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  • Hong Kong Island (island, Hong Kong, China)

    Hong Kong: It consists of Hong Kong Island, originally ceded by China to Great Britain in 1842, the southern part of the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters (Ngong Shuen) Island (now joined to the mainland), ceded in 1860, and the New Territories, which include the mainland area lying largely to the…

  • Hong Kong Jockey Club (horse racing organization)

    jockey club: The Hong Kong Jockey Club (1884) is the oldest organization in that special administrative region of China and today holds a legal monopoly on sports betting there.

  • Hong Kong literature

    Hong Kong literature, the body of written works, primarily in Chinese but occasionally in English, produced in Hong Kong from the mid-19th century. When it was ceded to Great Britain in 1842, Hong Kong was a small fishing village with a population of about 15,000. There was no literature of any

  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (administrative region, China)

    Hong Kong, special administrative region (Pinyin: tebie xingzhengqu; Wade-Giles romanization: t’e-pieh hsing-cheng-ch’ü) of China, located to the east of the Pearl River (Xu Jiang) estuary on the south coast of China. The region is bordered by Guangdong province to the north and the South China Sea

  • Hong Kong, flag of (Chinese provincial flag)

    Chinese provincial flag consisting of a red field (background) bearing, at its centre, a stylized five-petaled white flower with a five-pointed red star in each petal. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.Britain acquired Hong Kong Island from China in 1841 and, in 1860 and 1898, added the

  • Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (bridge, Asia)

    bridge: Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge: In October 2018, China opened the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, which connects Hong Kong to Macau and the mainland Chinese city of Zhuhai. The longest sea-spanning bridge in the world, it stretches 55 km (34 miles) across the Pearl River Delta. Its construction…

  • Hong Kyǒng-nae Rebellion (Korean history [1812])

    Hong Kyŏng-nae Rebellion, peasant uprising in northern Korea in 1812 organized by Hong Kyŏng-nae, a fallen yangban (court official), in response to oppressive taxation and forced labour during a time of famine caused by crop failure. The rebels prevailed for several months and were put down only

  • Hong Rengan (Chinese rebel leader)

    Hong Rengan, leader of the Taiping Rebellion, the great uprising that occupied South China between 1850 and 1864; he tried to reorganize the Taiping movement by introducing Western ideas of government and religion. Hong Rengan was a cousin and neighbour of Hong Xiuquan, the supreme Taiping leader,

  • Hong Renkun (Chinese prophet and rebel)

    Hong Xiuquan, Chinese religious prophet and leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), during which he declared his own new dynasty, which centred on the captured (1853) city of Nanjing. This great upheaval, in which more than 20,000,000 people are said to have been killed, drastically altered the

  • Hong Shen (Chinese dramatist)

    Hong Shen, pioneering Chinese dramatist and filmmaker. Educated in Beijing and at Harvard University in the United States, Hong Shen taught dramatic arts and Western literature at various universities after his return to China in 1922. He was invited to join the Shanghai Dramatic Society in 1923

  • Hong Xiuquan (Chinese prophet and rebel)

    Hong Xiuquan, Chinese religious prophet and leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), during which he declared his own new dynasty, which centred on the captured (1853) city of Nanjing. This great upheaval, in which more than 20,000,000 people are said to have been killed, drastically altered the

  • Hong’e (Chinese deity)

    Chang’e, the Chinese moon goddess whose loveliness is celebrated in poems and novels. She sought refuge in the moon when her consort, Hou Yi (the Lord Archer), discovered she had stolen the drug of immortality given to him by the gods. Hou Yi’s pursuit was impeded by the Hare, who would not let the

  • Hong, Lake (lake, China)

    Yangtze River: The lower course: …including Dongting Lake and Lakes Hong and Liangzi, also causes considerable fluctuations in water volume. The total area of the lakes, at average water levels, is some 6,600 square miles (17,100 square km). The lakes are of national economic significance, mainly as fisheries.

