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  • Hu (people)

    history of Central Asia: Early eastern peoples: …group of barbarians called the Hu played a considerable role in early Chinese history, leading to the introduction of cavalry and the adoption of foreign clothing, more suitable than its traditional Chinese counterpart for new types of warfare. About 200 bce a new and powerful barbarian people emerged on China’s…

  • Hu (Chinese empress)

    Wei dynasty: …sinicized lifestyle of the empress Hu led to revolts. A military uprising in 523 was followed by civil war for another 10 years. The empress Hu had the emperor Xiaomingdi assassinated (528) and put her child on the throne. Not strong enough to quell the revolts, both she and her…

  • HU (university, Berlin, Germany)

    Humboldt University of Berlin, coeducational state-supported institution of higher learning in Berlin. The university was founded in 1809–10 by the linguist, philosopher, and educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, then Prussian minister of education. Under Humboldt’s guidance the university,

  • hu (bronze work)

    Fu, type of Chinese bronze vessel used as a food container, it was produced largely from the middle Zhou period (c. 900–c. 600 bc) through the Warring States period (475–221 bc). Rectangular in shape and divided into two parts, the vessel was supported by angular feet at each corner; the lid was

  • hu (liquid container)

    Hu, type of ancient Chinese bronze vessel used to contain wine or water. A pear-shaped container, the hu has a narrow neck that blends gracefully into an expanded midsection, which is sharply cut to a small base. The vessel can be suspended by means of lugs (ear-shaped protuberances) or rings

  • hu (ivory tablet)

    ivory carving: East Asian carving: Called hu, these were generally worn as girdle pendants. In the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce) these ivory tablets came to be considered as marks of rank and were required for formal dress. Later, during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the Song dynasty (960–1279), these tablets…

  • Hu Chin-t’ao (president of China)

    Hu Jintao, Chinese politician and government official, general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 2002 to 2012 and president of China from 2003 to 2013. Hu was born into a merchant family and grew up in Taizhou, Jiangsu province. As a youth, he distinguished himself academically,

  • Hu Feng (Chinese literary theorist)

    Hu Feng, Chinese literary theorist and critic who followed Marxist theory in political and social matters but not in literature. Zhang Mingzhen studied literature at Beijing University and Qinghua University and went to Japan in 1929 to study English literature at Keiō University. There he joined

  • Hu Han-min (Chinese leader)

    Hu Hanmin, Chinese rival with Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) for control of the Nationalist (Kuomintang) government in the late 1920s. Educated in Japan, Hu joined the Tongmenghui (“United League”), the revolutionary organization of the Chinese leader Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan), when it was

  • Hu Hanmin (Chinese leader)

    Hu Hanmin, Chinese rival with Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) for control of the Nationalist (Kuomintang) government in the late 1920s. Educated in Japan, Hu joined the Tongmenghui (“United League”), the revolutionary organization of the Chinese leader Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan), when it was

  • Hu Jia (Chinese dissident)

    Hu Jia, Chinese dissident and human rights activist who was awarded the European Parliament’s Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 2008. Hu’s parents were branded “rightist” during the political campaign under Mao Zedong in the 1950s, and they endured several decades of forced labour. While a

  • Hu Jintao (president of China)

    Hu Jintao, Chinese politician and government official, general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 2002 to 2012 and president of China from 2003 to 2013. Hu was born into a merchant family and grew up in Taizhou, Jiangsu province. As a youth, he distinguished himself academically,

  • Hu Shi (Chinese leader and scholar)

    Hu Shih, Chinese Nationalist diplomat and scholar, an important leader of Chinese thought who helped establish the vernacular as the official written language (1922). He was also an influential propagator of American pragmatic methodology as well as the foremost political liberal in Republican

  • Hu Shih (Chinese leader and scholar)

    Hu Shih, Chinese Nationalist diplomat and scholar, an important leader of Chinese thought who helped establish the vernacular as the official written language (1922). He was also an influential propagator of American pragmatic methodology as well as the foremost political liberal in Republican

  • Hu Shuli (Chinese journalist and editor)

    Hu Shuli, Chinese journalist and editor who cofounded Caijing (1998), the preeminent business magazine in China. Hu was born into a family of prominent journalists and publishers. During the Cultural Revolution, however, her family fell out of political favour, and while in her mid-teens Hu, along

