad and became well

  • Hunchback of Notre Dame, The (film by Worsley [1923])

    Lon Chaney: …known for his performances in The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) and The Phantom of the Opera (1925).

  • Hunchback of Notre Dame, The (film by Dieterle [1939])

    The Hunchback of Notre Dame, American dramatic film, released in 1939, that is widely regarded as the finest adaptation of Victor Hugo’s classic novel of the same name. It featured Charles Laughton in one of his most acclaimed roles. Laughton portrayed an unlikely hero: the kind, misunderstood, and

  • Hunchback of Notre Dame, The (musical by Menken and Schwartz [1999])

    The Hunchback of Notre Dame: Adaptations: A year later, Der Glöckner von Notre Dame (“The Bell Ringer of Notre Dame”) opened in Berlin. Unlike it’s French counterpart, the German adaptation was based on the Disney animated film The Hunchback of Notre Dame, which was released three years prior, in 1996. Although based on Hugo’s…

  • Hunchback of Notre Dame, The (novel by Hugo)

    The Hunchback of Notre Dame, historical novel by Victor Hugo, originally published in French in 1831 as Notre-Dame de Paris (“Our Lady of Paris”). The Hunchback of Notre Dame is set in Paris during the 15th century. The story centres on Quasimodo, the deformed bell ringer of Notre-Dame Cathedral,

  • Huncke, Herbert (American writer)

    Herbert Huncke, U.S. writer who gave the Beat Generation its name; a drug addict, thief, and prostitute who spent much of the 1950s in prison, he was muse to such writers as Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs, and he often appeared in their novels (b. Dec. 9, 1915--d. Aug. 8,

  • Hund rules (physics)

    chemical bonding: Lithium through neon: …found to be reproduced if Hund’s rule is adopted. This rule states that, if more than one orbital is available for occupation by the electrons currently being accommodated, then those electrons occupy separate orbitals and do so with parallel spins (both ↑, for instance, which would be denoted ↑↑). The…

  • Hund, Friedrich (German physicist)

    Friedrich Hund, German physicist known for his work on the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. He helped introduce the method of using molecular orbitals to determine the electronic structure of molecules and chemical bond formation. Hund taught and did research at German universities

  • Hund, Friedrich Hermann (German physicist)

    Friedrich Hund, German physicist known for his work on the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. He helped introduce the method of using molecular orbitals to determine the electronic structure of molecules and chemical bond formation. Hund taught and did research at German universities

  • Hundarashi, Rashid al- (Islamic musician)

    Islamic arts: The modern period: Farid al-Aṭrash, Fayrouz, Rashid al-Hundarashi, Ṣadīqa al-Mulāya, and Muḥammad al-Gubanshi.

  • Hundejahre (novel by Grass)

    German literature: The late 1950s and the ’60s: …and Mouse), and Hundejahre (1963; Dog Years). The trilogy presents a grotesquely imaginative retrospective on the Nazi period. The narrator of Die Blechtrommel is the dwarf Oskar Matzerath, who claims that he deliberately stopped growing on his third birthday out of protest against the corruptions of adult society under Nazism.…

  • Hundertwasser, Friedensreich (Austrian artist and architect)

    Friedensreich Hundertwasser, (Friedrich Stowasser), Austrian artist and architect (born Dec. 15, 1928, Vienna, Austria—died Feb. 19, 2000, on board the Queen Elizabeth II at sea), substituted asymmetry, undulating swirls, and labyrinthine spirals for straight vertical and horizontal lines, which h

  • hundi (finance)

    India: The empire in the 17th century: …of bills of exchange (hundīs) to transfer revenue to the centre from the provinces and the consequent meshing of the fiscal system with the financial network of the money changers (ṣarrāfs; commonly rendered shroff in English) and, second, by the increasing interest of and even direct participation by the…

  • hundred (English government)

    Hundred, unit of English local government and taxation, intermediate between village and shire, which survived into the 19th century. Originally, the term probably referred to a group of 100 hides (units of land required to support one peasant family). In the areas of Danish settlement these units

  • Hundred Associates, Company of the (Canadian company)