  • Hong, Song (river, Asia)

    Red River, principal river of northern Vietnam. It rises in central Yunnan province, southwestern China, and flows southeast in a deep, narrow gorge, across the Tonkin region, through Hanoi, to enter the Gulf of Tonkin after a course of 750 miles (1,200 km). Its two major tributaries, the Song Lo

  • Hongan Temple (temple, Kyōto, Japan)

    Japan: The establishment of warrior culture: His base, the Hongan Temple in Kyōto, was attacked and burned, however, by the still-powerful Enryaku Temple. Rennyo was forced to flee north to the coast of the Sea of Japan, where he established a school at Yoshizaki. He then returned to the capital area, where the Hongan…

  • Honganózhe (American composer and music educator)

    Louis Ballard, American composer and music educator best known for compositions that synthesize elements of Native American and Western classical music. Ballard experienced—and indeed oscillated between—Native American and Western (or Euro-American) musical worlds from an early age. His Quapaw

  • hongerwinter (European history)

    famine: Conditions associated with famine: …that impeded food shipments, the hongerwinter (“hunger winter”) claimed between 20,000 and 30,000 lives there at the end of World War II.

  • Honggaoliang jiazu (short stories by Mo Yan)

    Mo Yan: …jiazu (1987; “Red Sorghum Family”; Red Sorghum); it won him widespread fame, especially after its adaptation into a film of the same name (1987). In his subsequent work he embraced various approaches—from myth to realism, from satire to love story—but his tales were always marked by an impassioned humanism. In…

  • Hongguang (emperor of Nan Ming dynasty)

    China: The dynastic succession: …the prince of Fu (Zhu Yousong, reign name Hongguang), the prince of Tang (Zhu Yujian, reign name Longwu), the prince of Lu (Zhu Yihai, no reign name), and the prince of Gui (Zhu Youlang, reign name Yongli). The loyalist coastal raider Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga) and his heirs held out…

  • Hongguzi (Chinese artist)

    Jing Hao, important landscape painter and essayist of the Five Dynasties (907–960) period. Jing spent much of his life in retirement as a farmer in the Taihang Mountains of Shanxi province. In his art, Jing followed the court painters of the Tang dynasty (618–907) in emphasizing the singular

  • hongi (Maori ritual)

    Maori: Maori culture in the 21st century: …of visitors, accompanied by the hongi, or pressing together of noses on greeting, and sometimes by ritual challenges; and cooking of food in earth ovens (haangi) on preheated stones. Carved houses, which serve as centres of meeting and ceremony in Maori villages, are still being erected.

  • Hongkou (district, Shanghai, China)

    Shanghai: Downtown Shanghai: The Hongkou district lies to the north and east of the Suzhou River. It was originally developed by American and Japanese concessionaires and in 1863 was combined with the British concession to the south to create the International Settlement. It is an important industrial area, with…

  • Hongli (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Qianlong, reign name (nianhao) of the fourth emperor of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12), whose six-decade reign (1735–96) was one of the longest in Chinese history. He conducted a series of military campaigns that eliminated the Turk and Mongol threats to northeastern China (1755–60),

  • Hongloumeng (novel by Cao Zhan)

    Dream of the Red Chamber, novel written by Cao Zhan in the 18th century that is generally considered to be the greatest of all Chinese novels and among the greatest in world literature. The work, published in English as Dream of the Red Chamber (1929), first appeared in manuscript form in Beijing

  • Hongqi Canal (canal, China)

    Hongqi Canal, canal and irrigation system in northern Henan and in Shanxi provinces, eastern China, constructed in 1960–69 to irrigate the poor and infertile area of Linxian county (now Linzhou municipality) in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains west of Anyang. To relieve this area’s chronic

  • Hongqi Qu (canal, China)

    Hongqi Canal, canal and irrigation system in northern Henan and in Shanxi provinces, eastern China, constructed in 1960–69 to irrigate the poor and infertile area of Linxian county (now Linzhou municipality) in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains west of Anyang. To relieve this area’s chronic

  • Hongren (Chinese painter)

    Hongren, foremost painter of the Anhui (Xinan) school, a centre of painting in southeast China during the Qing period that was noted for its unusual land features, especially of Huang Shan (“Yellow Mountain”), which frequently appears in paintings of the school. Jiang Tao adopted his Buddhist name

  • Hongshan culture (prehistoric culture, China)

    Hongshan culture, (c. 4000–3000 bce) prehistoric culture of far northern China. It appears to have had a three-tiered elite whose members were honoured with complex burials. Painted pottery found there may link it to Yangshao culture, while its beautiful jade artifacts link it to other jade-working

