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  • Human Rights Day (United Nations)

    Human Rights Day, international day of observance, held annually on December 10, in commemoration of the anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights plays a prominent role in coordinating

  • Human Rights First (nongovernmental organization)

    Human Rights First (HRF), nongovernmental organization founded in New York City in 1978 to defend human rights worldwide. HRF aims to promote laws and policies that protect the universal freedoms of all individuals—regardless of political, economic, or religious affiliation. The organization is

  • Human Rights Protection Party (political party, Samoa)

    Samoa: Political process: The major parties are the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) and the Samoan National Development Party (SNDP). Women participate in government but hold few elected offices.

  • Human Rights Watch (international organization)

    Human Rights Watch, international nongovernmental organization that investigates and documents human rights violations and advocates for policies to prevent such abuses. Founded in 1978 as Helsinki Watch to monitor the Soviet Union’s adherence to the Helsinki Accords, the group subsequently

  • Human Rights, Commission on (UN)

    human rights: The UN Commission on Human Rights (1946–2006) and the UN Human Rights Council: Between 1946 and 2006 the UN Commission on Human Rights, created as a subsidiary body of ECOSOC, served as the UN’s central policy organ in the human rights field. For the first 20…

  • Human Rights, Universal Declaration of (1948)

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), foundational document of international human rights law. It has been referred to as humanity’s Magna Carta by Eleanor Roosevelt, who chaired the United Nations (UN) Commission on Human Rights that was responsible for the drafting of the document. After

  • human sacrifice

    Human sacrifice, the offering of the life of a human being to a deity. The occurrence of human sacrifice can usually be related to the recognition of human blood as the sacred life force. Bloodless forms of killing, however, such as strangulation and drowning, have been used in some cultures. The

  • Human Schemata (work by Liu Zongzhou)

    Confucianism: Confucian learning in Jin, Yuan, and Ming: His Human Schemata (Renpu) offered a rigorous phenomenological description of human mistakes as a corrective to Wang Yangming’s moral optimism. Liu’s student Huang Zongxi (1610–95) compiled a comprehensive biographical history of Ming Confucians based on Liu’s writings. One of Huang’s contemporaries, Gu Yanwu (1613–82), was also…

  • human security (political science)

    Human security, approach to national and international security that gives primacy to human beings and their complex social and economic interactions. The concept of human security represents a departure from orthodox security studies, which focus on the security of the state. The subjects of the

  • Human Sexual Response (work by Masters and Johnson)

    Masters and Johnson: …were summarized in the book Human Sexual Response (1966), which was considered by many to be the first comprehensive study of the physiology and anatomy of human sexual activity under laboratory conditions—much of it the result of actual research observation of individuals engaged in sexually stimulating activity alone or with…

  • Human Side of Enterprise, The (work by McGregor)

    industrial relations: Participative management: …management theorist Douglas McGregor in The Human Side of Enterprise (1960). In this book McGregor challenged many of the prevailing managerial assumptions about worker motivation and behaviour. According to the prevailing view, which he labeled “Theory X,” workers were seen as uninformed, lazy, and untrustworthy members of the organization. Management’s…

  • Human Stain, The (film by Benton [2003])

    Anthony Hopkins: Hannibal Lecter, Richard M. Nixon, and John Quincy Adams: …adaptation of Philip Roth’s novel The Human Stain. In 2005 he starred as a brilliant mathematician afflicted with mental illness in Proof and as a New Zealand motorcycle racer in The World’s Fastest Indian. After enlivening the legal thriller Fracture (2007), Hopkins appeared in several big-budget movies rooted in mythology,

  • Human Stain, The (novel by Roth)

    Philip Roth: …for Operation Shylock (1993) and The Human Stain. Everyman also marked the start of a period during which Roth produced relatively brief novels, all focused on issues of mortality. Exit Ghost (2007) revisits Zuckerman, who has been reawoken to life’s possibilities after more than a decade of self-imposed exile in…

  • human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 (infectious agent)

    human disease: Viruses: …with an RNA virus, the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1). While much experimental and clinical evidence supports the carcinogenic role of the above-mentioned viruses in humans, additional research suggests that other factors also may be required. Observations that support the multifactorial nature of viral carcinogenesis include the continuous but not…

  • human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III (infectious agent)