    Canada: The Company of New France: The French government supplied more active support after the remarkable revival of royal power carried out in the 1620s by Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu. Richelieu sought to make French colonial policy comparable to that of England and…

  • Hundred Chapters (Russian history)

    education: Early Russian education: Kiev and Muscovy: …church council known as the Hundred Chapters was convened at the initiative of the tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. The council heard many stories of clerical ignorance and licentiousness, and its deliberations made it clear that no effective system or institution existed to educate the clergy, the key class in…

  • Hundred Columns, Hall of the (ruins, Persepolis, Iran)

    Iranian art and architecture: Architecture: Next comes the Throne Hall, or Hall of a Hundred Columns. It has a portico on the north side with 16 pillars and guardian bulls built into the tower walls at either end. Seven sculptured windows in the north wall are balanced by corresponding niches elsewhere, and the…

  • Hundred Days (United States history)

    Hundred Days, in U.S. history, the early period of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency (March 9–June 16, 1933), during which a major portion of New Deal legislation was enacted. See New

  • Hundred Days (French history)

    Hundred Days, in French history, period between March 20, 1815, the date on which Napoleon arrived in Paris after escaping from exile on Elba, and July 8, 1815, the date of the return of Louis XVIII to Paris. The phrase was first used by the prefect of the Seine, comte de Chabrol de Volvic, in his

  • Hundred Days of Reform (Chinese history)

    Hundred Days of Reform, (1898), in Chinese history, imperial attempt at renovating the Chinese state and social system. It occurred after the Chinese defeat in the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) and the ensuing rush for concessions in China on the part of Western imperialist powers. Following the

  • Hundred Flowers Campaign (Chinese history)

    Hundred Flowers Campaign, movement begun in May 1956 within the communist government of China to lift the restrictions imposed upon Chinese intellectuals and thus grant greater freedom of thought and speech. Motivated by the relaxation of strict communist controls in the Soviet Union that

  • Hundred Guilder Print (etching by Rembrandt)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: The myth of Rembrandt’s fall: …Six (1618–1700) and especially the Hundred Guilder Print, a large (unfinished) print with episodes from chapter 19 of The Gospel According to Matthew.

  • Hundred Guinea Cup (yacht race and trophy)

    America’s Cup, one of the oldest and best-known trophies in international sailing yacht competition. It was first offered as the Hundred Guinea Cup on August 20, 1851, by the Royal Yacht Squadron of Great Britain for a race around the Isle of Wight. The cup was won by the America, a 100-foot

  • Hundred Million Francs, A (work by Berna)

    children's literature: The 20th century: …in the United States as The Horse Without a Head and was made into a successful Disney film. A “gang” story, using a hard, unemotional tone that recalls Simenon, it may be the best of its kind since Emil and the Detectives.

  • Hundred of Mobilong (South Australia, Australia)

    Murray Bridge, town, southeastern South Australia, on the Murray River, 52 miles (84 km) by road southeast of Adelaide. Originally a stop for cattle drovers, the town was organized in 1860 as the Hundred of Mobilong and grew as a river port. A bridge spanned the Murray in 1879, and the town of

  • Hundred Rolls (English records)

    United Kingdom: Law and government: …place that yielded the so-called Hundred Rolls, a heterogeneous group of records, and brought home the need for changes in the law. In 1275 the First Statute of Westminster was issued. A succession of other statutes followed in later years, providing a kind of supplement to the common law. Some…

  • Hundred Schools (Chinese history)

    education: Dong (Eastern) Zhou (770–256 bce): …China’s intellectual history, when the Hundred Schools of thought vied with one another to expound their views and proposals for attaining a happy social and political order. Some urged a return to the teachings of the sages of old, while others sought better conditions by radical change. Among the major…

  • Hundred Secret Senses, The (work by Tan)

    Amy Tan: In The Hundred Secret Senses (1995), an American woman gradually learns to appreciate her Chinese half sister and the knowledge she imparts. Tan again explored the complex relationships of mothers and daughters in The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001), in which a woman cares for her mother, who…

  • Hundred Years’ War

    Hundred Years’ War, intermittent struggle between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown. The struggle involved several generations of English and French claimants to the crown and actually

  • Hundred Years, The (work by Rovani)

    Italian literature: The veristi and other narrative writers: …life, I cento anni (The Hundred Years), was issued in installments (1856–58 and 1864–65); Emilio Praga, a poet tormented by contradictions; and Arrigo Boito, poet, musician, and librettist for Giuseppe Verdi’s Falstaff and Otello.

