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  • Hopkins, Bernard (American boxer)

    Bernard Hopkins, American boxer who dominated the middleweight division in the early 2000s with a combination of speed and precision that earned him the nickname “The Executioner.” Hopkins was involved in street crime as a teenager, and at age 17 he was convicted of armed robbery and sentenced to

  • Hopkins, Esek (United States naval officer)

    Esek Hopkins, first commodore of the United States Navy in the period of the American Revolution (1775–83). Hopkins, who went to sea at the age of 20, proving his ability as a seaman and trader, and a marriage into wealth put him at the head of a large merchant fleet prior to the French and Indian

  • Hopkins, Gerard Manley (British poet)

    Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet and Jesuit priest, one of the most individual of Victorian writers. His work was not published in collected form until 1918, but it influenced many leading 20th-century poets. Hopkins was the eldest of the nine children of Manley Hopkins, an Anglican, who had

  • Hopkins, Harry L. (United States government official)

    Harry L. Hopkins, U.S. New Deal Democratic administrator who personified the ideology of vast federal work programs to relieve unemployment in the 1930s; he continued as President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s emissary and closest personal adviser during World War II. Hopkins was a social worker in New

  • Hopkins, Harry Lloyd (United States government official)

    Harry L. Hopkins, U.S. New Deal Democratic administrator who personified the ideology of vast federal work programs to relieve unemployment in the 1930s; he continued as President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s emissary and closest personal adviser during World War II. Hopkins was a social worker in New

  • Hopkins, John (American bishop)

    Western architecture: United States: …Waterford, Pennsylvania (1831), by Bishop John Hopkins, author of Essay on Gothic Architecture (1836).

  • Hopkins, Johns (American philanthropist)

    Johns Hopkins, U.S. millionaire merchant and investor who in his will left large endowments to found Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital. The son of a Quaker tobacco planter, Johns Hopkins quit school at the age of 12 to work the family fields after his parents—in accord with their

  • Hopkins, Mark (American businessman)

    Mark Hopkins, California capitalist who helped build the Central Pacific (later the Southern Pacific) Railroad and for whom San Francisco’s Mark Hopkins Hotel atop Nob Hill was named. After his birth, his family settled in North Carolina. In 1845 he and his brother Moses left home for Kentucky and,

  • Hopkins, Mark (American educator and theologian)

    Mark Hopkins, American educator and theologian of whom U.S. President James A. Garfield, a former student, once declared, “I am not willing that this discussion should close without mention of the value of a true teacher. Give me a log hut, with only a simple bench, Mark Hopkins on one end and I on

  • Hopkins, Matthew (English witch-hunter)

    Matthew Hopkins, English witch-hunter during a witchcraft craze of the English Civil Wars. Little is known of Hopkins before 1644, but apparently he had been a lawyer, practicing in Essex. In March 1644 he alleged his first discovery of witches—six of them, in Manningtree, who he claimed tried to

  • Hopkins, Miriam (American actress)

    Anatole Litvak: The Hollywood years: It starred Miriam Hopkins, whom Litvak later married (divorced 1939), and Paul Muni. Litvak then signed with Warner Brothers, and his first film for the studio was Tovarich (1937). The popular comedy starred Boyer and Claudette Colbert as Russian aristocrats who, during the Russian Revolution of 1917,…

  • Hopkins, Pauline (American writer and editor)

    Pauline Hopkins, African-American novelist, playwright, journalist, and editor. She was a pioneer in her use of traditional romance novels as a medium for exploring racial and social themes. Her work reflects the influence of W.E.B. Du Bois. Hopkins attended Boston public schools and in 1880 joined

  • Hopkins, Pauline Elizabeth (American writer and editor)

    Pauline Hopkins, African-American novelist, playwright, journalist, and editor. She was a pioneer in her use of traditional romance novels as a medium for exploring racial and social themes. Her work reflects the influence of W.E.B. Du Bois. Hopkins attended Boston public schools and in 1880 joined