    AIDS: The origin of HIV: …strain of HIV, known as HIV-1 group M, have indicated that the virus emerged between 1884 and 1924 in central and western Africa. Researchers estimate that that strain of the virus began spreading throughout those areas in the late 1950s. Later, in the mid-1960s, an evolved strain called HIV-1 group…

  • Human Torch (comic-book character)

    Human Torch, fictional superhero. Human Torch was one of the “big three” heroes of Marvel (then known as Timely) Comics, along with Captain America and the Sub-Mariner—and one of the most popular Marvel superheroes of the 1940s. Like the Sub-Mariner, he was first seen on the newsstands in Marvel

  • human trafficking (crime)

    Human trafficking, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially. Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. It is estimated

  • Human Windmill, the (American boxer)

    Harry Greb, American professional boxer who was one of the cleverest and most colourful performers in the ring. His ring name refers to his nonstop punching style of boxing. Greb trained very little and was legendary for his carousing and womanizing before fights. Presumably he managed to stay in

  • Human, All-Too-Human (work by Nietzsche)

    Friedrich Nietzsche: Basel years (1869–79): …his aphoristic Menschliches, Allzumenschliches (Human, All-Too-Human) appeared. Because his health deteriorated steadily, he resigned his professorial chair on June 14, 1879, and was granted a pension of 3,000 Swiss francs per year for six years.

  • human-caused climate change

    global warming: Carbon dioxide: Anthropogenic emissions currently account for the annual release of about 7 gigatons (7 billion tons) of carbon into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic emissions are equal to approximately 3 percent of the total emissions of CO2 by natural sources, and this amplified carbon load from human activities…

  • human-computer interaction (society and technology)

    computer science: Human-computer interaction: ) Human-computer interaction (HCI) is concerned with designing effective interaction between users and computers and the construction of interfaces that support this interaction. HCI occurs at an interface that includes both software and hardware. User interface design impacts the life cycle of software, so…

  • human-computer interface (computing)

    Human-machine interface, means by which humans and computers communicate with each other. The human-machine interface includes the hardware and software that is used to translate user (i.e., human) input into commands and to present results to the user. Usability of the human-machine interface is

  • human-factors engineering (bioengineering)

    Human-factors engineering, science dealing with the application of information on physical and psychological characteristics to the design of devices and systems for human use. The term human-factors engineering is used to designate equally a body of knowledge, a process, and a profession. As a

  • human-factors psychology (bioengineering)

    Human-factors engineering, science dealing with the application of information on physical and psychological characteristics to the design of devices and systems for human use. The term human-factors engineering is used to designate equally a body of knowledge, a process, and a profession. As a

  • human-induced extinction (ecology)

    extinction: Human-induced extinctions: Many species have become extinct because of hunting and overharvesting, the conversion of wetlands and forests to croplands and urban areas, pollution, the introduction of invasive species, and other forms of human-caused destruction of their natural

  • human-machine interaction (society and technology)

    computer science: Human-computer interaction: ) Human-computer interaction (HCI) is concerned with designing effective interaction between users and computers and the construction of interfaces that support this interaction. HCI occurs at an interface that includes both software and hardware. User interface design impacts the life cycle of software, so…

  • human-machine interface (computing)

    Human-machine interface, means by which humans and computers communicate with each other. The human-machine interface includes the hardware and software that is used to translate user (i.e., human) input into commands and to present results to the user. Usability of the human-machine interface is

  • human-machine model (ergonomics)

    human-factors engineering: The human-machine model: Human-factors engineers regard humans as an element in systems, and a human-machine model is the usual way of representing that relationship. The simplest model of a human-machine unit consists of an individual operator working with a single machine. In any machine system the…

  • human-powered aircraft

    airplane: Heavier-than-air: …first achieved fame with the human-powered Gossamer Condor, which navigated a short course in 1977. Two of his later designs, the human-powered Gossamer Albatross and the solar-powered Solar Challenger, successfully crossed the English Channel. Others in the field have carried on MacCready’s work, and a human-powered helicopter has been flown.…

  • human-resource capitalism

    human capital: Human-resource capitalism: The concept of human capital stems from the economic model of human-resource capitalism, which emphasizes the relationship between improved productivity or performance and the need for continuous and long-term investments in the development of human resources. This model can be applied on a…