  • Hu Weiyong (prime minister of Ming dynasty)

    Hongwu: Despotic tendencies: In 1380 the prime minister Hu Weiyong was implicated in a widespread plot to overthrow the throne and was executed along with 30,000 members of his clique. The emperor consequently abolished the prime ministership in perpetuity as well as the central chancellery. Thus, the next highest level of administration, the…

  • Hu Yanhong (Chinese leader)

    Hu Hanmin, Chinese rival with Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) for control of the Nationalist (Kuomintang) government in the late 1920s. Educated in Japan, Hu joined the Tongmenghui (“United League”), the revolutionary organization of the Chinese leader Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan), when it was

  • Hu Yao-pang (Chinese political leader)

    Hu Yaobang, general secretary (1980–87) and chairman (1981–82) of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Born into a poor peasant family, Hu received little formal education. At age 14 he left home to join the communists, and he became a member of the CCP in 1933. A veteran of the Long March (1934–35),

  • Hu Yaobang (Chinese political leader)

    Hu Yaobang, general secretary (1980–87) and chairman (1981–82) of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Born into a poor peasant family, Hu received little formal education. At age 14 he left home to join the communists, and he became a member of the CCP in 1933. A veteran of the Long March (1934–35),

  • Hu Yepin (Chinese poet)

    Ding Ling: …with the leftist would-be poet Hu Yepin. With him she moved to the Western Hills outside Beijing.

  • Hu-chou (China)

    Huzhou, city, northern Zhejiang sheng (province), southeastern China. It is situated close to the southern shore of Lake Tai, some 45 miles (75 km) north of the provincial capital Hangzhou and 39 miles (63 km) west of Jiaxing. Situated at the confluence of the Dongtiao and Xitiao rivers, which flow

  • Hu-ho-hao-t’e (China)

    Hohhot, city and (since 1952) provincial capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. The city is a prefecture-level municipality (shi) and the command headquarters of the Inner Mongolia Military Region. It is situated in the upper valley of the Dahei River (a westward-flowing

  • Hu-lan (former town, Harbin, China)

    Hulan, former town, southwestern Heilongjiang sheng (province), China. In 2004 it was incorporated into the nearby city of Harbin, becoming a district of that city. Hulan was one of the first places in Heilongjiang opened by the Qing dynasty to Han Chinese colonization, in 1865. The district has a

  • Hu-lun Hu (lake, China)

    Lake Hulun, large lake in the Hulun Buir Plain, northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. The lake is fed by two rivers that rise in Mongolia: the Kerulen (Kelulun), which flows from the west, and the Orxon (Orshun), which flows from the south. The surface area of Lake

  • Hu-nan (province, China)

    Hunan, landlocked sheng (province) of southern China. A major rice-producing area, Hunan is situated to the south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). It is bounded by the provinces of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, and Guangdong to the southeast; by the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi

  • Hu-pei (province, China)

    Hubei, sheng (province) lying in the heart of China and forming a part of the middle basin of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). Until the reign of the great Kangxi emperor (1661–1722) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), Hubei and its southern neighbour Hunan formed a single province, Huguang. They

  • hu-tu-tu (sport)

    Kabaddi, game played between two teams on opposite halves of a field or court. Individual players take turns crossing onto the other team’s side, repeating “kabaddi, kabaddi” (or an alternate chant); points are scored by tagging as many opponents as possible without being caught or taking a breath

  • Hua Guofeng (premier of China)

    Hua Guofeng, premier of the People’s Republic of China from 1976 to 1980 and chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 1976 to 1981. Hua joined the CCP in 1938. After the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, he became a local party secretary in Hunan province, the home province of Mao Zedong.

  • Hua Hengfang (Chinese mathematician)

    Hua Hengfang, Chinese mathematician and translator of Western mathematical works. Apparently inspired by Li Shanlan (1811–82), Hua was an early enthusiastic proponent of Western-style mathematics. Like Li, Hua served as a translator, mainly in collaboration with the English missionary John Fryer,

  • Hua Hsien (Taoist flower goddess)

    floral decoration: China and Korea: Hua Hsien, the flower goddesses of the Taoists, have traditionally been represented carrying flower-filled baskets. In Taoist symbolism, the four seasons were denoted by the white plum blossom of winter, the peony of spring, the lotus of summer, and the chrysanthemum of autumn. Each month…

  • Hua jai tor ra nong (film by Weerasethakul [2003])

    Apichatpong Weerasethakul: …jai tor ra nong (2003; The Adventure of Iron Pussy), a tongue-in-cheek Asian soap opera, the third in a series featuring a transvestite secret agent.