  • Hopkins, Priscilla (British actress)

    Priscilla Kemble, noted English actress and wife of the actor and theatrical manager John Philip Kemble. Born into a theatrical family, Priscilla Hopkins made her acting debut in 1772 with David Garrick’s company at the Drury Lane. After a few years, Priscilla married another of Garrick’s actors,

  • Hopkins, Samuel (American theologian)

    Samuel Hopkins, American theologian and writer who was one of the first Congregationalists to oppose slavery. After studying divinity in Northampton, Mass., with the Puritan theologian Jonathan Edwards, in whose home he lived, Hopkins was ordained (1743) as minister of the Congregational Church at

  • Hopkins, Sheila Christine (British aviator)

    Sheila Scott, British aviator who broke more than 100 light-aircraft records between 1965 and 1972 and was the first British pilot to fly solo around the world. After attending a Worcester boarding school, Scott became a trainee nurse at Haslar Naval Hospital (1944), where she tended the wounded

  • Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland (British biochemist)

    Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, British biochemist, who received (with Christiaan Eijkman) the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovery of essential nutrient factors—now known as vitamins—needed in animal diets to maintain health. In 1901 Hopkins discovered the amino acid

  • Hopkins, Sir Philip Anthony (Welsh actor)

    Anthony Hopkins, Welsh stage and film actor of burning intensity, often seen at his best when playing pathetic misfits or characters on the fringes of insanity. Hopkins had early ambitions to be a concert pianist. He began acting at age 18 when he joined a YMCA dramatic club. He received a

  • Hopkins, Stephen (governor of Rhode Island)

    Society of Friends: The age of quietism: …it thoroughly; in Rhode Island Stephen Hopkins, who was governor nine times, was disowned because he would not free his one slave.

  • Hopkinsianism (religion)

    Jonathan Edwards: Influence: …“Hopkinsianism” and later the “New England Theology.” These men and their successors, in their effort to defend Calvinism against Arminians, Unitarians (those who denied the doctrine of the Trinity), and “infidels,” made important modifications in some of its doctrines and thus prepared the way for later 19th-century evangelical liberalism.

  • Hopkinson, Francis (American lawyer, musician, and patriot)

    Francis Hopkinson, American lawyer, musician, author, member of the Continental Congress, and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Hopkinson was educated at the College of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania), graduating in 1757, and also studied law. After a brief business

  • Hopkinson, Henry Thomas (British editor)

    Sir Thomas Hopkinson, British editor and a leader in the development of photojournalism. Hopkinson was a freelance journalist until he joined (1934) Hungarian-born editor Stefan Lorant at the Weekly Illustrated. In 1938 the two founded Picture Post, the first British magazine to emphasize pictures

  • Hopkinson, John (British physicist)

    John Hopkinson, British engineer and physicist who invented the three-wire system for electricity distribution and improved the design and efficiency of electric generators. In 1872 he became engineering manager of Chance Brothers and Company, a glass manufacturer in Birmingham, where he studied

  • Hopkinson, Sir Thomas (British editor)

    Sir Thomas Hopkinson, British editor and a leader in the development of photojournalism. Hopkinson was a freelance journalist until he joined (1934) Hungarian-born editor Stefan Lorant at the Weekly Illustrated. In 1938 the two founded Picture Post, the first British magazine to emphasize pictures

  • Hopkinsville (Missouri, United States)

    Kirksville, city, seat of Adair county, northeastern Missouri, U.S., about 90 miles (145 km) north of Columbia, near the Chariton River. Founded about 1841 as the county seat, it was known as Long Point and Hopkinsville before being renamed for Jesse Kirk, an early resident. A minor American Civil

  • Hopkinsville (Kentucky, United States)

    Hopkinsville, city, seat of Christian county, southwestern Kentucky, U.S. It originated as Christian Court House, was renamed Elizabeth, which became the county seat in 1797, and was renamed in 1804 to honour Samuel Hopkins, soldier of the American Revolution and pioneer. It became a service centre