  • Hundred-Foot Journey, The (film by Hallström [2014])

    Om Puri: In 2014 Puri starred in The Hundred-Foot Journey, in which he and Helen Mirren played the owners of competing restaurants in a small village in southern France. Puri earned praise for his portrayal of a man who has been displaced from his native India.

  • Hundreth sundrie Flowres, A (work by Gascoigne)

    George Gascoigne: …in his first published work, A Hundreth sundrie Flowres (1573), a collection of verse and prose. In The Posies of George Gascoigne (1575), an authorized revision of the earlier work, which had been published anonymously, he included also “Certayne notes of Instruction,” the first treatise on prosody in English. In…

  • hunebed (archaeology)

    history of the Low Countries: Neolithic (4000–2900 bce): …megalithic burial monuments (the so-called hunebedden), the precise origins of which are still unknown. Composed of large stone blocks left behind by receding glaciers, these monuments mark collective tombs and may extend for up to 160 feet (about 50 metres) in length. In addition to the beakers for which the…

  • hunebedden (archaeology)

    history of the Low Countries: Neolithic (4000–2900 bce): …megalithic burial monuments (the so-called hunebedden), the precise origins of which are still unknown. Composed of large stone blocks left behind by receding glaciers, these monuments mark collective tombs and may extend for up to 160 feet (about 50 metres) in length. In addition to the beakers for which the…

  • Hunedoara (county, Romania)

    Hunedoara, judeƫ (county), western Romania, occupying an area of 2,727 square mi (7,063 square km). The Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians) and the Western Carpathians rise above settlement areas in the valleys. The Mureş River and its tributaries drain the county southwestward. Deva is the

  • Hunedoara (Romania)

    Hunedoara, city, Hunedoara judeƫ (county), west-central Romania, in the eastern foothills of the iron-ore-bearing Poiana Ruscăi Mountains, 185 miles (300 km) northwest of Bucharest. The ore deposits at nearby Ghelari and Teliucu were known in Roman times. Hunedoara Castle, west of the city, was

  • Hunedoara Castle (castle, Hunedoara, Romania)

    Hunedoara: Hunedoara Castle, west of the city, was completed in 1453 on the ruins of a 13th-century predecessor; it was later expanded by Matthias I Corvinus.

  • Huneker, James Gibbons (American art critic and writer)

    James Gibbons Huneker, American critic of music, art, and literature, a leading exponent of impressionistic criticism. His perceptive comments and brilliant style won him a wide audience in both Europe and the United States. Huneker studied piano in Philadelphia, Paris, and New York, taught piano

  • Huneric (king of the Vandals)

    North Africa: The Vandal conquest: Gaiseric’s successors were less formidable: Huneric (477–484) launched a general persecution of the Latin church, apparently from genuine religious fanaticism rather than for political reasons, but his successor adopted a milder policy. Later, under Thrasamund (496–523), there is evidence that many Vandals adopted Roman culture, but the tribe retained its…

  • Hung Ch’a-ch’iu (Chinese general)

    Japan: The Mongol invasions: …command of the Mongol general Hung Ch’a-ch’iu. The two armies met at Hirado and in a combined assault breached the defenses at Hakata Bay. But again a fierce typhoon destroyed nearly all of the invading fleet, forcing Hung Ch’a-ch’iu to retreat precipitately. The remnants of the invading army were captured…

  • Hung Ch’eng-ch’ou (Chinese official)

    Hong Chengchou, leading Ming dynasty (1368–1644) official who became an important minister of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12) after he was captured by Manchu troops in 1642. Hong served the new government as grand secretary, the top ministerial position. He was responsible for influencing

  • Hung Dao Vuong (Vietnamese military leader)

    Tran Hung Dao, figure of almost legendary proportions in Vietnamese history, a brilliant military strategist who defeated two Mongol invasions and became a cultural hero among modern Vietnamese. By the early 1280s the Vietnamese kingdom faced a growing threat from the Mongols under Kublai Khan,

  • Hung dynasty (Vietnamese dynasty)

    Vietnam: Legendary kingdoms: …as the first of the Hung (or Hong Bang) kings (vuong) of Vietnam’s first dynasty; as such, he is regarded as the founder of the Vietnamese nation.