  • human-welfare ecology (environmentalism)

    environmentalism: Emancipatory environmentalism: One form of emancipatory environmentalism, human-welfare ecology—which aims to enhance human life by creating a safe and clean environment—was part of a broader concern with distributive justice and reflected the tendency, later characterized as “postmaterialist,” of citizens in advanced industrial societies to place more importance on “quality-of-life” issues than on…

  • Humana Building (building, Louisville, Kentucky, United States)

    Michael Graves: …Oregon (completed 1982), and the Humana Building (or Humana Tower) in Louisville, Kentucky (1985). The Portland Building was the epitome of postmodernist architecture that, with its colourful structure and facades decorated with a stylized garland, defied the austere static steel and glass box of the Modernist sensibilities. Its classical tripartite…

  • Humanae vitae (encyclical by Paul VI)

    St. John Paul II: Decision to join the priesthood: …work appears to have influenced Humanae vitae (1968; “Of Human Life”), Paul VI’s encyclical rejecting artificial contraception, which became one of the church’s most ignored teachings. Some bishops also disagreed with it, saying privately that, on this issue, Wojtyła may have made basic theological mistakes.

  • Humane Society of the United States (American organization)

    Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), nonprofit animal-welfare and animal rights advocacy group founded in 1954. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is one of the largest such organizations in the world, with more than 10 million members and regional offices and field

  • Humani generis (work by Pius XII)

    Pius XII: After World War II: …French theology in his encyclical Humani generis (“Of the Human Race”) and supported traditional teachings regarding marital relations and birth control. On the other hand, he pleased liberals and angered conservatives by shortening and liberalizing the rules for the period of fasting before Communion, taking steps to revise the liturgy,…

  • Humani generis unitas (work by Pius XII)

    Pius XII: Early pontificate: Humani generis unitas (“The Unity of the Human Race”), Pius XI’s planned encyclical against racism and anti-Semitism, was returned to its authors by the new pope. Trained as a diplomat, Pius XII followed the cautious course paved by Leo XIII and Benedict XV rather than…

  • humanism

    Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England. The term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on

  • Humanisme et terreur (work by Merleau-Ponty)

    Maurice Merleau-Ponty: …a group of Marxist essays, Humanisme et terreur (“Humanism and Terror”), the most sophisticated defense of Soviet communism in the late 1940s. He argued for suspended judgment of Soviet terrorism and attacked what he regarded as Western hypocrisy. The Korean War disillusioned Merleau-Ponty and he broke with Sartre, who defended…

  • humanistic education

    education: Traditional movements: …essentialism was what was called humanistic, or liberal, education in its traditional form. Although many intellectuals argued the case, Robert M. Hutchins, president and then chancellor of the University of Chicago from 1929 to 1951, and Mortimer J. Adler, professor of the philosophy of law at the same institution, were…

  • humanistic psychology

    Humanistic psychology, a movement in psychology supporting the belief that humans, as individuals, are unique beings and should be recognized and treated as such by psychologists and psychiatrists. The movement grew in opposition to the two mainstream 20th-century trends in psychology, behaviourism

  • humanitarian engineering

    Humanitarian engineering, the application of engineering to improving the well-being of marginalized people and disadvantaged communities, usually in the developing world. Humanitarian engineering typically focuses on programs that are affordable, sustainable, and based on local resources. Projects

  • humanitarian intervention

    Humanitarian intervention, actions undertaken by an organization or organizations (usually a state or a coalition of states) that are intended to alleviate extensive human suffering within the borders of a sovereign state. Such suffering tends to be the result of a government instigating,

  • Humanitarian Pledge (international policy)

    International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons: …attract international support for the Humanitarian Pledge (originally issued as a national pledge by Austria in 2014), which asked signees to commit to creating such a treaty. It was endorsed by more than 125 countries as a UN resolution. This helped lay the groundwork for the UN to begin negotiations…

  • humanitarianism

    social science: New intellectual and philosophical tendencies: Humanitarianism, though a very distinguishable current of thought in the century, was closely related to the idea of a science of society. For the ultimate purpose of social science was thought by almost everyone to be the welfare of society, the improvement of its moral…

  • humanitas (education)

    humanism: The ideal of humanitas: …Marcus Tullius Cicero’s concept of humanitas, an educational and political ideal that was the intellectual basis of the entire movement. Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. No discussion of humanism, therefore, can have validity without an understanding of humanitas.

