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  • Holothuroidea (echinoderm)

    Sea cucumber, (class Holothuroidea), any of 1,200 species of marine invertebrates that constitute a class within the phylum Echinodermata. The soft cylindrical body, 2 to 200 cm (about 0.75 inch to 6.5 feet) long and 1 to 20 cm (0.4–8 inches) thick, is usually a dull, dark colour and often warty,

  • Holothyrina (arachnid order)

    acarid: Annotated classification: Order Holothyrida Heavily sclerotized; 2–7 mm in size; eyes absent; pair of coxal glands opening at base of coxae of 1st pair of legs; pair of stigmata behind coxae of 3rd and 4th pair of legs, peritremes present; palpal apotele present; tritosternum absent; terrestrial, under stones…

  • holotype (biology)

    taxonomy: Verification and validation by type specimens: The holotype is a single specimen designated by the original describer of the form (a species or subspecies only) and available to those who want to verify the status of other specimens. When no holotype exists, as is frequently the case, a neotype is selected and…

  • Holowczyn, Battle of (European history)

    Charles XII: Military leadership, 1700–09: They won the Battle of Hołowczyn in July 1708, but Russian scorched-earth tactics forced Charles to abandon his route to Moscow and turn instead into the Ukraine. Thereafter, the Russians interfered successfully with the Swedes’ communications, and by the summer of 1709 Charles XII had no choice between…

  • Holroyd, Michael (British author and editor)

    Michael Holroyd, British writer and editor best known for his meticulous, scholarly biographies of Lytton Strachey, Augustus John, and George Bernard Shaw. After graduating from Eton College, Holroyd worked at a law firm for two years before joining the army. He left the army in 1958 and then

  • Holroyd, Sir Michael de Courcy Fraser (British author and editor)

    Michael Holroyd, British writer and editor best known for his meticulous, scholarly biographies of Lytton Strachey, Augustus John, and George Bernard Shaw. After graduating from Eton College, Holroyd worked at a law firm for two years before joining the army. He left the army in 1958 and then

  • Holsinger, Henry R. (religious leader)

    Brethren: The liberal party, led by Henry Holsinger (1833–1905), called itself the Brethren Church. The middle-of-the-road majority continued as the German Baptist Brethren until 1908, when it officially adopted the title Church of the Brethren. In 1939 the Brethren Church split into the Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio) and the National Fellowship…

  • Holst, Erich Walter von (German physiologist)

    human nervous system: Lower-level mechanisms of movement: It was the German physiologist Erich Walter von Holst who, around the mid-20th century, first showed that many series of movements of invertebrates and vertebrates are organized not reflexly but endogenously. His general hypothesis was that within the gray matter there are networks of local neurons that generate alternating or…

  • Holst, Gustav (British composer)

    Gustav Holst, English composer and music teacher noted for the excellence of his orchestration. His music combines an international flavour based on the styles of Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, and others with a continuation of English Romanticism. The son of a Swedish father and English mother,

  • Holst, Gustav Theodore (British composer)

    Gustav Holst, English composer and music teacher noted for the excellence of his orchestration. His music combines an international flavour based on the styles of Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, and others with a continuation of English Romanticism. The son of a Swedish father and English mother,

  • Holst, Gustavus Theodore von (British composer)

    Gustav Holst, English composer and music teacher noted for the excellence of his orchestration. His music combines an international flavour based on the styles of Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, and others with a continuation of English Romanticism. The son of a Swedish father and English mother,

  • Holste, Luc (Vatican librarian)

    Luc Holste, classical scholar and Vatican librarian best known for his annotated editions of geographical works and whose Epistolae ad diversos (1817; “Letters to Various Persons”) is a valuable source of information on the literary history of his time. Holste travelled in Italy and Sicily

  • Holstebro (Denmark)

    Holstebro, city, western Jutland, Denmark, on the Storå (Big River), southwest of Viborg. It stands on the site of a prehistoric settlement that commanded a crossing of the Storå. First mentioned in 1274, most of old Holstebro was destroyed by fires in the 17th and 18th centuries. Now a garrison

  • Holstein (region, Germany)

    Holstein, historic and cultural region occupying the southern part of the Jutland Peninsula between the Eider and Elbe rivers, now comprising the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein Land (state) in northern Germany. Holstein was created as a county of the Holy Roman Empire in 1111. It came under a

  • Holstein Interglacial Stage

    Holstein Interglacial Stage, major division of Pleistocene deposits and time in Europe (the Pleistocene Epoch began about 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). The Holstein Interglacial followed the Elsterian Glacial Stage and preceded the Saale Glacial Stage. The Holstein