  • Hongshui He (river, China)

    Hongshui River, river in Guizhou province and in the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southwestern China. It is one of the principal tributaries of the Xi River, which forms its delta at Guangzhou (Canton). The Hongshui River rises on Mount Maxiong in Qujing, Yunnan province. Its upper course

  • Hongshui River (river, China)

    Hongshui River, river in Guizhou province and in the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, southwestern China. It is one of the principal tributaries of the Xi River, which forms its delta at Guangzhou (Canton). The Hongshui River rises on Mount Maxiong in Qujing, Yunnan province. Its upper course

  • Hongweibing (Chinese political movement)

    Red Guards, in Chinese history, groups of militant university and high school students formed into paramilitary units as part of the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). These young people often wore green jackets similar to the uniforms of the Chinese army at the time, with red armbands attached to one

  • Hongwu (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Hongwu, reign name (nianhao) of the Chinese emperor (reigned 1368–98) who founded the Ming dynasty that ruled China for nearly 300 years. During his reign, the Hongwu emperor instituted military, administrative, and educational reforms that centred power in the emperor. The future Hongwu emperor

  • Hongxi (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    China: The dynastic succession: The Hongxi (reigned 1424–25), Xuande (1425–35), and Hongzhi (1487–1505) emperors were nevertheless able and conscientious rulers in the Confucian mode. The only serious disruption of the peace occurred in 1449 when the eunuch Wang Zhen led the Zhengtong emperor (first reign 1435–49) into a disastrous military…

  • Hongze Hu (lake, China)

    Hongze Lake, large lake in the Huai River valley, on the border between Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, eastern China. It was given the name Hongze Lake by the emperor Yangdi (reigned ad 604–617/618) of the Sui dynasty (581–618). In Tang and early Song times (from the 7th to the 10th century) it was

  • Hongze Lake (lake, China)

    Hongze Lake, large lake in the Huai River valley, on the border between Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, eastern China. It was given the name Hongze Lake by the emperor Yangdi (reigned ad 604–617/618) of the Sui dynasty (581–618). In Tang and early Song times (from the 7th to the 10th century) it was

  • Hongzhi (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    China: The dynastic succession: (reigned 1424–25), Xuande (1425–35), and Hongzhi (1487–1505) emperors were nevertheless able and conscientious rulers in the Confucian mode. The only serious disruption of the peace occurred in 1449 when the eunuch Wang Zhen led the Zhengtong emperor (first reign 1435–49) into a disastrous military campaign against the Oirat (western Mongols).…

  • Honiara (national capital, Solomon Islands)

    Honiara, town, capital of the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The town is situated at the mouth of the Mataniko River on the north coast of Guadalcanal. A port and communications centre, it trades chiefly in coconuts, timber, fish, and some gold (from Gold Ridge in the centre of the

  • Honig v. Doe (law case)

    Honig v. Doe, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 20, 1988, ruled (6–2) that a California school board had violated the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA; later the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) when it indefinitely suspended a student for violent and

  • honing machine

    machine tool: Lapping and honing machines: Lapping and honing operations are classified under the basic art of grinding. Lapping is a process in which a soft cloth impregnated with abrasive pastes or compounds is rubbed against the surface of a workpiece. Lapping is used to produce a high-quality surface finish…

  • Honiton lace

    Honiton lace, bobbin lace made in England at Honiton, Devonshire, from the 17th century. By Honiton most people, however, mean the lace made there in the 19th century in which strong floral motifs are joined to a net (often spotted) background. The finest pieces have a fresh, easy naturalism that

  • honji-suijaku (Japanese religion)

    Honji-suijaku, (Japanese: “original substance, manifest traces”) Chinese Buddhist idea that was transmitted to Japan, greatly influencing the Shintō understanding of deity, or kami. As developed in the medieval period, the theory reinterpreted Japanese kami as the “manifest traces” of the “original

  • Honjitsu kyūshin (work by Ibuse)

    Ibuse Masuji: …the war, Honjitsu kyūshin (1949; No Consultations Today), characterizing a town by the patients who come to the doctor’s office, and Yōhai taichō (1950; A Far-Worshiping Commander), an antimilitary satire, were especially well received. Ibuse received the Order of Culture for the novel Kuroi ame (1966; Black Rain), which deals…

