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  • Honourable, The (style or title)

    The Honourable, a style or title of honour common to the United Kingdom, the countries of the Commonwealth, and the United States. It is taken from the French honorable and ultimately derived from the Latin honorabilis (“worthy of honour”). Edward Gibbon equates the late Roman title of clarissimus

  • honours of war (conduct of war)

    honour: …to be accorded the “honours of war” when, after a specially honourable defense, it has surrendered its post and is permitted by the terms of capitulation to march out with colours flying, bands playing, and under arms, while retaining possession of its field artillery and baggage. The force remains…

  • Honrado Concejo de la Mesta (Spanish society)

    Mesta, society composed of all the sheep raisers of Castile, in Spain, formally recognized by Alfonso X (the Wise) in 1273. The name is thought to derive either from the Spanish mezcla (“mixture”), a reference to the mixture of sheep; or from the Arabic mechta, meaning winter pastures for sheep.

  • Honshu (island, Japan)

    Honshu, largest of the four main islands of Japan, lying between the Pacific Ocean (east) and the Sea of Japan (west). It forms a northeast–southwest arc extending about 800 miles (1,287 km) and varies greatly in width. The coastline extends 6,266 miles (10,084 km). Honshu has an area of 87,992

  • Hontan, Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de La (French soldier)

    Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan, French soldier and writer who explored parts of what are now Canada and the United States and who prepared valuable accounts of his travels in the New World. Lahontan went to Canada in 1683 as a marine lieutenant. He participated in an unsuccessful

  • Honterus, Johannes (Romanian religious leader)

    Brașov: “The Apostle of Transylvania,” Johannes Honterus (1498–1549), who led the Protestant Reformation in the area, lived and died in Brașov (then Kronstadt) and established the first printing press in Transylvania there in 1535. The first book printed in the Romanian language, by the deacon Coresi, was published in Brașov…

  • Hontheim, Johann Nikolaus von (German theologian)

    Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, historian and theologian who founded Febronianism, the German form of Gallicanism, which advocated the restriction of papal power. Hontheim’s extensive European travels brought him to Rome, where he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1728. He became professor of

  • Honthorst, Gerard van (Dutch painter)

    Gerrit van Honthorst, Dutch painter, a leading member of the Utrecht school influenced by the Italian painter Caravaggio. Like his slightly older contemporary Hendrik Terbrugghen, Honthorst first studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht. About 1610 he moved to Italy, where he had leading nobles

  • Honthorst, Gerrit van (Dutch painter)

    Gerrit van Honthorst, Dutch painter, a leading member of the Utrecht school influenced by the Italian painter Caravaggio. Like his slightly older contemporary Hendrik Terbrugghen, Honthorst first studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht. About 1610 he moved to Italy, where he had leading nobles

  • Honwana, Luís Bernardo (Mozambican author)

    Luís Bernardo Honwana, journalist, author, and public official who was one of Africa’s outstanding short-story writers, especially known for his poetically insightful portrayals of village life in Mozambique. Honwana grew up in Moamba, a suburb of the capital city Lourenço Marques (now Maputo).

  • honzon (mandala)

    Nichiren Buddhism: The first, the honzon, is the chief object of worship in Nichiren temples and is a ritual drawing showing the name of the Lotus Sutra surrounded by the names of divinities mentioned in the sutra (discourse of the Buddha). The second great mystery is the daimoku, the “title”…

  • Hōō-dō (hall, Uji, Japan)

    Japanese art: Amidism: …to Amidist faith is the Phoenix Hall (Hōōdō) at the Byōdō Temple in Uji, located on the Uji River to the southeast of Kyōto. Originally used as a villa by the Fujiwara family, this summer retreat was converted to a temple by Fujiwara Yorimichi in 1053. The architecture of the…

  • Hooch, Pieter de (Dutch painter)

    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch genre painter of the Delft school, noted for his interior scenes and masterful use of light. De Hooch was a pupil of Claes Berchem at Haarlem. From 1653 he was in the service of Justus de Grange and lived in Delft, The Hague, and Leiden. He was a member of the painters’ guild