  • Holstein Sea

    Holstein Sea, former body of water that occupied the North and Baltic sea basins and deposited marine sediments over a wide area. This marine transgression occurred during the Holstein Interglacial Stage of the Pleistocene Epoch (approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago). The Holstein

  • Holstein, Friedrich August von (German statesman)

    Friedrich von Holstein, the most influential German foreign policymaker from 1890 to 1909, during the reign of Emperor William II (Kaiser Wilhelm II), after the departure of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. A member of the Foreign Office in Berlin uninterruptedly from 1876, he never became foreign

  • Holstein-Friesian (breed of cattle)

    Holstein-Friesian, breed of large dairy cattle originating in northern Holland and Friesland. Its chief characteristics are its large size and black and white spotted markings, sharply defined rather than blended. These cattle are believed to have been selected for dairy qualities for about 2,000

  • Holstein-Gottorp, House of (European nobility)

    Romanov dynasty: …by the branch of the house of Holstein-Gottorp that then mounted the Russian throne in the person of Elizabeth’s nephew Peter III. From 1762 to 1796 Peter III’s widow, a German princess of the house of Anhalt-Zerbst, ruled as Catherine II. With Paul I, Peter III’s son, a Romanov of…

  • Holstein-Gottorp, Karl Peter Ulrich, Herzog von (emperor of Russia)

    Peter III, emperor of Russia from January 5, 1762 (December 25, 1761, Old Style), to July 9 (June 28, Old Style), 1762. Son of Anna, one of Peter I the Great’s daughters, and Charles Frederick, Herzog (duke) von Holstein-Gottorp, the young duke was brought to Russia by his aunt Elizabeth shortly

  • Holsteinsborg (Greenland)

    Sisimiut, town on the west-central coast of Greenland, near the mouth of Amerloq Fjord. The Danish settled the site in 1764, and a church (still standing) was built in 1773. The Gammelhuset (Old House), constructed in 1756, served as the residence of the first Danish governor of Greenland.

  • Holstenius, Lucas (Vatican librarian)

    Luc Holste, classical scholar and Vatican librarian best known for his annotated editions of geographical works and whose Epistolae ad diversos (1817; “Letters to Various Persons”) is a valuable source of information on the literary history of his time. Holste travelled in Italy and Sicily

  • Holstentor (gate, Lübeck, Germany)

    Lübeck: …in 1685, and the famous Holstentor (1478), which has housed the municipal museum since 1950. Upon the archway of the Holstentor is the benediction “Concordia domi foris pax” (“Concord at home, peace outside”). Celebrations for the city’s 850th anniversary were held in 1993. Pop. (2011) 210,305.

  • Holston River (river, United States)

    Holston River, river formed by the junction of the North and South forks just west of Kingsport, eastern Tennessee, U.S. It flows southwest through the Great Appalachian Valley, joining the French Broad River near Knoxville to form the Tennessee River. Named for Stephen Holston, who built a cabin

  • Holt Manufacturing Company (American company)

    Caterpillar Inc.: …of several brothers in the Holt Manufacturing Company, invented the familiar “caterpillar” tractor in about 1906. The tractor ran on continuous metal-belted tracks instead of wheels, and the tracks kept the heavy vehicle from sinking in mud or dirt. The new machines were immediately successful as all-terrain haulers and graders,…

  • Holt, Benjamin (American inventor)

    Caterpillar Inc.: Benjamin Holt, one of several brothers in the Holt Manufacturing Company, invented the familiar “caterpillar” tractor in about 1906. The tractor ran on continuous metal-belted tracks instead of wheels, and the tracks kept the heavy vehicle from sinking in mud or dirt. The new machines…

  • Holt, Bertha Marian (American activist)

    Bertha Marian Holt, American children’s advocate (born Feb. 5, 1904, Des Moines, Iowa—died July 24, 2000, Creswell, Ore.), together with her husband, Harry, founded Holt International Children’s Services, a Eugene, Ore.-based agency that specialized in international adoptions. After having six c

  • Holt, Edwin B. (American psychologist and philosopher)

    Edwin B. Holt, American psychologist and philosopher noted for his emphasis on the purposive character of knowing. Holt, a student and follower of psychologist William James, received his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1901) and remained there to teach until 1918. By 1908, when he completed The

  • Holt, Edwin Bissell (American psychologist and philosopher)