  • Humanité, l’  (French newspaper)

    L’Humanité, (French: “Humanity”) newspaper published in Paris, the organ of the French Communist Party (Parti Communiste Franƈais; PCF), and historically one of the most influential communist papers published in a noncommunist country. It was established in 1904 by the socialist Jean Jaurès

  • humanities (scholarship)

    Humanities, those branches of knowledge that concern themselves with human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself. As a group of educational disciplines,

  • humanized antibody (biochemistry)

    Gregory P. Winter: …this problem, Winter engineered so-called humanized antibodies, in which the sections of the mouse antibody that stimulated unwanted immune reactions were replaced by human antibody fragments. The breakthrough facilitated the eventual development of drugs such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), approved for the treatment of breast cancer, and bevacizumab (Avastin), approved for…

  • Humann, Karl (German archaeologist)

    Karl Humann, German engineer and archaeologist, whose excavation of the ancient Greek city of Pergamum (now Bergama, Tur.) brought to light some of the choicest examples of Hellenistic sculpture and revealed much about Hellenistic city planning. While directing the construction of railway lines for

  • humanure (waste management)

    composting toilet: …simplest form is a “humanure” system, which can be built with a large bucket, some pieces of wood, and a pile of hay. Self-contained units within households can have mechanical batch stirrers, electrically powered rotating chambers, and heating elements to drive off excess moisture. Site-built and single-chamber systems can…

  • Humar, Tomaz (Slovenian mountaineer)

    Tomaz Humar, Slovenian mountaineer (born Feb. 18, 1969, Ljubljana, Yugos. [now in Slovenia]—found dead Nov. 14, 2009, Langtang Himal, Nepal), was known for his brash confidence and his many intrepid solo climbs—often without a rope or a mask—on some of the world’s highest and most dangerous peaks.

  • Humason, Milton (American astronomer)

    Edwin Hubble: …by another Mount Wilson astronomer, Milton Humason. Humason measured the spectral shifts of the galaxies (and in so doing built on the pioneering studies of the Lowell Observatory astronomer Vesto Melvin Slipher), and Hubble focused on determining their distances. In 1929 Hubble published his first paper on the relationship between…

  • Humāyūn (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: External and internal rivalries: Humāyūn (reigned 1458–61) and Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad III (reigned 1461–63) sought the help of Muḥammad Begarā of Gujarat against Malwa and warded off the invasions.

  • Humāyūn (Mughal emperor)

    Humāyūn, second Mughal ruler of India, who was more an adventurer than a consolidator of his empire. The son and successor of Bābur, who had founded the Mughal dynasty, Humāyūn ruled from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. Humāyūn inherited the hope rather than the fact of empire, because

  • Humāyūn’s Tomb (tomb, Delhi, India)

    Humāyūn’s Tomb, one of the earliest extant examples of the garden tomb characteristic of Mughal-era architecture, situated in Delhi, India. In 1993 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site. A landmark in the development of Mughal architecture, Humāyūn’s Tomb was commissioned in 1569, after the

  • Humayun-namah (Turkish literature)

    Panchatantra: The 17th-century Turkish translation, the Humayun-namah, was based on a 15th-century Persian version, the Anwār-e Suhaylī. The Panchatantra stories also traveled to Indonesia through Old Javanese written literature and possibly through oral versions. In India the Hitopadesha (“Good Advice”), composed by Narayana in the 12th century and circulated mostly in…

  • Humāyūn-nāmeh (work by Khwāndamīr)

    Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad Khwāndamīr: …his grandfather, Mirkhwānd; and the Humāyūn-nāmeh (“The Book of Humāyūn”), in which he describes the buildings and institutions of the great Mughal empire.