  • hood (clothing)

    dress: Medieval Europe: …main head covering was the hood with an attached shoulder cape and a long extended point, or tail, known as a liripipe. By the 1420s a new way of wearing this hood was tried. The face portion was placed on the head, then the cape was arranged in folds like…

  • Hood (British ship)

    Bismarck: …of Wales and battle cruiser Hood soon engaged it. After destroying the Hood with a shell that exploded in the magazine, the Bismarck escaped into the open sea and soon began heading for Brest in German-occupied France. Sighted by aircraft 30 hours later (May 26), it was hit by a…

  • Hood Island (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Española Island, southernmost of the major Galápagos Islands, in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 600 miles (965 km) west of Ecuador. Large seal and albatross colonies live on the island, which has an area of 18 square miles (47 square km), but there are no human s

  • Hood of Catherington, Baron (British admiral)

    Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, British admiral who served during the Seven Years’ War and the American and the French Revolutionary wars. Hood entered the navy in 1741, becoming a lieutenant in 1746. During the Seven Years’ War he served in the English Channel and then the Mediterranean. In 1778,

  • Hood of Whitley, Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount (British admiral)

    Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, British admiral who served during the Seven Years’ War and the American and the French Revolutionary wars. Hood entered the navy in 1741, becoming a lieutenant in 1746. During the Seven Years’ War he served in the English Channel and then the Mediterranean. In 1778,

  • Hood River (Oregon, United States)

    Hood River, city, seat (1908) of Hood River county, northern Oregon, U.S., on the Columbia River, there bridged to White Salmon, Washington, 60 miles (97 km) northeast of Portland. It lies at the mouth of the Hood River, which was named for British Admiral Lord Hood. Settled in 1854, and platted in

  • Hood, David (British inventor)

    lighthouse: Oil lamps: …which was subsequently improved by David Hood of Trinity House and others. This burner utilized kerosene vaporized under pressure, mixed with air, and burned to heat an incandescent mantle. The effect of the vaporized oil burner was to increase by six times the power of former oil wick lights. (The…

  • Hood, Gavin (South African director, writer, and actor)
  • Hood, John B. (Confederate general)

    John B. Hood, Confederate officer known as a fighting general during the American Civil War, whose vigorous defense of Atlanta failed to stem the advance of Gen. William T. Sherman’s superior Federal forces through Georgia in late 1864. A graduate of West Point who served in the U.S. Cavalry until

  • Hood, John Bell (Confederate general)

    John B. Hood, Confederate officer known as a fighting general during the American Civil War, whose vigorous defense of Atlanta failed to stem the advance of Gen. William T. Sherman’s superior Federal forces through Georgia in late 1864. A graduate of West Point who served in the U.S. Cavalry until

  • Hood, Mount (mountain, Oregon, United States)

    Mount Hood, highest peak (11,239 feet [3,425 metres]) in Oregon, U.S., and the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range, 45 miles (70 km) east-southeast of Portland. It is a dormant volcano that last erupted about 1865, with minor steam and ash (tephra) emissions in 1903; debris flows, glacial

  • Hood, Raymond M. (American architect)

    Raymond M. Hood, American architect noted for his designs of skyscrapers in Chicago and New York City. Educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the École des Beaux-Arts (Paris), Hood gained national recognition in 1922 when the Neo-Gothic design submitted by John Mead Howells and

  • Hood, Raymond Mathewson (American architect)

    Raymond M. Hood, American architect noted for his designs of skyscrapers in Chicago and New York City. Educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the École des Beaux-Arts (Paris), Hood gained national recognition in 1922 when the Neo-Gothic design submitted by John Mead Howells and

  • Hood, Robin (legendary hero)

    Robin Hood, legendary outlaw hero of a series of English ballads, some of which date from at least as early as the 14th century. Robin Hood was a rebel, and many of the most striking episodes in the tales about him show him and his companions robbing and killing representatives of authority and

  • Hood, Samuel (British admiral)

    Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, British admiral who served during the Seven Years’ War and the American and the French Revolutionary wars. Hood entered the navy in 1741, becoming a lieutenant in 1746. During the Seven Years’ War he served in the English Channel and then the Mediterranean. In 1778,

  • Hood, Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount (British admiral)

    Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, British admiral who served during the Seven Years’ War and the American and the French Revolutionary wars. Hood entered the navy in 1741, becoming a lieutenant in 1746. During the Seven Years’ War he served in the English Channel and then the Mediterranean. In 1778,

  • Hood, Thomas (British poet)

    Thomas Hood, English poet, journalist, and humorist whose humanitarian verses, such as “The Song of the Shirt” (1843), served as models for a whole school of social-protest poets, not only in Britain and the United States but in Germany and Russia, where he was widely translated. He also is notable

  • hood-mould (architecture)

    Hoodmold, molding projecting from the face of the wall, immediately above an arch or opening whose curvature or outline it follows. The hoodmold, which originated during the Romanesque period to protect carved moldings and to direct rainwater away from the opening, was later developed into an

  • hooded crow (bird)

    crow: …and breast is called the hooded crow (C. corone cornix). Sometimes considered a separate species, it is found between western Europe and eastern Asia and in the northern British Isles. Other crows include the house crow (C. splendens) of the Indian subcontinent (introduced in eastern Africa); the pied crow (C.…

  • hooded merganser (bird)

    merganser: Quite different is the hooded merganser (M., or Lophodytes, cucullatus) of temperate North America, a small, tree-nesting species of woodland waterways.

  • hooded orchid (plant)

    greenhood: The hooded orchid (P. banksii) is native to New Zealand, and the closely related king greenhood (P. baptistii) is from neighbouring Australia.

  • hooded seal (mammal)

    Hooded seal, (Cystophora cristata), large grayish seal with dark spots that is found in open waters of the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Hooded seals range from the Svalbard archipelago and the Barents Sea to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Average-sized adult males measure about 2.6 metres (8.5

  • hooded shrimp (crustacean, order Cumacea)

    Hooded shrimp, any member of the order Cumacea (superorder Peracarida), a group of small, predominantly marine crustaceans immediately recognizable by their unusual body shape. The head and thorax are wide and rounded, in sharp contrast to the slender, cylindrical, flexible abdomen from which

  • hooded skunk (mammal)

    skunk: …eyes, as does the rare hooded skunk (M. macroura) of the southwestern United States. In the hooded skunk stripes are not always present, and white areas on the back are interspersed with black fur, which gives it a gray appearance. The “hood” is the result of long hairs at the…

  • hooded weaver (bird)

    mannikin: 5-inch) bronze mannikin (L. cucullata) has large communal roosts in Africa; it has been introduced into Puerto Rico, where it is called hooded weaver. Abundant in southern Asia are the nutmeg mannikin (L. punctulata), also called spice finch or spotted munia, and the striated mannikin (L.…

  • Hoodia (plant genus)

    Asclepiadoideae: Several succulent plants—such as Hoodia, Huernia, and carrion flower (Stapelia)—produce odours that humans find offensive but which attract flies to pollinate the plants. The ant plant (Dischidia rafflesiana) is uniquely adapted with hollow inflated leaves filled with root structures. The leaves can store rainwater or, if

  • Hoodlum Saint, The (film by Taurog [1946])

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: The Hoodlum Saint (1946), Taurog’s first postwar project, offered William Powell as a con man whose fraudulent charity operation becomes genuine; his love interest was played by Esther Williams, who was better known for her water musicals. Taurog switched gears with The Beginning or the…

  • hoodmold (architecture)

    Hoodmold, molding projecting from the face of the wall, immediately above an arch or opening whose curvature or outline it follows. The hoodmold, which originated during the Romanesque period to protect carved moldings and to direct rainwater away from the opening, was later developed into an

  • hoodwinker sunfish (fish)

    mola: The hoodwinker sunfish (M. tecta) was discovered in 2017, the first new sunfish to be found in more than 130 years, and is thought to be widely distributed in the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere. The hoodwinker sunfish is much smaller than the other two…

  • hoof (anatomy)

    ungulate: hoofed mammal. Although the term is now used more broadly in formal classification as the grandorder Ungulata, in common usage it was widely applied to a diverse group of placental mammals that were characterized as hoofed herbivorous quadrupeds. The feature that united them, the hoof,…

  • Hoof, Anne Catherine (American printer)