    Edwin B. Holt, American psychologist and philosopher noted for his emphasis on the purposive character of knowing. Holt, a student and follower of psychologist William James, received his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1901) and remained there to teach until 1918. By 1908, when he completed The

  • Holt, Harold Edward (prime minister of Australia)

    Harold Holt, prime minister of Australia (1966–67) who supported U.S. policies in Vietnam and sponsored the visit to Australia of Lyndon B. Johnson, the first American president-in-office to travel there. As a Melbourne lawyer during the early 1930s, Holt became interested in the United Australia

  • Holt, John (American teacher and writer)

    John Holt, American critic of public education who became one of the most-prominent advocates for homeschooling in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Raised in New England, Holt graduated from Yale University in 1943 with a degree in engineering. Despite his excellent academic record, Holt came to

  • Holt, John Caldwell (American teacher and writer)

    John Holt, American critic of public education who became one of the most-prominent advocates for homeschooling in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Raised in New England, Holt graduated from Yale University in 1943 with a degree in engineering. Despite his excellent academic record, Holt came to

  • Holt, Lester (American broadcast journalist and news anchor)

    Lester Holt, American broadcast journalist who served as anchor (2015– ) of NBC Nightly News; he was the first black person to solo anchor a weekday network nightly newscast. Holt, who had an African American father and a mother of Jamaican descent, dropped out of California State University in

  • Holt, Lester Don, Jr. (American broadcast journalist and news anchor)

    Lester Holt, American broadcast journalist who served as anchor (2015– ) of NBC Nightly News; he was the first black person to solo anchor a weekday network nightly newscast. Holt, who had an African American father and a mother of Jamaican descent, dropped out of California State University in

  • Holt, Morris (American musician)

    Magic Slim, (Morris Holt), American blues musician (born Aug. 7, 1937, Torrance, Miss.—died Feb. 21, 2013, Philadelphia, Pa.), brought a raw intensity and a hard-driving electric guitar to the Chicago urban blues scene of the 1960s and ’70s. While growing up in Mississippi, he played the piano

  • Holt, Nancy (American artist)

    Nancy Holt, American land artist known for her large site-specific works and her role in the development of Land Art in the 1960s. She also worked in film, video, and photography and created many works of public art. She is best known for her earthwork titled Sun Tunnels (1973–76), located in the

  • Holt, Tim (American actor)

    My Darling Clementine: …and his brothers Virgil (Tim Holt), Morgan (Ward Bond), and James (Don Garner) are on a cattle drive from Arizona to California when they encounter Old Man Clanton (Walter Brennan) and his son Ike (Grant Withers). After refusing to sell the Clantons the cattle, Wyatt, Morgan, and Virgil ride…

  • Holt, Torry (American football player)

    Los Angeles Rams: …wide receivers Isaac Bruce and Torry Holt, the Rams went 13–3 in the 1999 regular season and advanced to the second Super Bowl in franchise history. There the team won a thrilling victory over the Tennessee Titans, 23–16, to capture its first Super Bowl title. The Rams continued to be…

  • Holt, Victoria (British author)

    Eleanor Alice Hibbert, (VICTORIA HOLT; JEAN PLAIDY), British novelist (born 1906/1910?, London, England—died Jan. 18, 1993, at sea between Athens, Greece, and Port Said, Egypt), published more than 200 popular romance novels under half a dozen pseudonyms. Although some critics dismissed her work a

  • Holt, Winifred (American social worker)

    Winifred Holt, American welfare worker whose steadfast efforts helped to increase understanding of the capabilities of blind people and to make vocational training available to them. Holt was a daughter of publisher Henry Holt. She was educated in private schools and, informally, by the artists and

  • Holtei, Karl von (German author)

    Karl von Holtei, author who achieved success by his “vaudevilles,” or ballad operas, and by his recitations. Holtei led a varied and unsettled life, travelling between Hamburg, Paris, and Graz as a playwright, actor, and theatre manager, a life vividly described in his autobiography, Vierzig Jahre

  • Hölty, Ludwig Heinrich Christoph (German poet)

    Ludwig Heinrich Christoph Hölty, German poet who is considered the most gifted lyric poet of the Göttinger Hain, a group of young poets who saw themselves as heirs of the great lyric poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and whose work was characterized by love of nature and the expression of national

  • Holtzberg, Theodore Alvin (American-born physicist and spy)

    Theodore Hall, American-born physicist and spy who during World War II worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb and also delivered details on its design to the Soviet Union. An extremely precocious youngster, Hall graduated from high school in Queens at the age of 14. He was

  • Holtzendorff, Henning von (German statesman)