  • Humbaba (Mesopotamian mythology)

    Gilgamesh: …men set out together against Huwawa (Humbaba), the divinely appointed guardian of a remote cedar forest, but the rest of the engagement is not recorded in the surviving fragments. In Tablet VI Gilgamesh, who had returned to Uruk, rejected the marriage proposal of Ishtar, the goddess of love, and then,…

  • Humbard, Rev. Alpha Rex Emmanuel (American televangelist)

    Rex Humbard, (the Rev. Alpha Rex Emmanuel Humbard), American televangelist (born Aug. 13, 1919, Little Rock, Ark.—died Sept. 21, 2007, Lantana, Fla.), used the powerful medium of television to spread the gospel to millions of people worldwide through his weekly program Cathedral of Tomorrow, which

  • Humbard, Rex (American televangelist)

    Rex Humbard, (the Rev. Alpha Rex Emmanuel Humbard), American televangelist (born Aug. 13, 1919, Little Rock, Ark.—died Sept. 21, 2007, Lantana, Fla.), used the powerful medium of television to spread the gospel to millions of people worldwide through his weekly program Cathedral of Tomorrow, which

  • Humber Bridge (bridge, Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom)

    Humber Bridge, suspension bridge extending across the River Humber at Hessle about 5 miles (8 km) west of Kingston upon Hull, England. It connects East Riding of Yorkshire with North Lincolnshire. Its 4,626-foot (1,410-metre) main span is one of the longest in the world, and it has a total length

  • Humber River (river, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Humber River, river on the western side of the island of Newfoundland, Can., rising in the Long Range Mountains, inland from St. Pauls Inlet. It flows generally southward for 75 miles (121 km) over a series of falls and through several lakes, including Deer Lake, to the Humber Arm of the Bay of

  • Humber, River (estuary, England, United Kingdom)

    River Humber, North Sea inlet on the east coast of England, one of the major deepwater estuaries of the United Kingdom. The River Humber originates at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Trent and forms the historic boundary between the counties of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. The Humber is about

  • Humberside (former county, England, United Kingdom)

    Humberside, region and former administrative county, eastern England, bordering the River Humber estuary and the North Sea. The region comprises parts of the historic counties of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire to the north and south of the Humber, respectively. The area north of the Humber, sometimes

  • Humberstone, H. Bruce (American director)

    H. Bruce Humberstone, American film and television director whose career peaked during World War II, when his films featured such top-tier stars as Sonja Henie, Betty Grable, and Danny Kaye. Initially a child actor and a script clerk, Humberstone became an assistant director in the mid-1920s,

  • Humbert I (count of Savoy)

    Humbert I, count of Savoy and founder of the house of Savoy, whose services to the Holy Roman emperor Conrad II were rewarded with the cession of lands that placed him in control of the strategic Alpine passes between Italy and France. Humbert, whose origins are surrounded by controversy but who

  • Humbert of Silva Candida (French cardinal)

    Humbert of Silva Candida, cardinal, papal legate, and theologian whose ideas advanced the 11th-century ecclesiastical reform of Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII. His doctrinal intransigence, however, occasioned the definitive schism between the Eastern and Western churches in 1054. A monk of the

  • Humbert the Whitehanded (count of Savoy)

    Humbert I, count of Savoy and founder of the house of Savoy, whose services to the Holy Roman emperor Conrad II were rewarded with the cession of lands that placed him in control of the strategic Alpine passes between Italy and France. Humbert, whose origins are surrounded by controversy but who

  • Humbert, Humbert (fictional character)

    Humbert Humbert, fictional character, the pedophile protagonist of Vladimir Nabokov’s novel Lolita (1955). Actors James Mason (1962) and Jeremy Irons (1997) have played the role in film

  • Humble Administrator’s Garden, The (poetry by Seth)

    Vikram Seth: The poetic craft of The Humble Administrator’s Garden (1985) foreshadows the polish of The Golden Gate, a novel of the popular culture of California’s Silicon Valley, written entirely in metred, rhyming 14-line stanzas and based on Charles Johnston’s translation of Aleksandr Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin. In the work Seth successfully…

  • Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People in Extraordinary Prayer (work by Edwards)

    Jonathan Edwards: Pastorate at Northampton: Edwards’s Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People in Extraordinary Prayer (1747), written in support of a proposed international “concert of prayer” for “the Revival of Religion and the Advancement of Christ’s Kingdom on Earth,” helped to remove a major ideological…

  • Humble Civic Center and Arena (building, Houston, Texas, United States)

    Texas: Cultural institutions: Houston’s Humble Civic Center and Arena nestles in 150 acres (60 hectares) amid the city’s tall downtown buildings. It serves as the home of the Houston Symphony Orchestra and the Houston Grand Opera. The Alley Theater, home of a renowned regional theatre company, is located nearby.…

  • Humble Inquiry into the Scripture Account of Jesus Christ, An (work by Emlyn)