  • Hua Kuo-feng (premier of China)

    Hua Guofeng, premier of the People’s Republic of China from 1976 to 1980 and chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from 1976 to 1981. Hua joined the CCP in 1938. After the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, he became a local party secretary in Hunan province, the home province of Mao Zedong.

  • Hua Ruoting (Chinese mathematician)

    Hua Hengfang, Chinese mathematician and translator of Western mathematical works. Apparently inspired by Li Shanlan (1811–82), Hua was an early enthusiastic proponent of Western-style mathematics. Like Li, Hua served as a translator, mainly in collaboration with the English missionary John Fryer,

  • Hua Shi (work by Mi Fu)

    Mi Fu: Works: …in Mi Fu’s Collection”) and Hua Shi (“Account of Painting”), which contain records of his own and others’ collections of paintings, essays on aesthetic history, and criticism of paintings. There also exist some posthumous collections of his writings, Haiyue Mingyan (“Remarks on Calligraphy”) and Haiyue Tiba (“Inscriptions and Colophons by…

  • Hua shuo (essay by Tung Ch’i-ch’ang)

    Chinese painting: Ming dynasty (1368–1644): …brief but influential essay “Huashuo” (“Comments on Painting”), he set out what he held to be the proper lineage of scholarly painting models, from Wang Wei of the Tang through Dong Yuan and Juran of the Five Dynasties, Su Dongpo and Mi Fu of the Song, Huang Gongwang, Wu…

  • Hua T’o (Chinese physician and surgeon)

    Hua Tuo, Chinese physician and surgeon who is best known for his surgical operations and the use of mafeisan, an herbal anesthetic formulation made from hemp. Ancient Chinese doctors felt that surgery was a matter of last resort, and little time was spent teaching or describing surgical techniques.

  • Hua Tuo (Chinese physician and surgeon)

    Hua Tuo, Chinese physician and surgeon who is best known for his surgical operations and the use of mafeisan, an herbal anesthetic formulation made from hemp. Ancient Chinese doctors felt that surgery was a matter of last resort, and little time was spent teaching or describing surgical techniques.

  • Hua Yuntaishan Ji (essay by Gu Kaizhi)

    Gu Kaizhi: …essay “Hua Yuntaishan Ji” (“On Painting the Cloud Terrace Mountain”) is also Daoist in content. The famous hand scroll entitled The Admonitions of the Court Instructress bears a signature of Gu Kaizhi, though it is not originally recorded as having been painted by him. Nonetheless, it accurately maintains a…

  • hua-chü (Chinese drama)

    Huaju, (Chinese: “word drama”) form of Chinese drama featuring realistic spoken dialogue rather than the sung poetic dialogue of the traditional Chinese dramatic forms. Huaju was developed in the early 20th century by intellectuals who wanted to replace the traditional Chinese forms with

  • Hua-lien (county, Taiwan)

    Hua-lien, hsien (county), east-central Taiwan. It is the largest and least densely populated hsien in Taiwan. The Chung-yang Mountain Range and the Hai-an Mountain Range run north–south and extend over the western and eastern hsien, respectively. Between them is the T’ai-tung rift valley; it is

  • Hua-lien (Taiwan)

    Hua-lien, shih (municipality) and seat of Hua-lien hsien (county), eastern Taiwan, the largest settlement and principal harbour on the island’s east coast. Hua-lien is situated on a major fault line at the northern end of the T’ai-tung rift valley, which separates the main Chung-yang Mountain Range

  • Hua-pei P’ing-yüan (plain, China)

    North China Plain, large alluvial plain of northern China, built up along the shore of the Yellow Sea by deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Huai, Hai, and a few other minor rivers of northern China. Covering an area of about 158,000 square miles (409,500 square km), most of which is

  • Hua-yen Temple (ancient temple, China)

    Chinese architecture: The Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …hall and library of the Huayan Temple in the Liao capital at Datong (Shanxi), which was accorded the right to house images of the Liao emperors, installed in 1062. The library, perhaps the most intricate and perfectly preserved example of the architecture of the period, was completed in 1038.