  • Hoplichthyidae (fish)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: Family Hoplichthyidae (ghost flatheads or spiny flatheads) Small fishes with very depressed bodies. Scaleless; body with bony plates. Head with heavy spiny ridges. Vertebrae 26. Size to 43 cm (17 inches). Found in moderately deep water in Indo-Pacific region. 1 genus, Hoplichthys, with about 11 species. Family…

  • hoplite (ancient Greek soldier)

    Hoplite, heavily armed ancient Greek foot soldier whose function was to fight in close formation. Until his appearance, probably in the late 8th century bce, individual combat predominated in warfare. At that time, new and heavier armour now gave the foot soldier stronger protection: he wore a

  • Hoplocarida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Subclass Hoplocarida Carboniferous to present. Order Stomatopoda (mantis shrimps) Jurassic to present; eyes stalked; 2 movable segments in head; carapace leaves 4 thoracic segments uncovered; second thoracic limbs massive; marine; about 350 species. †Order Palaeostomatopoda

  • hoplomachus (gladiator class)

    gladiator: …like the ancient Britons; the hoplomachi (“fighters in armour”), who wore a complete suit of armour; and the laquearii (“lasso men”), who tried to lasso their antagonists.

  • hoplon (shield)

    military technology: Shields: …acquired his name from the hoplon, a convex circular shield, approximately 3 feet (90 cm) in diameter, made of composite wood and bronze. It was carried on the left arm by means of a bronze strap that passed across the forearm and a rope looped around the inner rim with…

  • Hoplophoneus (extinct mammal)

    sabre-toothed cat: …felids, they include the genera Hoplophoneus, Nimravus, Dinictis, and Barbourofelis. The Machairodontinae, extant from about 12 million to less than 10,000 years ago, include the more familiar Smilodon as well as Homotherium and Meganteron. Sabre-toothed cats roamed North America and Europe throughout the Miocene and

  • Hoplostraca (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: †Order Hoplostraca Carboniferous. Order Leptostraca Permian to present; bivalved carapace encloses 8 pairs of leaflike limbs; movable rostrum; telson with caudal rami; marine; about 10 species. Subclass Hoplocarida Carboniferous to present.

  • Hoppe, William Frederick (American billiards player)

    Willie Hoppe, U.S. master of carom (balkline and three-cushion) billiards, was one of the most durable of all sports champions, winning 51 world titles between 1906 and 1952. After being taught billiards by his father, a hotelkeeper, so that he could win money from travelling salesmen, Hoppe (then

  • Hoppe, Willie (American billiards player)

    Willie Hoppe, U.S. master of carom (balkline and three-cushion) billiards, was one of the most durable of all sports champions, winning 51 world titles between 1906 and 1952. After being taught billiards by his father, a hotelkeeper, so that he could win money from travelling salesmen, Hoppe (then

  • Hoppe-Seyler, Ernst Felix Immanuel (German physician)

    Ernst Felix Hoppe-Seyler, German physician, known for his work toward establishing physiological chemistry (biochemistry) as an academic discipline. He was the first to obtain lecithin in a pure form and introduced the word proteid (now protein). Additional contributions included metabolic studies

  • hopper (freight car)

    freight car: …may be either gondola or hopper cars. Hoppers are used to haul bulk freight such as coal, gravel, and grain; they have either several discharge hatches or a collapsible bottom for rapid unloading. Gondola cars have fixed bottoms and must be unloaded from above with the help of a crane;…

  • hopper car (freight car)

    freight car: …may be either gondola or hopper cars. Hoppers are used to haul bulk freight such as coal, gravel, and grain; they have either several discharge hatches or a collapsible bottom for rapid unloading. Gondola cars have fixed bottoms and must be unloaded from above with the help of a crane;…