    Thomas Emlyn: …the Dublin presbytery after publishing An Humble Inquiry into the Scripture Account of Jesus Christ. In 1703 he was tried for blasphemy and sentenced to a year’s imprisonment and a large fine. The rest of his life was spent mainly in London, where he preached to a few followers. In…

  • Humble Motion to the Parliament of England Concerning the Advancement of Learning and Reformation of the Universities, An (work by Hall)

    John Hall: In his major work, An Humble Motion to the Parliament of England Concerning the Advancement of Learning and Reformation of the Universities (1649), which was influenced by John Milton, Hall called for sweeping educational reform, especially in the universities. His emphasis was on the new science, mathematics, and foreign…

  • Humble Petition and Advice (England [1657])

    Instrument of Government: …a modified version called the Humble Petition and Advice; but this new constitution scarcely outlived Cromwell, who died the following year.

  • humble-bee (insect)

    Bumblebee, (tribe Bombini), common name for any member of the insect tribe Bombini (family Apidae, order Hymenoptera). These bees occur over much of the world but are most common in temperate climates. They are absent from most of Africa and the lowlands of India and have been introduced to

  • Humbles, Les (work by Coppée)

    François Coppée: …most characteristic collection of verse, Les Humbles (1872). In 1884 he was elected to the Académie Franƈaise. In 1898, after a serious illness, he was reconverted to Roman Catholicism; that same year he published La Bonne Souffrance, a novel arising from this experience.

  • Humbling, The (novella by Roth)

    Philip Roth: The Humbling (2009; film 2014) revisits Everyman’s mortality-obsessed terrain, this time through the lens of an aging actor who, realizing that he has lost his talent, finds himself unable to work. A polio epidemic is at the centre of Nemesis (2010), set in Newark, New…

  • Humboldt (county, Nevada, United States)

    Humboldt, county, northwestern Nevada, U.S., bordering Washoe county on the west and the state of Oregon on the north. The county consists mostly of mountains (including the Black Rock, Santa Rosa, and Jackson ranges) and desert (including a large portion of Black Rock Desert in the southwest); a

  • Humboldt Bay (bay, New Guinea)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Humboldt Bay and Lake Sentani: The area around Humboldt Bay and Lake Sentani is one of intensive stylistic interaction. A striking example of this interaction can be seen in the diffusion, in the early 19th century, of a pyramidal type of ceremonial house from the…

  • Humboldt Current (ocean current)

    Peru Current, cold-water current of the southeast Pacific Ocean, with a width of about 900 km (550 mi). Relatively slow and shallow, it transports only 350,000,000–700,000,000 cu ft (10,000,000–20,000,000 cu m) of water per second. It is an eastern boundary current similar to the California C

  • Humboldt Foundation (German organization)

    Werner Heisenberg: Postwar years: …the third iteration of the Humboldt Foundation, a government-funded organization that provided fellowships for foreign scholars to conduct research in Germany. Despite these close connections with the federal government, Heisenberg also became an overt critic of Adenauer’s policies as one of the “Göttingen 18” in 1957; following the government’s announcement…

  • Humboldt Glacier (glacier, Greenland)

    Humboldt Glacier, largest known glacier in the world, northwestern Greenland, 210 miles (340 km) north-northeast of Dundas. It rises to a height of 328 feet (100 m) and discharges into the Kane Basin along a 60-mile (100-km) front. It was discovered in 1853 by an American expedition headed by

  • Humboldt penguin (bird)

    Humboldt penguin, (Spheniscus humboldti), species of penguin (order Sphenisciformes) characterized by the presence of a broad C-shaped band of white feathers on the head, a wide band of black feathers that runs down the sides of the body and cuts across the white plumage of the bird’s abdomen, and

  • Humboldt River (river, Nevada, United States)

    Humboldt River, river formed by the confluence of the East and North forks, Elko county, north-central Nevada, U.S. The headwaters of the Humboldt rise in the Ruby, Jarbidge, Independence, and East Humboldt mountain ranges in Humboldt National Forest. Flowing in a tortuous channel generally west

  • Humboldt University of Berlin (university, Berlin, Germany)

    Humboldt University of Berlin, coeducational state-supported institution of higher learning in Berlin. The university was founded in 1809–10 by the linguist, philosopher, and educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, then Prussian minister of education. Under Humboldt’s guidance the university,