  • Huabei Pingyuan (plain, China)

    North China Plain, large alluvial plain of northern China, built up along the shore of the Yellow Sea by deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Huai, Hai, and a few other minor rivers of northern China. Covering an area of about 158,000 square miles (409,500 square km), most of which is

  • huaben (Chinese literature)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …of story writing of the huaben (“vernacular story”) type was to open up new vistas in prose fiction in later periods.

  • HUAC (United States history)

    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, established in 1938 under Martin Dies as chairman, that conducted investigations through the 1940s and ’50s into alleged communist activities. Those investigated included many artists and entertainers,

  • huaca (Inca religion)

    Huaca, ancient Inca and modern Quechua and Aymara religious concept that is variously used to refer to sacred ritual, the state of being after death, or any sacred object. The Spanish conquistador Pedro de Cieza de León believed that the word meant “burial place.” Huaca also means spirits that

  • Huaca de la Luna (archaeological site, Peru)

    Moche: … (Huaca del Sol) and the Temple of the Moon (Huaca de la Luna), dominate the site, though there is no evidence that they were ever so dedicated. The Temple of the Sun is a causeway and stepped pyramid, about 1,090 × 446 feet (340 × 136 metres) at the base…

  • Huaca del Sol (archaeological site, Moche, Peru)

    Moche: …giant structures, known as the Temple of the Sun (Huaca del Sol) and the Temple of the Moon (Huaca de la Luna), dominate the site, though there is no evidence that they were ever so dedicated. The Temple of the Sun is a causeway and stepped pyramid, about 1,090 ×…

  • Huaca Knot (plateau, Colombia)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Northern Andes: …Cumbal, Chiles) known as the Huaca Knot. Farther to the north is the great massif of the Pasto Mountains (latitude 1°–2° N), which is the most important Colombian physiographic complex and the source of many of the country’s rivers.

  • Huaca Prieta (archaeological site, Peru)

    Huaca Prieta, pre-Columbian site of the Late Preceramic Period (c. 3500–1800 bc) in northern Peru, located at the mouth of the Chicama River. Archaeological excavations have revealed subterranean pit dwellings there. The inhabitants of these dwellings did not cultivate maize (corn) or make p

  • Huaca Rajada (archaeological site, Lambayeque Valley, Peru)

    Moche: …archaeologists excavated a site called Huaca Rajada, near the village of Sipán in the Lambayeque valley, and uncovered the elaborate, jewelry-filled tomb of a Moche warrior-priest. Several more burial chambers containing the remains of Moche royalty were soon excavated, all dating from about 300 ce. In 1997 excavations at Dos…

  • huacaya (mammal)

    alpaca: The fleece of the huacaya is shorter and coarser by comparison. (See specialty hair fibre.) The alpaca’s fleece is remarkably lightweight, strong, lustrous, high in insulation value, and resistant to rain and snow. It is used in parkas, sleeping bags, and fine coat linings. Alpaca fibre is sometimes combined…

  • huachalata family (plant family)

    Anacardiaceae, the sumac family of flowering plants (order Sapindales), with about 80 genera and about 870 species of evergreen or deciduous trees, shrubs, and woody vines. Most members of Anacardiaceae are native to tropical and subtropical areas of the world. A few species occur in temperate

  • Huahine (island, French Polynesia)

    Îles Sous le Vent: …is the fertile island of Huahine, which becomes two sections at high tide: Huahine Nui (“Great Huahine”) and Huahine Iti (“Little Huahine”), dominated respectively by Mount Turi (2,195 feet [852 metres]) and Mount Moufene (1,516 feet [462 metres]). The other inhabited islands are Maupiti (Maurua), known for its black basaltic…

  • Huahujing (work by Wang Fou)

    Daoism: Confucianism and Buddhism: …Conversion of the Barbarians” (Huahujing), which was altered and expanded in subsequent centuries to encompass new developments in the continuing debate. Although there is no evidence that the earliest Daoist organization, literature, or ceremonies were in any way indebted to Buddhism, by the 4th century there was a distinct…

  • Huai Army (Chinese history)

    China: The Taiping Rebellion: …“Huai Braves” (later called the Huai Army), organized by Li Hongzhang in 1862. These armies were composed of the village farmers, inspired with a strong sense of mission for protecting the Confucian orthodoxy, and were used for wider operations than merely protecting their own villages. The necessary funds for maintaining…

  • Huai Basin (region, China)

    Huai River: …course was diverted into the Huai River, leading to continual flooding.