  • Hung Hsiu-ch’üan (Chinese prophet and rebel)

    Hong Xiuquan, Chinese religious prophet and leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), during which he declared his own new dynasty, which centred on the captured (1853) city of Nanjing. This great upheaval, in which more than 20,000,000 people are said to have been killed, drastically altered the

  • Hung Jen-kan (Chinese rebel leader)

    Hong Rengan, leader of the Taiping Rebellion, the great uprising that occupied South China between 1850 and 1864; he tried to reorganize the Taiping movement by introducing Western ideas of government and religion. Hong Rengan was a cousin and neighbour of Hong Xiuquan, the supreme Taiping leader,

  • hung Parliament (British government)

    Conservative Party: History: …outright majority led to a hung Parliament. Conservative and Labour Party leaders met with the Liberal Democrats over the ensuing days in an effort to secure enough seats to form a new government. When it appeared that those talks would result in a formal “Lib-Con” coalition, Brown announced his resignation…

  • Hung Shen (Chinese dramatist)

    Hong Shen, pioneering Chinese dramatist and filmmaker. Educated in Beijing and at Harvard University in the United States, Hong Shen taught dramatic arts and Western literature at various universities after his return to China in 1922. He was invited to join the Shanghai Dramatic Society in 1923

  • Hung Vuong (king of Vietnam)

    Hung Vuong, legendary founder of the first Vietnamese state—Van Lang (the Land of the Tattooed Men)—probably located north of what is now Hanoi. Existing archaeological evidence does not support the Vietnamese ancient texts that credit Hung Vuong with establishing, in 2879 bc, the Hong Bang

  • Hung-ch’i Ch’ü (canal, China)

    Hongqi Canal, canal and irrigation system in northern Henan and in Shanxi provinces, eastern China, constructed in 1960–69 to irrigate the poor and infertile area of Linxian county (now Linzhou municipality) in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains west of Anyang. To relieve this area’s chronic

  • Hung-jen (Chinese painter)

    Hongren, foremost painter of the Anhui (Xinan) school, a centre of painting in southeast China during the Qing period that was noted for its unusual land features, especially of Huang Shan (“Yellow Mountain”), which frequently appears in paintings of the school. Jiang Tao adopted his Buddhist name

  • Hung-lou-meng (novel by Cao Zhan)

    Dream of the Red Chamber, novel written by Cao Zhan in the 18th century that is generally considered to be the greatest of all Chinese novels and among the greatest in world literature. The work, published in English as Dream of the Red Chamber (1929), first appeared in manuscript form in Beijing

  • Hung-shan culture (prehistoric culture, China)

    Hongshan culture, (c. 4000–3000 bce) prehistoric culture of far northern China. It appears to have had a three-tiered elite whose members were honoured with complex burials. Painted pottery found there may link it to Yangshao culture, while its beautiful jade artifacts link it to other jade-working

  • Hung-shui Ho (river, China)

    Hongshui River, river in Guizhou province and in the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southwestern China. It is one of the principal tributaries of the Xi River, which forms its delta at Guangzhou (Canton). The Hongshui River rises on Mount Maxiong in Qujing, Yunnan province. Its upper course

  • Hung-tse Hu (lake, China)

    Hongze Lake, large lake in the Huai River valley, on the border between Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, eastern China. It was given the name Hongze Lake by the emperor Yangdi (reigned ad 604–617/618) of the Sui dynasty (581–618). In Tang and early Song times (from the 7th to the 10th century) it was