    Reinhard Scheer: …the High Seas Fleet under Henning von Holtzendorff in 1910 and commander of a battle squadron in 1913. After the outbreak of World War I, he advocated the use of submarines and gained fame as a submarine strategist. He planned subsurface raids off the English coast, using surface units as…

  • Holtzman Inkblot Test (psychology)

    personality assessment: The Rorschach Inkblot Test: A similar method, the Holtzman Inkblot Test, has been developed in an effort to eliminate some of the statistical problems that beset the Rorschach test. It involves the administration of a series of 45 inkblots, the subject being permitted to make only one response per card. The Holtzman has…

  • Holtzman, Jerome (American sportswriter)

    Jerome Holtzman, American sportswriter (born July 12, 1926, Chicago, Ill.—died July 19, 2008, Evanston, Ill.), possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of baseball and was dubbed the “dean” of sportswriters; he chronicled the games of the Chicago Cubs and White Sox baseball teams as a respected

  • Holtzmann, Heinrich (German biblical scholar)

    biblical literature: Early theories about the Synoptic problem: …(by two German biblical scholars, Heinrich Holtzmann in 1863, and Bernhard Weiss in 1887–88), which, with various modifications and refinements of other scholars, is the generally accepted solution to the Synoptic problem.

  • Holub, Emil (Bohemian naturalist)

    Emil Holub, naturalist who travelled extensively in south central Africa gathering varied and valuable natural history collections that he distributed to museums and schools throughout Europe. In 1872 he went to South Africa, where he practiced as a surgeon at the Kimberley diamond fields.

  • Holub, Miroslav (Czech poet, pathologist and immunologist)

    Miroslav Holub, Czech poet noted for his detached, lyrical reflections on humanist and scientific subjects. A clinical pathologist and immunologist by profession, Holub received his M.D. from the Charles University School of Medicine (1953) and his Ph.D. from the Czechoslovak (now Czech) Academy of

  • Holuhan Formation (geological formation, Russia)

    Silurian Period: Evaporites: …the Upper Silurian Yangadin and Holuhan formations of Siberia, as well as in comparable formations in Latvia and Lithuania. Upper Silurian evaporites from the Pridoli Epoch are characteristic of three different basins in Western Australia. Minor amounts of halite and anhydrite occur in the Dirk Hartog Formation in the Carnarvon…

  • Holum, Dianne (American speed skater)

    Dianne Holum, American speed skater who assisted in the revival of the sport in the United States in the late 1960s. In 1966, at age 14, she was the youngest person ever to compete in the world championships, placing third overall the following year and winning the 1,000-metre race in 1971 and the

  • Holwarda, Phocylides (Dutch astronomer)

    Mira Ceti: …in 1638, a Dutch astronomer, Phocylides Holwarda, found that the star disappeared and reappeared in a varying cycle of about 330 days. It thus acquired the name Mira (from Latin: “Miraculous”). Its brightness varies from cycle to cycle, but generally it is about magnitude 3 at maximum light and magnitude…

  • Holwell, John Z. (British official)

    Black Hole of Calcutta: …the self-proclaimed governor of Bengal, John Z. Holwell. The incident became a cause célèbre in the idealization of British imperialism in India and a subject of controversy.

  • holy (religion)

    Sacred, the power, being, or realm understood by religious persons to be at the core of existence and to have a transformative effect on their lives and destinies. Other terms, such as holy, divine, transcendent, ultimate being (or ultimate reality), mystery, and perfection (or purity) have been

  • Holy Alliance (Europe)

    Holy Alliance, a loose organization of most of the European sovereigns, formed in Paris on Sept. 26, 1815, by Alexander I of Russia, Francis I of Austria, and Frederick William III of Prussia when they were negotiating the Second Peace of Paris after the final defeat of Napoleon. The avowed

  • Holy Apostles, Church of the (historical site, Constantinople)

    Western architecture: Second period, after ad 313: The destroyed church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, known only through a description by Eusebius of Caesarea, was begun in 333 and completed by Constantius II (337–361). It was cross-shaped, and a drum—a cylindrical or polygonal wall that usually supports a dome—rose above the crossing, probably…

  • Holy Apostles, Church of the (church, Milan, Italy)

    Western architecture: Second period, after ad 313: …the Holy Apostles, the present San Nazaro Maggiore (begun in 382), is cruciform in plan with an apse in the east, built in imitation of the church of the same name at Constantinople. At Cologne, the oval plan of St. Gereon (built about 380) is enriched by eight smaller apses…

  • holy basil (herb)