  • Huai Braves (Chinese history)

    China: The Taiping Rebellion: …“Huai Braves” (later called the Huai Army), organized by Li Hongzhang in 1862. These armies were composed of the village farmers, inspired with a strong sense of mission for protecting the Confucian orthodoxy, and were used for wider operations than merely protecting their own villages. The necessary funds for maintaining…

  • Huai He (river, China)

    Huai River, river in east-central China that drains the plain between the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). The river has a length of 660 miles (1,100 km) and drains an area of 67,000 square miles (174,000 square km). It is fed by numerous tributary streams rising in the

  • Huai Ho (river, China)

    Huai River, river in east-central China that drains the plain between the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). The river has a length of 660 miles (1,100 km) and drains an area of 67,000 square miles (174,000 square km). It is fed by numerous tributary streams rising in the

  • Huai River (river, China)

    Huai River, river in east-central China that drains the plain between the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). The river has a length of 660 miles (1,100 km) and drains an area of 67,000 square miles (174,000 square km). It is fed by numerous tributary streams rising in the

  • Huai’an (China)

    Huai’an, city and river port, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). The city came into being in 2001, when what were then the cities of Huai’an and

  • Huai-an (China)

    Huai’an, city and river port, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). The city came into being in 2001, when what were then the cities of Huai’an and

  • huai-jou (Chinese ruling strategy)

    Great Wall of China: The Ming dynasty to the present: …change in ruling strategy called huairou (“mollification”), wherein the Qing tried to pacify the leaders and peoples of Mongolia, Tibet, and other nationalities by not interfering with local social, cultural, or religious life. Because of the success of that strategy, the Great Wall was repaired less frequently, and it gradually…

  • Huai-nan (China)

    Huainan, prefecture-level industrial city, north-central Anhui sheng (province), China. Until the 20th century Huainan was a minor town called Tianjia’an, under the jurisdiction of Shouxian, some 18 miles (30 km) to the west. Its development began with the discovery of coal deposits in the locality

  • Huai-nan-tzu (Chinese scholar)

    Liu An, Chinese nobleman and scholar who was one of the few prominent Daoist philosophers active during the 700-year period between the peak of Daoist thought in the 4th century bc and its resurgence in the 3rd and 4th centuries ad. Liu An was a grandson of Gaozu, the founder of the Western Han

  • Huai-nan-tzu (Daoist literature)

    Huainanzi, (Chinese: “Master Huainan”) important Chinese classic written in the 2nd century bc under the patronage of the nobleman Huainanzi (Liu An). It is a compilation of 21 loosely connected chapters on metaphysics, cosmology, matters of state, and conduct. Although it contains little that is

  • Huai-yin (former city, Huai’an, China)

    Huaiyin, former city, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). In 2001 Huaiyin and several other surrounding administrative entities were amalgamated to

  • Huaihai (Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: Dhyana (Chan/Zen): …schools followed the doctrine of Huaihai, who taught that a monk who would not work should not eat and that work (as well as everything else) should be done spontaneously and naturally. The emphasis on work made the Chan schools self-sufficient and saved them from the worst effects of the…

  • Huainan (China)

    Huainan, prefecture-level industrial city, north-central Anhui sheng (province), China. Until the 20th century Huainan was a minor town called Tianjia’an, under the jurisdiction of Shouxian, some 18 miles (30 km) to the west. Its development began with the discovery of coal deposits in the locality

  • Huainan honglie (Daoist literature)

    Huainanzi, (Chinese: “Master Huainan”) important Chinese classic written in the 2nd century bc under the patronage of the nobleman Huainanzi (Liu An). It is a compilation of 21 loosely connected chapters on metaphysics, cosmology, matters of state, and conduct. Although it contains little that is

  • Huainanzi (Daoist literature)