    Anne Catherine Hoof Green, early American printer who distinguished herself in her profession in the formative days of the United States. Anne Hoof apparently moved to America as a child and grew up in Philadelphia. In 1738 she married Jonas Green, a printer employed by Benjamin Franklin and Andrew

  • hoof-and-mouth disease (animal disease)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease affecting practically all cloven-footed domesticated mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Wild herbivores such as bison, deer, antelopes, reindeer, and giraffes are also susceptible. The horse is resistant to the

  • hoofed mammal (mammal)

    Ungulate, formerly, any hoofed mammal. Although the term is now used more broadly in formal classification as the grandorder Ungulata, in common usage it was widely applied to a diverse group of placental mammals that were characterized as hoofed herbivorous quadrupeds. The feature that united

  • Hooft, Gerardus ’t (Dutch physicist)

    Gerardus ’t Hooft, Dutch physicist, corecipient with Martinus J.G. Veltman of the 1999 Nobel Prize for Physics for their development of a mathematical model that enabled scientists to predict the properties of both the subatomic particles that constitute the universe and the fundamental forces

  • Hooft, Pieter Corneliszoon (Dutch author)

    Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Dutch dramatist and poet, regarded by many as the most brilliant representative of Dutch Renaissance literature. Hooft’s prose style continued to provide a model into the 19th century. During three years spent in France and Italy, Hooft came completely under the spell of

  • Hoogerwerf’s rat (rodent)

    rat: General features: …rest uniformly white, as in Hoogerwerf’s rat (R. hoogerwerfi) and the white-tailed rat of Sulawesi.

  • Hoogh, Pieter de (Dutch painter)

    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch genre painter of the Delft school, noted for his interior scenes and masterful use of light. De Hooch was a pupil of Claes Berchem at Haarlem. From 1653 he was in the service of Justus de Grange and lived in Delft, The Hague, and Leiden. He was a member of the painters’ guild

  • Hoogh, Pieter de (Dutch painter)

    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch genre painter of the Delft school, noted for his interior scenes and masterful use of light. De Hooch was a pupil of Claes Berchem at Haarlem. From 1653 he was in the service of Justus de Grange and lived in Delft, The Hague, and Leiden. He was a member of the painters’ guild

  • Hooghe, Pieter de (Dutch painter)

    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch genre painter of the Delft school, noted for his interior scenes and masterful use of light. De Hooch was a pupil of Claes Berchem at Haarlem. From 1653 he was in the service of Justus de Grange and lived in Delft, The Hague, and Leiden. He was a member of the painters’ guild

  • Hooghe, Romeyn de (Dutch artist)

    caricature and cartoon: Social satire: …group of artists of whom Romeyn de Hooghe was the chief, and they were sold cheap. There had been Dutch political cartoons before, but they were laborious and appeared irregularly. The Dutch–English connection in the person of William III, the continuing threat of Louis XIV, and a succession of shattering…

  • hoogheemraadschappen (Netherlandish history)

    history of the Low Countries: Social and economic structure: …led to the foundation of water boards, which in the 13th and 14th centuries were amalgamated to form higher water authorities (the hoogheemraadschappen). Mastery over the water had to be carried out on a large scale and in an organized fashion; the building of dikes required a higher authority and…

  • Hooghly (India)

    Hugli, city, central West Bengal state, northeastern India. The city lies just west of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is a major road and rail connection. Rice milling and rubber-goods manufacture are the chief industries. Hooghly (now Hugli) was founded by the Portuguese in 1537 following the

  • Hooghly River (river, India)

    Hugli River, river in West Bengal state, northeastern India. An arm of the Ganges (Ganga) River, it provides access to Kolkata (Calcutta) from the Bay of Bengal. It is formed by the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi rivers at Nabadwip. From there the Hugli flows generally south for about 160

  • Hooghly-Chinsurah (India)

    Hugli, city, central West Bengal state, northeastern India. The city lies just west of the Hugli (Hooghly) River and is a major road and rail connection. Rice milling and rubber-goods manufacture are the chief industries. Hooghly (now Hugli) was founded by the Portuguese in 1537 following the

  • Hoogste tijd (novel by Mulisch)

    Harry Mulisch: Hoogste tijd (1985; Last Call) tells the story of an elderly actor who collaborated with the Nazis during the war. De ontdekking van de hemel (1992; The Discovery of Heaven; filmed 2001) increased Mulisch’s international presence with its discussion of the theological questions raised by science. De procedure…

  • Hoogstraten, Samuel van (Dutch painter)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: Night Watch: In the words of van Hoogstraten, Rembrandt’s former pupil, “Rembrandt made the portraits that were commissioned subservient to the image as a whole.”