  • Hopper, Abigail (American social reformer)

    Abigail Hopper Gibbons, American social reformer, remembered especially for her activism in the cause of prison reform. Abigail Hopper was born into a pious Quaker family with a deep tradition of good works, which was reflected throughout her life in her devotion to social causes. She attended

  • Hopper, Dennis (American actor, director, and writer)

    Dennis Hopper, American film actor, director, and writer who rose to fame as a countercultural icon in the 1960s and later developed into a noted character actor. When Hopper was a teenager, his family settled in San Diego, California, where he began performing at the Old Globe Theatre. He moved to

  • Hopper, Dennis Lee (American actor, director, and writer)

    Dennis Hopper, American film actor, director, and writer who rose to fame as a countercultural icon in the 1960s and later developed into a noted character actor. When Hopper was a teenager, his family settled in San Diego, California, where he began performing at the Old Globe Theatre. He moved to

  • Hopper, DeWolf (American actor)

    baseball: Baseball and the arts: …stage performances of comic actor DeWolf Hopper, who recited the poem more than 10,000 times in hundreds of American cities and towns. “Casey at the Bat” became baseball’s most popular piece of literature, celebrated in opera, paintings, sculpture, and film and imitated, extended, and even parodied by writers ranging from…

  • Hopper, Edward (American artist)

    Edward Hopper, American painter whose realistic depictions of everyday urban scenes shock the viewer into recognition of the strangeness of familiar surroundings. He strongly influenced the Pop art and New Realist painters of the 1960s and 1970s. Hopper was initially trained as an illustrator, but,

  • Hopper, Grace (United States naval officer and mathematician)

    Grace Hopper, American mathematician and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy who was a pioneer in developing computer technology, helping to devise UNIVAC I, the first commercial electronic computer, and naval applications for COBOL (common-business-oriented language). After graduating from Vassar

  • Hopper, Grace Murray (United States naval officer and mathematician)

    Grace Hopper, American mathematician and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy who was a pioneer in developing computer technology, helping to devise UNIVAC I, the first commercial electronic computer, and naval applications for COBOL (common-business-oriented language). After graduating from Vassar

  • hopping (form of locomotion)

    locomotion: Saltation: The locomotor pattern of saltation (hopping) is confined mainly to kangaroos, anurans (tailless amphibians), rabbits, and some groups of rodents in the vertebrates and to a number of insect families in the arthropods. All saltatory animals have hind legs that are approximately twice as…

  • hopping process (physics)

    crystal: Conduction through ion hopping: Electrical conductivity σ is the inverse of resistivity and is measured in units of ohm-metre−1. Electrical current is produced by the motion of charges. In crystals, electrical current is due to the motion of both ions and electrons. Ions move by hopping occasionally from…

  • Hoppner, John (British painter)

    John Hoppner, painter of the English portrait school during the late 18th and early 19th centuries who emulated the earlier style of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His father was of German extraction, and his mother was one of the German attendants at the royal palace. As a boy he was a chorister at the

  • hops (plant)

    Hop, either of two species of the genus Humulus, nonwoody annual or perennial vines in the hemp family (Cannabinaceae) native to temperate North America, Eurasia, and South America. The hops used in the brewing industry are the dried female flower clusters (cones) of the common hop (H. lupulus).

  • Hopscotch (novel by Cortázar)

    Argentina: The arts: …as the antinovel Rayuela (1963; Hopscotch) by the Argentine novelist Julio Cortázar. Adolfo Bioy Casares, a colleague of Borges, is particularly well known for his stories. Also notable is Ernesto Sábato, author of the fictional work El túnel (1948; Eng. trans. The Outsider) and chair of the commission that produced…

  • hopscotch (game)

    Hopscotch, age-old children’s game based on an idea of not treading on lines. Variations of the game are played in many countries. The game’s English name expresses its object: to hop over the “scotch,” a line, or scratch, drawn on the ground. Lines are drawn in a variety of patterns. Spaces in the