    Huainanzi, (Chinese: “Master Huainan”) important Chinese classic written in the 2nd century bc under the patronage of the nobleman Huainanzi (Liu An). It is a compilation of 21 loosely connected chapters on metaphysics, cosmology, matters of state, and conduct. Although it contains little that is

  • Huainanzi (Chinese scholar)

    Liu An, Chinese nobleman and scholar who was one of the few prominent Daoist philosophers active during the 700-year period between the peak of Daoist thought in the 4th century bc and its resurgence in the 3rd and 4th centuries ad. Liu An was a grandson of Gaozu, the founder of the Western Han

  • Huaining (China)

    Anqing, city situated on the north bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in southwestern Anhui sheng (province), China. Situated at a crossing place on the Yangtze, it commands the narrow section of the floodplain between the Dabie Mountains to the north and the Huang Mountains on the south bank,

  • huaiño (dance)

    Huayño, couple dance of the Quechua and Aymara Indians and of many mestizos (people of Spanish-Indian descent) of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. It antedates the Spanish conquest and was possibly an Inca funeral dance; today it is purely festive. A circle of dancing couples surrounds the musicians,

  • Huaiwang (ruler of Chu)

    Qu Yuan: …favoured counselor of his kinsman Huaiwang, the ruler of Chu. Qu Yuan advocated the unpopular policy of resistance to Qin, the most powerful of the Warring States, causing his rival courtiers to intrigue successfully against him. Estranged from the throne through the malice of his rivals, Qu Yuan was banished…

  • Huaiyin (former city, Huai’an, China)

    Huaiyin, former city, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). In 2001 Huaiyin and several other surrounding administrative entities were amalgamated to

  • Huaji buyi (work by Zhuang Su)

    Xia Gui: Life: …by Zhuang Su and titled Huaji Buyi, states that he was active in the academy under the reign of the emperor Lizong (reigned 1224/25–1264/65). Perhaps his service in the academy overlapped these two reigns and can provisionally be dated about 1200 to 1240.

  • Huajianji (Chinese literary anthology)

    Wen Tingyun: …ci poetry, the Huajianji (Among the Flowers), compiled by Zhao Chongzuo in 940 to popularize the new genre.

  • huaju (Chinese drama)

    Huaju, (Chinese: “word drama”) form of Chinese drama featuring realistic spoken dialogue rather than the sung poetic dialogue of the traditional Chinese dramatic forms. Huaju was developed in the early 20th century by intellectuals who wanted to replace the traditional Chinese forms with

  • Hualalai (volcano, Hawaii, United States)

    Hualalai, dormant volcano (8,271 feet [2,521 metres]), northwestern Hawaii island, Hawaii, U.S. It emerged from the ocean some 300,000 years ago and is one of five volcanoes that form the island. Its dome, 24 miles (39 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide, covers an area of 290 square miles (751

  • Hualapai (people)

    Native American: Reorganization: …argument was cited by the Hualapai against the Santa Fe Railway, which in 1944 was required to relinquish about 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) it thought it had been granted by the United States. A special Indian Claims Commission, created by an act of Congress on August 13, 1946, received petitions…

  • Huallaga River (river, Peru)

    Huallaga River, river in central and northern Peru. It rises in the Andes mountains just south of Cerro de Pasco and descends north-northeastward past Huánuco and Tingo María. The Huallaga carves a valley between the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Azul and emerges into the Amazon River

  • Hualpaya (Inca noble)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Huayna Capac: A regent named Hualpaya (Walpaya) was appointed from this group to tutor Huayna Capac in the ways of government until the child was old enough to rule in his own name. Hualpaya, however, tried to assert the claims of his own son to the throne and, as a…

  • Huaman Achachi (Inca noble)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Huayna Capac: This group was led by Huaman Achachi (Waman ’Achachi), the child’s uncle and presumably the brother of the Emperor’s principal wife. A regent named Hualpaya (Walpaya) was appointed from this group to tutor Huayna Capac in the ways of government until the child was old enough to rule in his…

  • Huamanga (Peru)

    Ayacucho, city, south-central Peru. It lies in a fertile valley on the eastern slopes of the Andean Cordillera Occidental at an elevation of 9,007 feet (2,746 metres) above sea level and has a pleasant and invigorating climate. Ayacucho was founded in 1539 by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro and

  • Huambo (Angola)