  • Hooiberg (mountain, Aruba)

    Aruba: Land: …is the mountain known as Hooiberg (“Haystack”), which reaches 560 feet (171 metres). In some places immense monolithic boulders of diorite are peculiarly piled on top of one another. Aruba has barren soil with little or no natural irrigation. Most drinking water is obtained by desalinating seawater. The temperature varies…

  • Hook (people)

    Holland: …between factions known as the Hooks (Hoeken) and the Cods (Kabeljauwen), who came to represent rival aristocratic and middle-class parties, respectively. The issue was finally settled with the intervention of the house of Wittelsbach, whose members served as counts of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainaut until forced to give up the…

  • hook (device)

    fishing: Early history: …was the predecessor of the fishhook: a gorge—that is, a piece of wood, bone, or stone 1 inch (2.5 cm) or so in length, pointed at both ends and secured off-centre to the line. The gorge was covered with some kind of bait. When a fish swallowed the gorge, a…

  • Hook (film by Spielberg [1991])

    Steven Spielberg: The 1990s: …film of the 1990s was Hook (1991), a retelling of J.M. Barrie’s Peter Pan. Despite a cast that included major stars Robin Williams and Julia Roberts, the movie was a critical and commercial failure. Spielberg, however, returned to form in dramatic fashion with not one but two enormously popular 1993…

  • hook (cricket)

    cricket: Batting: …or behind the wicket; and pull or hook, in which the batsman hits a ball on the uprise through the leg side.

  • hook (feather)

    feather: …attached to one another by hooks, stiffening the vane. In many birds, some or all of the feathers lack the barbules or the hooks, and the plumage has a loose, hairlike appearance.

  • hook (boxing)

    boxing: Techniques: The hook, also thrown with the lead hand, is a short lateral movement of arm and fist, with elbow bent and wrist twisted inward at the moment of impact. The uppercut is an upward blow delivered from the direction of the toes with either hand. The…

  • hook and ladder truck

    fire engine: The ladder truck (hook and ladder) mounts a ladder that may be capable of rapid extension to 150 feet, often with a large-capacity nozzle built into the top section. The older type of overlength ladder truck is equipped with steerable rear wheels for negotiating city streets.…

  • hook echo (meteorology)

    tornado: Prediction and detection of tornadoes: …updraft to produce a “hook echo,” a hook-shaped region of precipitation that flows out of the main storm and wraps around the updraft. Such inferences were highly subjective and prone to false alarms or very short-notice warnings. Today, modern weather surveillance radars not only provide information on the intensity…

  • Hook of Holland (headland, Netherlands)

    harbours and sea works: The Delta Plan: …the New Waterway from the Hook of Holland.

  • Hook, Peter (British musician)

    Joy Division/New Order: January 4, 1956, Salford, Manchester), Peter Hook (b. February 13, 1956, Manchester), Stephen Morris (b. October 28, 1957, Macclesfield), and Gillian Gilbert (b. January 27, 1961, Manchester).

  • Hook, Sidney (American educator and philosopher)

    Sidney Hook, American educator and social philosopher who studied historical theory in relation to American philosophy. He was among the first U.S. scholars to analyze Marxism and was firmly opposed to all forms of totalitarianism, holding liberal democracy as the most viable political structure

  • Hook, Theodore Edward (English writer)

    Theodore Edward Hook, prolific English playwright and novelist, best remembered as a founder of the “silver-fork” school of novelists who, in the early 19th century, aimed to describe fashionable English society from the inside for those on the outside. Hook was the son of the composer and organist

  • hook-bead (tire)

    bicycle: Wheels: … with wire beads are called clinchers, though the proper technical name is wired-on or hook-bead. Clincher tires have a wearing surface of synthetic rubber vulcanized onto a two-ply cotton or nylon casing. Air pressure is contained by a butyl rubber inner tube with either a Presta or a Schrader valve.…

  • hook-billed vanga-shrike (bird)

    vanga-shrike: The hook-billed vanga-shrike (Vanga curvirostris) is a big-billed form that catches tree frogs and lizards. The smallest species is the red-tailed vanga-shrike, or tit-shrike (Calicalicus madagascariensis).