  • Hopt v. Utah (law case)

    confession: Confession in U.S. legal history: Supreme Court’s 1884 decision in Hopt v. Utah that the federal courts were required to strictly enforce the common-law rule prohibiting the use of confessions extracted by physical force or threats of violence. Since Hopt, federal courts have barred coerced and other involuntary confessions either as a matter of federal…

  • Hopton of Stratton, Ralph Hopton, Baron (English commander)

    Ralph Hopton, Baron Hopton, Royalist commander in the first phase of the English Civil Wars between King Charles I and Parliament. One of the most talented of the king’s generals, he secured southwestern England for the Royalist cause. After studying at Oxford University and the Middle Temple,

  • Hopwood v. University of Texas Law School (law case)

    affirmative action: …affirmative action program, arguing in Hopwood v. University of Texas Law School (1996) that there was no compelling state interest to warrant using race as a factor in admissions decisions. Afterward there were further legislative and electoral challenges to affirmative action in many parts of the country. In the Bollinger…

  • Hopwood’s Ferry (Victoria, Australia)

    Echuca, city, northern Victoria, Australia. The name Echuca is derived from an Aboriginal term meaning “meeting of the waters,” from the city’s location at the junction of the Murray and Campaspe rivers. Founded in 1847 as a ferrying point, it developed as one of Victoria’s largest inland river

  • Hoquarton (Oregon, United States)

    Tillamook, city, seat (1873) of Tillamook county, northwestern Oregon, U.S., on the Trask River, at the head of Tillamook Bay, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean. Founded in 1851, the settlement was known successively as Lincoln and Hoquarton before being named in 1885 for the local Tillamook Indians.

  • hoquet (music)

    Hocket, in medieval polyphonic (multipart) music, the device of alternating between parts, single notes, or groups of notes. The result is a more or less continuous flow with one voice resting while the other voice sounds. The hocket was a popular device in the motet and the cantilena (vernacular

  • hoquetus (music)

    Hocket, in medieval polyphonic (multipart) music, the device of alternating between parts, single notes, or groups of notes. The result is a more or less continuous flow with one voice resting while the other voice sounds. The hocket was a popular device in the motet and the cantilena (vernacular

  • Hoquiam (Washington, United States)

    Hoquiam, city, Grays Harbor county, western Washington, U.S., on Grays Harbor at the mouth of the Hoquiam River, a deepwater port 12 miles (19 km) from the Pacific Ocean and adjacent to Aberdeen, immediately to its east. The earliest permanent white settlement in the Grays Harbor region, it was

  • Hor (Egyptian god)

    Horus, in ancient Egyptian religion, a god in the form of a falcon whose right eye was the sun or morning star, representing power and quintessence, and whose left eye was the moon or evening star, representing healing. Falcon cults, which were in evidence from late predynastic times, were

  • Hor (Norse mythology)

    Balder: The blind god Höd, deceived by the evil Loki, killed Balder by hurling mistletoe, the only thing that could hurt him. After Balder’s funeral, the giantess Thökk, probably Loki in disguise, refused to weep the tears that would release Balder from death.

  • Hora (Greek mythology)

    Hora, in Greco-Roman mythology, any one of the personifications of the seasons and goddesses of natural order; in the Iliad they were the custodians of the gates of Olympus. According to Hesiod, the Horae were the children of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Themis, a Titaness, and their names

  • hora (dance)

    Hora, folk dance of Romania and Israel, performed in a linked circle. The most popular Romanian hora, the Hora Mare, or Great Hora, is danced both on special occasions such as weddings and for relaxation. It is a metaphor for the community: the circle opens to admit nubile women, adolescent boys

  • hora 0, La (work by Cardenal)

    Ernesto Cardenal: La hora 0 (1960; Zero Hour, and Other Documentary Poems), a long documentary poem denouncing the effects of domestic tyranny and American imperialism in Central American history, is a masterpiece of protest poetry. In subsequent works Cardenal began to use empty phrases and commercial slogans as symbols of an…