  • Hung-wei-ping (Chinese political movement)

    Red Guards, in Chinese history, groups of militant university and high school students formed into paramilitary units as part of the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). These young people often wore green jackets similar to the uniforms of the Chinese army at the time, with red armbands attached to one

  • Hung-wu (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Hongwu, reign name (nianhao) of the Chinese emperor (reigned 1368–98) who founded the Ming dynasty that ruled China for nearly 300 years. During his reign, the Hongwu emperor instituted military, administrative, and educational reforms that centred power in the emperor. The future Hongwu emperor

  • Hungaria group (asteroids)

    asteroid: Distribution and Kirkwood gaps: 78 AU, called the Hungaria group), 7:4 (at 3.58 AU, the Cybele group), 3:2 (at 3.97 AU, the Hilda group), 4:3 (at 4.29 AU, the Thule group), and 1:1 (at 5.20 AU, the Trojan groups). (See below Hungarias and outer-belt asteroids and Trojan asteroids for additional discussion of these…

  • Hungarian (people)

    Hungarian, member of a people speaking the Hungarian language of the Finno-Ugric family and living primarily in Hungary, but represented also by large minority populations in Romania, Croatia, Vojvodina (Yugoslavia), Slovakia, and Ukraine. Those in Romania, living mostly in the area of the former M

  • Hungarian Academy of Sciences (research institution, Hungary)

    Hungary: Cultural institutions: …dozen research institutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (established in 1825) as well as to the institutes of various ministries. The academy was at the apex of Hungarian scientific and scholarly life for over four decades following its reorganization in 1949. Beginning in the early 1990s, however, it fell…

  • Hungarian Communist Party (political party, Hungary)

    Béla Kun: …communist newspaper and founded the Hungarian Communist Party on December 20, 1918. Though imprisoned in February 1919 by the government of Mihály Károlyi, Kun was allowed to continue directing Hungary’s Communist Party from his cell. His extensive propaganda combined social agitation with promises that, if given power, he would secure…

  • Hungarian Compromise (Austro-Hungarian history)

    Ausgleich, (German: “Compromise”) the compact, finally concluded on Feb. 8, 1867, that regulated the relations between Austria and Hungary and established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The kingdom of Hungary had desired equal status with the Austrian Empire, which was weakened by its defeat

  • Hungarian Coronation Mass (work by Liszt)

    Franz Liszt: Eight years in Rome: In 1867 he wrote the Hungarian Coronation Mass for the coronation of the emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria as king of Hungary. This commission renewed his links with his native land. Meanwhile, his daughter Cosima, who, at the age of 19, had married Liszt’s favourite pupil, Hans von Bülow,…

  • Hungarian Dances (work by Brahms)

    Hungarian Dances, set of 21 dances composed by Johannes Brahms. Originally intended for two pianists, the dances were published in that form in two sets in 1869 and in 1880. Some were orchestrated by Brahms himself, and others were orchestrated by his colleagues, including Antonín Dvořák. The

  • Hungarian Democratic Forum (political party, Hungary)

    Hungary: Political reforms: …the new parties was the Hungarian Democratic Forum, followed by Fidesz and the Alliance of Free Democrats. Soon several of the traditional political parties that had been destroyed or emasculated by the communists in the late 1940s also emerged, including the Independent Smallholders’ Party, the Social Democratic Party, the National…

  • Hungarian Gates (gorge, Europe)

    Danube River: Physiography: …to the gorge called the Hungarian Gates, in the Austrian Alps and the Western Carpathian Mountains. The middle course runs from the Hungarian Gates Gorge to the Iron Gate in the Southern Romanian Carpathians. The lower course flows from the Iron Gate to the deltalike estuary at the Black Sea.