  • Honjo Tasuku (Japanese immunologist)

    Tasuku Honjo, Japanese immunologist who contributed to the discovery of mechanisms and proteins critical to the regulation of immune responses and whose work led to the development of novel immunotherapies against cancer. Honjo was recognized for his work with the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or

  • Honjo, Tasuku (Japanese immunologist)

    Tasuku Honjo, Japanese immunologist who contributed to the discovery of mechanisms and proteins critical to the regulation of immune responses and whose work led to the development of novel immunotherapies against cancer. Honjo was recognized for his work with the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or

  • Honkei Coal and Iron Company (company)

    Benxi: …changed its name to the Benxi Coal and Iron Company. It was efficiently managed and remained important, but it gradually became dominated by Japanese interests (its Japanese name was Honkei or Honkeiko).

  • Honkeiko Coal and Iron Company (company)

    Benxi: …changed its name to the Benxi Coal and Iron Company. It was efficiently managed and remained important, but it gradually became dominated by Japanese interests (its Japanese name was Honkei or Honkeiko).

  • Honkeiko colliery mining disaster (explosion, Benxi, Liaoning, China [1942])

    Honkeiko colliery mining disaster, deadly explosion that occurred on April 26, 1942, in a coal mine at Benxi, Liaoning province, China. The disaster killed 1,549 Chinese miners. The colliery (called Honkeiko by the Japanese and Benxihu by the Chinese) was located near Benxi Lake in the ore-rich

  • Honky Tonk (film by Conway [1941])

    Jack Conway: The 1940s: Honky Tonk (1941) cast Gable as a gambler romancing a judge’s daughter (Lana Turner), and Powell and Lamarr played newlyweds whose marriage is threatened by a blackmailer in the suspenseful Crossroads (1942). After the forgettable Assignment in Brittany (1943), Conway helmed Dragon Seed (1944), an…

  • Honky Tonk Train Blues (recording by Lewis)

    Meade Lewis: His most famous recording, “Honky Tonk Train Blues,” was one of the most vibrant and exhilarating of all boogie-woogie expositions and was a key factor in the feverish, if transient, craze for the idiom in the late 1930s. It was recorded in 1927, issued in 1929, and largely ignored…

  • honky-tonk (music)

    country music: …even more important variant was honky-tonk, a country style that emerged in the 1940s with such figures as Ernest Tubb and Hank Williams. Honky-tonk’s fiddle–steel-guitar combination and its bitter, maudlin lyrics about rural whites adrift in the big city were widely adopted by other country musicians.

  • Honkytonk Man (film by Eastwood [1982])

    Clint Eastwood: First directorial efforts: The whimsical and sentimental Honkytonk Man (1982), set during the Great Depression, featured Eastwood as a country singer dying of tuberculosis whose dream is to make it to the Grand Ole Opry before he passes on.

  • Honnecourt, Villard de (French architect)

    Villard De Honnecourt, French architect remembered primarily for the sketchbook compiled while he travelled in search of work as a master mason. The book is made up of sketches and writings concerning architectural practices current during the 13th century. Honnecourt spent most of his life

  • honnête homme (French literary theme)

    French literature: The honnête homme: Partly because of the influence of the salons and partly as a result of disillusionment at the failure of the Fronde, the heroic ideal was gradually replaced in the 1650s by the concept of honnêteté. The word does not connote “honesty” in its…

  • honnêteté (French literary theme)

    French literature: The honnête homme: Partly because of the influence of the salons and partly as a result of disillusionment at the failure of the Fronde, the heroic ideal was gradually replaced in the 1650s by the concept of honnêteté. The word does not connote “honesty” in its…

  • Honnold, Alex (American rock climber)

    El Capitan: …with climbers, and in 2017 Alex Honnold became the first to ascend the mountain without using ropes; his climb was documented in Free Solo (2018). In addition, hikers are able to summit via an arduous trail.