  • hora de España 1560-1590, Una (work by Azorín)

    Azorín: …hora de España 1560–1590 (1924; An Hour of Spain, 1560–1590) carefully and subtly reconstruct the spirit of Spanish life, directing the reader’s sensibility by the suggestive power of their prose. Azorín’s literary criticism, such as Al margen de los clásicos (1915; “Marginal Notes to the Classics”), helped to open up…

  • hora de los hornos, La (film by Getino and Solanas [1968])

    Third Cinema: …hora de los hornos (1968; The Hour of the Furnaces), one of the best-known Third Cinema documentary films of the 1960s, in their manifesto “Hacia un tercer cine” (1969; “Toward a Third Cinema”).

  • hora nacional, La (Mexican government radio program)

    radio: Mexico: …had to carry the government-produced La hora nacional (“The National Hour”), which featured Mexican music, culture, history, and news. Political broadcasts were largely banned, while Mexican música tipica (“folk music”) was required in virtually all programs. Indeed, Mexican orchestral and vocal music was widely heard throughout the country—more than 90…

  • Horace (Roman poet)

    Horace, outstanding Latin lyric poet and satirist under the emperor Augustus. The most frequent themes of his Odes and verse Epistles are love, friendship, philosophy, and the art of poetry. Horace was probably of the Sabellian hillman stock of Italy’s central highlands. His father had once been a

  • Horace (drama by Corneille)

    Horace, verse tragedy in five acts by Pierre Corneille, produced in 1640 and published in 1641. It was also translated into English under the title Horatius. Although the character Sabine (Horace’s wife) was invented by Corneille, the drama is based on an actual incident mentioned in Livy’s history

  • Horace Mann School (school, New York City, New York, United States)

    Horace Mann School, private elementary and secondary school in New York, New York, U.S. It was founded in 1887 as a coeducational experimental school by the Teachers College of Columbia University to test progressive educational theories under the observation of Teachers College students. It

  • Horace Mann School for the Deaf (school, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Sarah Fuller: …known since 1877 as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf.

  • Horaces, Les (dance pantomime)

    Françoise Prévost: …Jean Balon in 1708 in Les Horaces, an early dance pantomime based on Pierre Corneille’s play Horace, is said to have moved the audience to tears. After retiring from the Opéra in 1730, she was replaced as leading female dancer by her students Marie Camargo and Marie Sallé.

  • Horae (Greek mythology)

    Hora, in Greco-Roman mythology, any one of the personifications of the seasons and goddesses of natural order; in the Iliad they were the custodians of the gates of Olympus. According to Hesiod, the Horae were the children of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Themis, a Titaness, and their names

  • Horae Homileticae (work by Simeon)

    Charles Simeon: In his Horae Homileticae, 17 vol. (1819–28; “Homiletic Offices”), he annotated the entire Bible for sermon material. In order to ensure the continuity of Evangelical teaching, he established (1816) the Simeon Trust to purchase the right to appoint clergymen to livings.

  • Horae Syriacae (work by Wiseman)

    Nicholas Wiseman: His celebrated Horae Syriacae (1827; “Syriac Seasons”) contained important original research on the Syriac version of the Old Testament, and his historical novel Fabiola (1854) was translated into many languages.

  • Horae, The (German publication)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Return to Weimar and the French Revolution (1788–94): …new journal, Die Horen (The Horae), intended to give literature a voice in an age increasingly dominated by politics.