  • Humboldt’s Gift (novel by Bellow)

    Humboldt’s Gift, novel by Saul Bellow, published in 1975. The novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1976, is a self-described “comic book about death” whose title character is modeled on the self-destructive lyric poet Delmore Schwartz. Charlie Citrine, an intellectual middle-aged

  • Humboldt’s woolly monkey (primate)

    woolly monkey: The common, or Humboldt’s, woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha and related species) have short fur that, depending on the species, is tan, gray, reddish, or black; some have darker heads. The head itself is large and round, with a bare black or brown face. Their bodies are…

  • Humboldt, Alexander von (German explorer and naturalist)

    Alexander von Humboldt, German naturalist and explorer who was a major figure in the classical period of physical geography and biogeography—areas of science now included in the earth sciences and ecology. With his book Kosmos he made a valuable contribution to the popularization of science. The

  • Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand, baron von (German language scholar)

    Wilhelm von Humboldt, German language scholar, philosopher, diplomat, and educational reformer whose contribution to the development of the scientific study of language became highly valued in the 20th century. He contended that language is an activity the character and structure of which express

  • Humboldt, Mount (mountain, New Caledonia)

    New Caledonia: Relief and drainage: …5,308 feet (1,617 metres) at Mount Humboldt, and continues along the west coast as a series of discrete mountain masses. Outcrops from this formation form the islands of Art and Pott in the Bélep archipelago in the north and, in the south, the central part of the Île des Pins,…

  • Humboldt, Wilhelm von (German language scholar)

    Wilhelm von Humboldt, German language scholar, philosopher, diplomat, and educational reformer whose contribution to the development of the scientific study of language became highly valued in the 20th century. He contended that language is an activity the character and structure of which express

  • Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin (university, Berlin, Germany)

    Humboldt University of Berlin, coeducational state-supported institution of higher learning in Berlin. The university was founded in 1809–10 by the linguist, philosopher, and educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, then Prussian minister of education. Under Humboldt’s guidance the university,

  • Humch’igyo (Korean religion)

    Poch’ŏngyo, (Korean: “Universal Religion”), indigenous Korean religion, also popularly called Humch’igyo from the distinctive practice of chanting humch’i, a word said to have mystical significance. Poch’ŏngyo was founded by Kang Il-sun (1871–1909), who initially gained a following by offering to

  • Hume Reservoir (reservoir, Australia)

    Hume Reservoir, reservoir in Australia, on the Victoria–New South Wales border, at the confluence of the Mitta-Mitta and Murray rivers, 10 mi (16 km) above Albury. Completed in 1934 and named for the Australian bushman and explorer Hamilton Hume, it was enlarged in 1961 to a capacity of 2,500,000

  • Hume’s law (philosophy)

    ethics: The climax of moral sense theory: Hutcheson and Hume: …point has since been called Hume’s Law and taken as proof of the existence of a gulf between facts and values, or between “is” and “ought.” This places too much weight on Hume’s brief and ironic comment, but there is no doubt that many writers, both before and after Hume,…

  • Hume, 6th Lord (Scottish noble)

    Alexander Home, 1st earl of Home, Scottish noble who took part in many of the turbulent incidents that marked the reign of James VI of Scotland (afterward James I of Great Britain). In August 1575 he became 6th Lord Home on the death of his father, the 5th lord. He was warden of the east marches,

  • Hume, Alexander (Scottish poet)

    Alexander Hume, Scots poet known for a collection of religious poems. Hume probably attended the University of St. Andrews and spent four years studying law in Paris. After practicing law in Edinburgh and trying his fortune at the Scottish court, he was finally ordained, becoming in 1590 minister

  • Hume, Alexander Hume, 1st Earl of (Scottish noble)

    Alexander Home, 1st earl of Home, Scottish noble who took part in many of the turbulent incidents that marked the reign of James VI of Scotland (afterward James I of Great Britain). In August 1575 he became 6th Lord Home on the death of his father, the 5th lord. He was warden of the east marches,

  • Hume, Allan Octavian (British colonial official)

    Allan Octavian Hume, British administrator in India, one of the leading spirits in the founding of the Indian National Congress. Hume was the son of the radical politician Joseph Hume. He entered the Indian civil service in Bengal in 1849. After serving as magistrate in the district of Etawah at

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