  • Honolulu (Hawaii, United States)

    Honolulu, capital and principal port of Hawaii, U.S., seat of Honolulu county. A modern city, it extends about 10 miles (16 km) along the southeastern shore of Oahu Island and 4 miles (6 km) inland across a plain into the foothills of the Koolau Range. It is the crossroads of trans-Pacific shipping

  • Honolulu Academy of Arts (museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)

    Hawaii: Cultural institutions: The Honolulu Academy of Arts (1927), often called the most beautiful museum in the world, houses a splendid collection of Western art, including works by late 19th- and early 20th-century masters Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Paul Gauguin, and Pablo Picasso. Its collection of…

  • Honolulu Harbor (harbour, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)

    Hawaii: Transportation: …transportation is Hawaii’s lifeline, and Honolulu Harbor, with its extensive docks, warehouses, and storage sheds, is the centre of Hawaiian shipping. A large percentage of the cargo ships ply between Hawaii and California ports, a few between Hawaii and the East Coast of the United States via the Panama Canal,…

  • Honolulu International Center (theatre complex, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)

    Hawaii: Cultural institutions: Their home is the Neal Blaisdell Center, a municipal theatre–concert-hall–arena complex where touring theatrical companies and ballet troupes and musical artists of international renown also perform. Honolulu’s Chamber Music Society gives a concert series each year.

  • Honolulu Race (yachting)

    Transpacific Race, one of the world’s oldest major ocean races for sailing yachts, a 2,225-mile (3,580-kilometre) event run from various California harbours to Honolulu, Hawaii. It was first held in 1906 and made a biennial event in 1939 to alternate with the Bermuda Race. Since 1941 the race has

  • Honolulu Symphony Orchestra (orchestra, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)

    Hawaii: Cultural institutions: The Honolulu Symphony Orchestra (1900) and the Hawaii Opera Theatre (1960) perform in Honolulu and on the other major islands. Their home is the Neal Blaisdell Center, a municipal theatre–concert-hall–arena complex where touring theatrical companies and ballet troupes and musical artists of international renown also perform.…

  • Honolulu technique (genetics)

    Ryuzo Yanagimachi: The Honolulu technique, so named to distinguish it from the less-efficient method used to produce Dolly the sheep (see nuclear transfer), used cumulus cells, which were injected directly into an enucleated egg cell. The next year the team created the first clone of an adult male…

  • Honolulu transgenesis (genetics)

    Ryuzo Yanagimachi: …using treated sperm was dubbed Honolulu transgenesis. By 2004 the team had cloned an infertile mouse incapable of producing sperm, which had implications for the treatment of human infertility.

  • Honor Among Lovers (film by Arzner [1931])

    Dorothy Arzner: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: Honor Among Lovers (1931) featured rising star Claudette Colbert as a secretary who is in love with her boss (March) but marries a stockbroker in a weak moment and nearly pays for the mistake with her life. Arzner’s final picture at Paramount was Merrily We…

  • honor killing (sociology)

    Honor killing, most often, the murder of a woman or girl by male family members. The killers justify their actions by claiming that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family name or prestige. In patriarchal societies, the activities of girls and women are closely monitored. The maintenance of

  • Honor System, The (film by Walsh [1917])

    Raoul Walsh: Early work: (One of his most-acclaimed silents, The Honor System [1917], about a man falsely imprisoned under brutal conditions, was at the time considered by some, including director John Ford, to be even better than The Birth of a Nation. However, the film has since been lost.) Nearly as famous was Sadie…

  • Honor, Medal of (United States military decoration)

    Medal of Honor, the foremost U.S. military decoration, instituted by Congress in 1861 for the navy and in 1862 for the army, at first awarded only to enlisted men, with officers being permitted to receive the award later. It is given for “conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life,

  • Honorable Historie of frier Bacon, and frier Bongay, The (work by Greene)

    Robert Greene: With The Honorable Historie of frier Bacon, and frier Bongay (written c. 1591, published 1594), the first successful romantic comedy in English, Greene realized his comic talent in drama. In The Scottish Historie of James the fourth, slaine at Flodden (written c. 1590, published 1598) he used…

  • Honorary Award (Academy Award)
  • Honorary Consul, The (work by Greene)

    Corrientes: …the setting for Graham Greene’s The Honorary Consul (1980). Pop. (2001) 314,546; (2010) 358,223.