  • hook-nose (fish)

    scorpaeniform: Reproduction: The European hook-nose (A. cataphractus) lays up to 2,400 eggs inside the hollow rhizoid (stalk) of the kelp Laminaria in a compact, membrane-covered mass. Incubation is prolonged, possibly as long as 12 months.

  • hookah (smoking pipe)

    smoking: Tobacco in Old World culture: Arab communities took up the hookah, or water pipe, and smoking became a shared activity typically enjoyed with conversation and coffee. The hookah spread throughout Persia (present-day Iran) and into India, eventually reaching China, Southeast Asia, and many parts of Africa by the end of the 17th century.

  • Hooke’s law (physics)

    Hooke’s law, law of elasticity discovered by the English scientist Robert Hooke in 1660, which states that, for relatively small deformations of an object, the displacement or size of the deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force or load. Under these conditions the object returns

  • Hooke, Robert (British scientist)

    Robert Hooke, English physicist who discovered the law of elasticity, known as Hooke’s law, and who did research in a remarkable variety of fields. In 1655 Hooke was employed by Robert Boyle to construct the Boylean air pump. Five years later, Hooke discovered his law of elasticity, which states

  • Hookean solid

    deformation and flow: Linearly elastic solids have molecules envisaged as being locked together by springlike elastic forces. For small deformations, a graph of deformation as a function of the applied load is a straight line. This type of deformation is an energy-storing process, as exemplified by the compression…

  • hooked mussel (mollusk)

    mussel: The hooked, or bent, mussel (M. recurvus), from New England to the Caribbean, attains lengths of about 4 cm and is greenish brown to purplish black. The scorched mussel (M. exustus), from North Carolina to the Caribbean, is bluish gray and about 2.5 cm long.

  • hooked rug

    rug and carpet: North America: Hooking (drawing strips of material through a woven foundation) began around the turn of the 18th century and became very popular; early examples have floral, geometric, or animal designs and are very colourful. No knotted carpets were manufactured by the early settlers. In 1884, however,…

  • Hooker’s sea lion (mammal)

    sea lion: The New Zealand, or Hooker’s, sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) inhabits only New Zealand. Males are 2.0–2.5 metres in length, females 1.5–2.0 metres. Their weight is slightly less than that of Australian sea lions.

  • Hooker, Isabella Beecher (American suffragist)

    Isabella Beecher Hooker, American suffragist prominent in the fight for women’s rights in the mid- to late 19th century. Isabella Beecher was a daughter of the Reverend Lyman Beecher and a half sister of Henry Ward Beecher, Catharine Beecher, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. She was educated mainly in

  • Hooker, John Lee (American musician)

    John Lee Hooker, American blues singer-guitarist, one of the most distinctive artists in the electric blues idiom. Born into a Mississippi sharecropping family, Hooker learned to play the guitar from his stepfather and developed an interest in gospel music as a child. In 1943 he moved to Detroit,

  • Hooker, Joseph (United States general)

    Joseph Hooker, Union general in the American Civil War (1861–65) who successfully reorganized the Army of the Potomac in early 1863 but who thereafter earned a seesaw reputation for defeat and victory in battle. A West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican War (1846–48), Hooker left his

  • Hooker, Lois Ruth (Canadian-born actress)

    Lois Maxwell, (Lois Ruth Hooker), Canadian-born actress (born Feb. 14, 1927, Kitchener, Ont.—died Sept. 29, 2007 , Fremantle, W.Aus., Australia), played the role of the dryly flirtatious Miss Moneypenny, secretary to spymaster M, in 14 James Bond films, beginning with Dr. No (1962) and ending with