  • Hungarian language

    Hungarian language, member of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, spoken primarily in Hungary but also in Slovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia, as well as in scattered groups elsewhere in the world. Hungarian belongs to the Ugric branch of Finno-Ugric, along with the Ob-Ugric l

  • Hungarian Law, Corpus of (law)

    Corpus Juris Hungarici, (English: ‘‘Corpus of Hungarian Law’’) unofficial collection of Hungarian legal statutes dating to the 16th century. The core of the collection consists of copies of the decrees of various kings and dates from about 1544. The collection was assembled by István Illosfalvy,

  • Hungarian literature

    Hungarian literature, the body of written works produced in the Hungarian language. No written evidence remains of the earliest Hungarian literature, but, through Hungarian folktales and folk songs, elements have survived that can be traced back to pagan times. Also extant, although only in Latin

  • Hungarian National Ballet (Hungarian ballet company)

    Gyula Harangozó: …of the founders of the Hungarian National Ballet and an exceptional dancer of the ballet d’action, or dramatic ballet.

  • Hungarian National Bank (Hungarian bank)

    Hungary: Finance: …Soviet-style single-tier banking system, the National Bank both issued money and monopolized the financing of the entire Hungarian economy. Beginning in 1987, Hungary moved toward a market-oriented two-tier system in which the National Bank remained the bank of issue but in which commercial banks were established. Foreign investment was permitted,…

  • Hungarian National Council (Hungarian history)

    World War I: The collapse of Austria-Hungary: …their very timely offensive), a Hungarian National Council prescribing peace and severance from Austria was set up in Budapest. On October 27 a note accepting the U.S. note of October 18 was sent from Vienna to Washington—to remain unacknowledged. On October 28 the Czechoslovak committee in Prague passed a “law”…

  • Hungarian National Museum (museum, Budapest, Hungary)

    Budapest: Cultural life: Founded in 1802, the Hungarian National Museum has extensive historical and archaeological holdings. The music academy, established in 1875 by the pianist and composer Franz Liszt, has acquired international fame. The Opera House was restored to its 19th-century splendour in 1984. Completed in 2002 and located on the Danube…

  • Hungarian partridge (bird)

    partridge: …partridge of Europe is the gray partridge (Perdix perdix), called Hungarian (or hun) partridge in North America, where it was introduced in 1889 (Virginia) and again, much more successfully, in 1908–09 (Alberta). It ranges throughout the British Isles and across Europe to the Caspian region. The gray partridge has a…

  • Hungarian People’s Republic

    Hungary, landlocked country of central Europe. The capital is Budapest. At the end of World War I, defeated Hungary lost 71 percent of its territory as a result of the Treaty of Trianon (1920). Since then, grappling with the loss of more than two-thirds of their territory and people, Hungarians

  • Hungarian Revolution (1956)

    Hungarian Revolution, popular uprising in Hungary in 1956, following a speech by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in which he attacked the period of Joseph Stalin’s rule. Encouraged by the new freedom of debate and criticism, a rising tide of unrest and discontent in Hungary broke out into active

  • Hungarian Revolution (1848–1849)

    Budapest: Buda, Óbuda, and Pest: After the outbreak of revolution in Pest in March 1848, a Hungarian ministry, transferred from Pozsony (modern Bratislava, Slovakia) and responsible to the Diet, was established there. In the ensuing civil war Buda was besieged in May 1849 by the revolutionary army of the patriot Lajos Kossuth. Repression followed…

  • Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C-Sharp Minor (musical composition by Liszt)

    Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C-Sharp Minor, the second and most famous of the 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies composed for piano by Franz Liszt between 1846–53. Originally composed in 1851 for solo piano, the work was soon converted into orchestral form by Liszt’s colleague, Franz Doppler. In the mid-19th

  • Hungarian saddle (riding equipment)

    saddle: The English, or Hungarian, saddle is lighter, flatter, and padded and was designed for sport and recreational uses.

  • Hungarian Socialist Party (political party, Hungary)

    Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP), left-wing Hungarian political party. Although the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP) was founded in 1989, its origins date to 1948, when the Hungarian Social Democratic Party merged into what was first called the Hungarian Workers’ Party and then, following the

  • Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (political party, Hungary)

    Hungary: Overview: …it was reorganized as the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, which survived until the fall of communism in 1989.

  • Hungarian stitch (embroidery)

    bargello work: …the flamelike gradation of colour, flame stitch; its 17th-century name was Hungarian stitch.

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