  • honorary fraternity

    fraternity and sorority: Perhaps the leading honorary society today is Phi Beta Kappa, which began as a social fraternity at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va., in 1776. Membership is now based on general scholarship and is open to both men and women. The oldest social fraternity still in existence as…

  • Honorary Oscar (Academy Award)
  • Honoratus of Arles, Saint (monk)

    Abbey of Lérins: Honoratus of Arles on a Mediterranean island opposite Cannes (now in France). It flourished in the 5th century, when it was a centre of intellectual activity. Many highly educated monks, trained elsewhere, were attracted by its spiritual discipline and became residents. Vincent of Lérins was…

  • Honoratus, Marius Servius (Roman author)

    Servius, Latin grammarian, commentator, and teacher, author of a valuable commentary on Virgil. As an adulescens Servius was one of the speakers in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and at least the greater part of his life was spent in Rome. His commentary on Virgil is extant in

  • Honoratus, Maurus Servius (Roman author)

    Servius, Latin grammarian, commentator, and teacher, author of a valuable commentary on Virgil. As an adulescens Servius was one of the speakers in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and at least the greater part of his life was spent in Rome. His commentary on Virgil is extant in

  • Honoré, Bertha (American philanthropist)

    Bertha Honoré Palmer, American socialite remembered especially for her active contributions to women’s, artistic, and Chicago civic affairs. Bertha Honoré in 1871 married Potter Palmer, a wealthy merchant who shortly afterward became identified with the Palmer House, one of the nation’s premier

  • Honoré, Master (French painter)

    Western painting: High Gothic: …well-known Parisian royal illuminator called Master Honoré, who was active about 1288–1300 or later.

  • Honoria (Roman aristocrat)

    Attila: Invasion of Gaul: …in the spring of 450, Honoria, the emperor’s sister, sent her ring to Attila, asking him to rescue her from a marriage that had been arranged for her. Attila thereupon claimed Honoria as his wife and demanded half the Western Empire as her dowry. When Attila had already entered Gaul,…

  • honorific (form of address)

    The Honourable: …in so far as both styles were applicable to those who belonged to the less exalted ranks of the titled classes, for the title “honourable” was not definitely confined to certain classes until later. The terms honorabilis and honorabilitas were in use in the Middle Ages as a form of…

  • honorific (grammar)

    Honorific, a grammatical form used in speaking to a social superior. In English it has largely disappeared, retained only in the use of the third person when speaking to someone clearly superior in rank (“Does your highness wish it?”). In other Indo-European languages it has a vestigial form in the

  • Honorius (Roman emperor)

    Honorius, Roman emperor in the West from 393 to 423, a period when much of the Western Empire was overrun by invading tribes and Rome was captured and plundered by the Visigoths. The younger son of Theodosius I (emperor 379–395) and Aelia Flacilla, Honorius was elevated to the rank of augustus by

  • Honorius (archbishop of Canterbury)

    United Kingdom: The conversion to Christianity: About 630 Archbishop Honorius of Canterbury sent a Burgundian, Felix, to convert East Anglia, and the East Anglian church thenceforth remained faithful to Canterbury. Soon after, the West Saxons were converted by Birinus, who came from Rome. Meanwhile, King Oswald began to restore Christianity in Northumbria, bringing Celtic…

  • Honorius I (pope)

    Honorius I, pope from 625 to 638 whose posthumous condemnation as a heretic subsequently caused extensive controversy on the question of papal infallibility. Nothing is known of his life before he became pope. He was elected to succeed Pope Boniface V on October 27, 625. Modeling his pontificate

  • Honorius II (pope)

    Honorius II, pope from 1124 to 1130. Made cardinal bishop of Ostia (1117) by Pope Paschal II, he became Pope Calixtus II’s emissary to Germany. At the Concordat of Worms (1122) he helped to end the investiture controversy, a conflict flourishing in the 11th and 12th centuries over whether the

  • Honorius II (antipope)

    Honorius (II), antipope from 1061 to 1064. As bishop of Parma (c.. 1045), he opposed the church reform movement of the second half of the 11th century led by Cardinal Hildebrand (later Pope Gregory VII). With his fellow reformers, Hildebrand had swayed the election of Alexander II as pope (Sept.