  • Hooker, Richard (English theologian)

    Richard Hooker, theologian who created a distinctive Anglican theology and who was a master of English prose and legal philosophy. In his masterpiece, Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie, which was incomplete at the time of his death, Hooker defended the Church of England against both Roman

  • Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (British botanist)

    Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, English botanist noted for his botanical travels and studies and for his encouragement of Charles Darwin and of Darwin’s theories. The younger son of Sir William Jackson Hooker, he was assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew from 1855 to 1865 and, succeeding

  • Hooker, Sir William Jackson (British botanist)

    Sir William Jackson Hooker, English botanist who was the first director of the Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew Gardens), near London. He greatly advanced the knowledge of ferns, algae, lichens, and fungi as well as of higher plants. Hooker was the son of a merchant’s clerk and descendant of Richard

  • Hooker, Thomas (American colonial clergyman)

    Thomas Hooker, prominent British American colonial clergyman known as “the father of Connecticut.” Seeking independence from other Puritan sects in Massachusetts, Thomas Hooker and his followers established one of the first major colonies in Hartford, Connecticut. A staunch supporter of universal

  • Hookes, David William (Australian athlete)

    David William Hookes, Australian cricketer (born May 3, 1955, Adelaide, Australia—died Jan. 19, 2004, Melbourne, Australia), played 23 Test matches for Australia between 1977 and 1986; in 41 innings he scored 1,306 runs at an average of 34.36, with one century. In his Test debut, at the Centenary T

  • Hookham, Margaret Evelyn (British ballerina)

    Dame Margot Fonteyn, outstanding ballerina of the English stage whose musicality, technical perfection, and precisely conceived and executed characterizations made her an international star. She was the first homegrown English ballerina, and she became an iconic and much-loved figure, particularly

  • Hooking Up (work by Wolfe)

    Tom Wolfe: Wolfe’s Hooking Up (2000) is a collection of fiction and essays, all previously published except for “My Three Stooges,” a scandalous diatribe about John Updike, Norman Mailer, and John Irving, who had all been critical of A Man in Full.

  • hooks, bell (American scholar)

    Bell hooks, American scholar whose work examined the varied perceptions of black women and black women writers and the development of feminist identities. Watkins grew up in a segregated community of the American South. At age 19 she began writing what would become her first full-length book, Ain’t

  • Hooks, Benjamin L. (American jurist, minister and government official)

    Benjamin L. Hooks, American jurist, minister, and government official who was executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1977 to 1993. Hooks attended Le Moyne College in Memphis (1941–43) and Howard University, Washington, D.C. (1943–44; B.A.,

  • Hooks, Benjamin Lawson (American jurist, minister and government official)

    Benjamin L. Hooks, American jurist, minister, and government official who was executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1977 to 1993. Hooks attended Le Moyne College in Memphis (1941–43) and Howard University, Washington, D.C. (1943–44; B.A.,

  • hooktip moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Drepanidae (hooktip moths) Approximately 650 species worldwide, chiefly Indo-Australian; many of the adults have the forewing apexes strongly hooked; larvae usually lack last pair of prolegs; subfamilies Thyatirinae and Epibleminae sometimes classified as families. Family Epicopeiidae (epicopeiid moths) 25 species in Arctic and

  • hookworm (nematode)

    Hookworm, any of several parasitic worms of the genera Necator and Ancylostoma belonging to the class Nematoda (phylum Aschelminthes) that infest the intestines of humans, dogs, and cats. A malady resembling hookworm disease was described in Egypt as early as 1600 bce. A. duodenale was discovered

  • hookworm disease

    Hookworm disease, a parasitic infestation of humans, dogs, or cats caused by bloodsucking worms (see photograph) living in the small intestine—sometimes associated with secondary anemia. Several species of hookworm can cause the disease. Necator americanus, which ranges in size from 5 to 11

  • hooliganism (sports)

    sports: Spectator violence: …violent than rugby, but soccer hooliganism is a worldwide phenomenon, while spectator violence associated with the more upper-class but rougher sport of rugby has been minimal. Similarly, crowds at baseball games have been more unruly than the generally more affluent and better-educated fans of gridiron football, although the latter is…

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