  • Horáková, Milada (Czech politician)

    Czechoslovak history: Stalinism in Czechoslovakia: In June Milada Horáková, a former member of the National Assembly, and other politicians from the right and the left were tried for espionage. She and several others were sentenced to death. Gottwald also was put under pressure to uncover ideological opponents in the Czechoslovak Communist Party,…

  • Horan, Elaine Frances (American artist)

    Elaine Sturtevant, (Elaine Frances Horan), American artist (born Aug. 23, 1924, Lakewood, Ohio—died May 7, 2014, Paris, France), created considerable controversy in the 1960s and ’70s by reimagining the works of such famed artists as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Marcel

  • Horan, Niall (Irish singer)

    One Direction: The members were Niall Horan (b. September 13, 1993, Mullingar, County Westmeath, Ireland), Zayn Malik (b. January 12, 1993, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England), Liam Payne (b. August 29, 1993, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England), Harry Styles (b. February 1, 1994, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, England),

  • Horan, Niall James (Irish singer)

    One Direction: The members were Niall Horan (b. September 13, 1993, Mullingar, County Westmeath, Ireland), Zayn Malik (b. January 12, 1993, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England), Liam Payne (b. August 29, 1993, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England), Harry Styles (b. February 1, 1994, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, England),

  • Horapollon (Greco-Egyptian scholar)

    hieroglyphic writing: Decipherment of hieroglyphic writing: …been preserved: the Hieroglyphica of Horapollon, a Greek Egyptian who probably lived in the 5th century ce. Horapollon made use of a good source, but he himself certainly could not read hieroglyphic writing and began with the false hypothesis of the Greek tradition—namely, that hieroglyphs were symbols and allegories, not…

  • Horatian ode (poetic form)

    Horatian ode, short lyric poem written in stanzas of two or four lines in the manner of the 1st-century-bc Latin poet Horace. In contrast to the lofty, heroic odes of the Greek poet Pindar (compare epinicion), most of Horace’s odes are intimate and reflective; they are often addressed to a friend

  • Horatian satire (literature)

    satire: Influence of Horace and Juvenal: …practice, the great Roman poets Horace and Juvenal set indelibly the lineaments of the genre known as the formal verse satire and, in so doing, exerted pervasive, if often indirect, influence on all subsequent literary satire. They gave laws to the form they established, but it must be said that…

  • Horatii and Curiatii (Roman legend)

    Horatii and Curiatii, in Roman legend, two sets of triplet brothers whose story was probably fashioned to explain existing legal or ritual practices. The Horatii were Roman and the Curiatii Alban, although the Roman historian Livy wrote that some earlier accounts had reversed this order. During the

  • Horatio (fictional character)

    Hamlet: Hamlet’s dearest friend, Horatio, agrees with him that Claudius has unambiguously confirmed his guilt. Driven by a guilty conscience, Claudius attempts to ascertain the cause of Hamlet’s odd behaviour by hiring Hamlet’s onetime friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on him. Hamlet quickly sees through the scheme and…

  • Horatius Cocles (Roman legendary hero)

    Horatius Cocles, Roman hero traditionally of the late 6th century bc but perhaps legendary, who first with two companions and finally alone defended the Sublician bridge (in Rome) against Lars Porsena and the entire Etruscan army, thereby giving the Romans time to cut down the bridge. He then threw

  • Horch (German car)

    automobile: The age of the classic cars: … of the United States; the Horch, Maybach, and Mercedes-Benz of Germany; the Belgian Minerva; and the Italian Isotta-Fraschini. These were costly machines, priced roughly from $7,500 to $40,000, fast (145 to 210 km, or 90 to 130 miles, per hour), as comfortable as the state of the art would allow,…

  • Horchhaimer, Nicholas (German pewterer)

    metalwork: 16th century to modern: The earliest piece made by Nicholas Horchhaimer, bearing the date 1567, is a dish cast in an etched mold with an allegorical figure representing Fame, or Fama, in the centre and historical scenes or incidents from classical mythology around the edge. Other large dishes made by Horchhaimer and his contemporary…