    Huambo, city, west-central Angola. It lies south of the Cuanza River on the Bié Plateau at an elevation of 5,581 feet (1,701 metres) and has a temperate climate. The city was founded in 1912 by Portuguese settlers and workers on the Benguela Railway, which was then under construction. It was first

  • Huamelultec language

    Tequistlatecan languages: Huamelultec (also called Lowland Chontal) is spoken today by fewer than 100 elderly persons in San Pedro Huamelula and Santiago Astata near the coast in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Tequistlatec (Tequistlatec proper) was formerly spoken in Tequisistlán, Oaxaca, but now has no speakers. Highland…

  • Huan Wen (Chinese general)

    Jin dynasty: Huan Wen, the general responsible for this victory, deposed the reigning emperor and put a puppet ruler on the throne, but both the new ruler and the general died soon after. In 383 the Dong Jin turned back invading armies of the northern nomads at…

  • Huan, Duke (ruler of Qi)

    Qi: …semi-legendary prince Duke Huan (Qi Huangong) and his famous adviser Guan Zhong, a uniform tax system was instituted, a central army was created, and state monopolies of salt and iron production were formed. At the same time, a centralized bureaucracy based on talent rather than hereditary rank began to…

  • Huan-ti (emperor of Han dynasty)

    European exploration: The exploration of the coastlines of the Indian Ocean and the China Sea: …Marcus Aurelius to the emperor Huan-ti, bearing goods that Huan-ti gratefully received as “tribute.” Ptolemy, however, did not know of these voyages: he swept his peninsula of Colmorgo (Malay) southwestward to join the eastward trend of his coast of Africa, thus creating a closed Indian Ocean. He presumably did not…

  • Huan-wang (ancient kingdom, Indochina)

    Champa, ancient Indochinese kingdom lasting from the 2nd to the 17th century ad and extending over the central and southern coastal region of Vietnam from roughly the 18th parallel in the north to Point Ke Ga (Cape Varella) in the south. Established by the Cham, a people of Malayo-Polynesian stock

  • Huancavelica (Peru)

    Huancavelica, city, central Peru. It is located about 140 miles (225 km) southeast of Lima, in the inter-Andean Huancavelica River valley at an elevation of 12,060 feet (3,676 m). Huancavelica was established as a mining settlement in 1563 after the local discovery of mercury, which was essential

  • Huancayo (Peru)

    Huancayo, city, central highlands of Peru. It lies at 10,659 feet (3,249 m) above sea level in a fertile basin drained by the Mantaro River. The settlement at Huancayo (from the Quechua word meaning “clan of the Huancas,” a powerful Indian people) was given the status of a city in 1823. The major

  • Huang Binhong (Chinese painter)

    Huang Binhong, painter and art theorist who, faced with the challenge of a new society in 20th-century China, incorporated fresh ideas into traditional Chinese painting. Huang’s father was a merchant and art enthusiast who encouraged his son’s interest in painting. In 1888 his business collapsed

  • Huang Ch’ao (Chinese rebel)

    Huang Chao, Chinese rebel leader whose uprising so weakened the Tang dynasty (618–907) that it collapsed a few years after the rebellion ended. Although well-educated, Huang Chao failed to pass his civil-service examinations and turned to salt smuggling, defying the government-granted

  • Huang Ch’un-ming (Chinese writer)

    Chinese literature: Literature in Taiwan after 1949: Huang Ch’un-ming’s Ni-szu i-chih lao-mao (1980; The Drowning of an Old Cat) is representative of this nativist school, which in later years gave way to a more nationalistic literature that reflected Taiwan’s current political situation. Mainland literature occasionally appears in Taiwanese periodicals, while firsthand experiences…

  • Huang Chao (Chinese rebel)

    Huang Chao, Chinese rebel leader whose uprising so weakened the Tang dynasty (618–907) that it collapsed a few years after the rebellion ended. Although well-educated, Huang Chao failed to pass his civil-service examinations and turned to salt smuggling, defying the government-granted

  • Huang Cheng (Chinese artist)

    lacquerwork: China: …written by a celebrated lacquerer, Huang Cheng, and bears a preface by Yang Ming, another lacquerer, dated 1625. The work itself was probably written toward the end of the 16th century. From these works one can ascertain the excellence of the carved lacquer made during the reigns of the Yongle…

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