  • Honorius III (pope)

    Honorius III, pope from 1216 to 1227, who is often considered one of the great administrators in papal history. A Roman aristocrat, he became treasurer of the Holy See in 1188. He was made cardinal priest by Pope Innocent III, whom he succeeded on July 18, 1216, and whose policies he developed,

  • Honorius Inclusus (scholar)

    encyclopaedia: Early development: …was the Imago mundi of Honorius Inclusus. Honorius produced his “mirror of the world” for Christian, later abbot of St. Jacob, and drew on a far wider range of authorities than any of his predecessors. The arrangement of the first section on geography, astrology, and astronomy was sound; it started…

  • Honorius IV (pope)

    Honorius IV, pope from 1285 to 1287. Grandnephew of Pope Honorius III, he studied at Paris and was made cardinal in 1261 by Pope Urban IV. Although old and crippled, he was elected on April 2, 1285, to succeed Pope Martin IV. His pontificate favoured the mendicant orders (i.e., religious orders

  • Honos (Roman deity)

    Honos, ancient Roman deified abstraction of honour, particularly as a military virtue. The earliest shrine of this deity in Rome was perhaps built not earlier than the 3rd century bc and was located just outside the Colline Gate on the north side of the city. A double temple of Honos and Virtus

  • honour (society)

    Honour, a word with various meanings all of which derive ultimately from the Latin honos or honor. This Latin word meant: (1) esteem or repute; (2) concrete marks of that esteem, such as rewards or ceremonies; and (3) public offices, as in the expression cursus honorum, the course or career of a

  • Honour and Money (work by Theotókis)

    Konstantínos Theotókis: …all his works, such as Honour and Money (1914), a novel with a distinctly social focus. His long novel Slaves in Their Chains (1922), set in Corfu during a period of social change, reveals the old aristocracy trying to keep up a way of life that is long past, the…

  • honour clauses (1919, Versailles treaty)

    Germany: The Treaty of Versailles: German bitterness over these honour clauses was nearly universal. Almost no German believed that Germany was responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914. Technically, Article 231 did not declare Germany alone as guilty for causing the war; rather, Germany was branded as responsible “for causing all the loss…

  • honour killing (sociology)

    Honor killing, most often, the murder of a woman or girl by male family members. The killers justify their actions by claiming that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family name or prestige. In patriarchal societies, the activities of girls and women are closely monitored. The maintenance of

  • honour, augmentation of (heraldry)

    heraldry: The nature and origins of heraldic terminology: …more easily discerned in the augmentations of honour, as they are called, when something has been added to a coat of arms by the (British) crown in recognition of services rendered. The arms of the British naval hero Admiral Horatio Nelson show new heraldic charges added to his ancestral arms…

  • Honour, National Order of the Legion of (French society)

    Legion of Honour, premier order of the French republic, created by Napoleon Bonaparte, then first consul, on May 19, 1802, as a general military and civil order of merit conferred without regard to birth or religion provided that anyone admitted swears to uphold liberty and equality. Napoleon’s

  • Honourable Artillery Company (British Army)

    Honourable Artillery Company, the most senior regiment of the British Army and probably the oldest regiment in the world. It is privileged to fire royal salutes from the Tower of London and to provide guards of honour in the City of London for royal visitors. Its headquarters are at Armoury House,

  • Honourable Augustus Keppel (work by Reynolds)

    Joshua Reynolds: Later years: …exemplified in a likeness of Honourable Augustus Keppel (1753–54). The pose is not original, being a reversal of the Apollo Belvedere, an ancient Roman copy of a mid-4th-century-bc Hellenistic statue Reynolds had seen in the Vatican. But the fact that the subject (who was a British naval officer) is shown…

  • Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers (British sports organization)

    Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, one of the world’s oldest golfing societies, founded in 1744 by a group of men who played on a five-hole course at Leith, which is now a district of Edinburgh. In that year the group petitioned the city officials of Edinburgh for a silver club to be awarded

  • Honourable Council of the Mesta (Spanish society)

    Mesta, society composed of all the sheep raisers of Castile, in Spain, formally recognized by Alfonso X (the Wise) in 1273. The name is thought to derive either from the Spanish mezcla (“mixture”), a reference to the mixture of sheep; or from the Arabic mechta, meaning winter pastures for sheep.

  • honourable ordinary (heraldry)

    heraldry: Ordinaries: The honourable ordinaries and subordinaries may be generally agreed as numbering about 20. Among them are: the chief, being the top third of the shield; the pale, a third of the shield, drawn perpendicularly through the centre; the bend, a third of the shield,…

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