  • Horcynus Orca (work by D’Arrigo)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: …compose his ambitious modern epic, Horcynus Orca (1975), 20 years in the making, which narrates the 1943 homecoming through the Strait of Messina (site of the mythical Scylla and Charybdis) of a Sicilian fisherman to an ogre-plagued Sicily. The whole narrative is couched in a language that combines precious hyperliterary…

  • hordeolum (eye disease)

    Sty, acute, painful, modular infection of one or more glands of the eyelid. Two types are distinguished, the external and the internal sty. The external sty is an infection, usually with Staphylococcus bacteria, of a sebaceous gland in the margin of the eyelid. The eye becomes sensitive to light,

  • Hordern, Sir Michael Murray (British actor)

    Sir Michael Murray Hordern, British actor (born Oct. 3, 1911, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England—died May 2, 1995, Oxford, England), as a stage, screen, and television actor for more than 60 years, used his distinctive voice, careworn features, and wry humour in a remarkable variety of character r

  • Hordeum spontaneum (plant)

    barley: …bce from its wild progenitor Hordeum spontaneum. Archaeological evidence dates barley cultivation to 5000 bce in Egypt, 2350 bce in Mesopotamia, 3000 bce in northwestern Europe, and 1500 bce in China. Barley was the chief bread plant of the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans and of much of Europe through the…

  • Hordeum vulgare (cereal)

    Barley, (Hordeum vulgare), cereal plant of the grass family Poaceae and its edible grain. Grown in a variety of environments, barley is the fourth largest grain crop globally, after wheat, rice, and corn. Barley is commonly used in breads, soups, stews, and health products, though it is primarily

  • Hordubal (work by C̆apek)

    Karel Čapek: Hordubal (1933) contrasts an inarticulate man’s awareness of the causes of his actions with the world’s incomprehension; Povětroň (1934; Meteor) illustrates the subjective causes of objective judgments; and Obyčejný život (1934; An Ordinary Life) explores the complex layers of personality underlying the “self” an “ordinary”…

  • Hore-Belisha of Devonport, Isaac Leslie Hore-Belisha, Baron (British statesman)

    Leslie Hore-Belisha, Baron Hore-Belisha, British secretary of state for war (1937–40) who instituted military conscription in the spring of 1939, a few months before the outbreak of World War II. He was educated at Clifton College, served overseas with the British army in World War I, and went to

  • Horeb, Mount (mountain, Egypt)

    Mount Sinai, granitic peak of the south-central Sinai Peninsula, Janūb Sīnāʾ (South Sinai) muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Egypt. Mount Sinai is renowned as the principal site of divine revelation in Jewish history, where God is purported to have appeared to Moses and given him the Ten Commandments

  • Horeb, Versuche über Jissroéls Pflichten in der Zerstreuung (work by Hirsch)

    Samson Raphael Hirsch: Among his many works are Horeb, Versuche über Jissroéls Pflichten in der Zerstreuung (1837; “Essays on the Duties of the Jewish People in the Diaspora”), an Orthodox textbook on Judaism, and commentaries on the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses (1867–78). In addition he founded (1855) and edited the monthly…

  • Horeburg (Germany)

    Hamburg: Industry: Harburg, and Wandsbek in 1937, Hamburg has become Germany’s major industrial city. All processing and manufacturing industries are represented there. Hamburg treats most of the country’s copper supplies, and the Norddeutsche Affinerie, on Veddel, is Europe’s second largest copperworks. The chemical, steel, and shipbuilding industries…

  • horehound (herb)

    Horehound, (Marrubium vulgare), bitter perennial herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae). Horehound is native to Europe, North Africa, and Central Asia and has naturalized throughout much of North and South America. The leaves and flowering tops are used as flavouring for beverages and candies, and

  • Horemheb (king of Egypt)

    Horemheb, last king (reigned 1319–1292 bce) of the 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt; he continued the restoration of the traditional Amon religion that a previous ruler, Akhenaton, had replaced with the worship of the god Aton. Having served as commander of the army under Tutankhamen, Horemheb came to

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