    Holy basil, (Ocimum tenuiflorum), flowering plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae) grown for its aromatic leaves. Holy basil is native to the Indian subcontinent and grows throughout Southeast Asia. The plant is widely used in Ayurvedic and folk medicine, often as an herbal tea for a variety of

  • Holy Blood (film by Jodorowsky [1989])

    Alejandro Jodorowsky: Later films, comic books, and psychomagic: In Santa Sangre (1989; Holy Blood), insane-asylum inmate Fenix (Jodorowsky’s son Axel) remembers his childhood growing up in the circus and the horrific event of his father’s cutting off his mother’s arms and then killing himself. Fenix escapes from the institution and reunites with his mother. However, under her…

  • Holy Blood, Procession of the (procession, Belgium)

    Belgium: Daily life and social customs: Another popular event is the Procession of the Holy Blood; held in Brugge, it is the modern continuation of a medieval tradition of parading through the city with what was said to be the coagulated blood of Christ—taken from his body after the descent from the cross. According to legend,…

  • Holy Brotherhood

    Santa Hermandad, constabulary created in the late 15th century by the Catholic Monarchs (Ferdinand and Isabella) to maintain law and order throughout Spain. See

  • Holy Child Jesus, Society of the (Roman Catholic organization)

    Cornelia Connelly: …Catholic abbess who founded the Society of the Holy Child Jesus and became the subject of an acrimonious ecclesiastical controversy.

  • Holy Club

    Holy Club, group of Oxford students led by John and Charles Wesley, whose methodical habits of study and devotion led to their being derisively called methodists. Organized by Charles Wesley, who soon turned the leadership over to John in November 1729, the group met regularly to study the

  • Holy Constable (Portuguese military leader)

    Saint Nuno Álvares Pereira, ; canonized April 26, 2009; feast day November 6), outstanding Portuguese military leader, known also as the Holy Constable, whose victory over Castilian forces in the historic Battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385) ensured his nation’s independence. Pereira

  • holy corner (religion)

    Baltic religion: Temples and other holy places: …as to whether the so-called holy corner (heilige Hinterecke)—i.e., the dark corner of a peasant’s house in which a deity or patron lives—belongs to pre-Christian concepts or not. On the other hand, various places in the house proper, such as the hearth and the doorstep, were considered to be abodes…

  • Holy Cross Day (religious feast)

    Exaltation of the Holy Cross, liturgical feast celebrated on September 14 to honour the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. In the Eastern churches the feast dates back to the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (the site of Christ’s tomb) in Jerusalem circa 335. It was adopted by

  • Holy Cross Mountains (mountains, Poland)

    Świętokrzyskie Mountains, mountain range, part of the Little Poland Uplands, in south-central Poland, surrounding the city of Kielce. The highest peaks are Łysica (2,008 feet [612 m]) and Łysa Mountain (1,946 feet [593 m]), both in the Łysogóry range. The Świętokrzyskie Mountains take their name,

  • Holy Cross, Abbey of (abbey, Thurles, Ireland)
  • Holy Cross, Church of the (church, Aghthamar, Turkey)
  • Holy Cross, College of the (college, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States)

    College of the Holy Cross, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S. It is affiliated with the Jesuit order of the Roman Catholic church. An undergraduate institution, Holy Cross offers a traditional liberal arts curriculum as well as cooperative degree

  • Holy Cross, Exaltation of the (religious feast)

    Exaltation of the Holy Cross, liturgical feast celebrated on September 14 to honour the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. In the Eastern churches the feast dates back to the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (the site of Christ’s tomb) in Jerusalem circa 335. It was adopted by

  • Holy Cross, Mount of the (mountain, Colorado, United States)

    Sawatch Range: Mount of the Holy Cross (13,986 feet [4,263 metres]) is known for a unique formation near its peak, comprising snow-filled crevices shaped like a huge cross more than 1,000 feet (305 metres) long with 375-foot (114-metre) arms. Highways traverse Independence (12,093 feet [3,686 metres]) and…

  • Holy Cross, Sisters of the (Roman Catholic order)

    Mother Angela Gillespie: …influenced her to join the Sisters of the Holy Cross, a French order with a convent at Bertrand, Michigan.

  • holy days of obligation

    Holy days of obligation, in the Roman Catholic Church, religious feast days on which Catholics must attend mass and refrain from unnecessary work. Although all Sundays are sanctified in this way, the term holy days usually refers to other feasts that must be observed in the same manner as Sunday.

  • Holy Family (painting by Murillo)

    Bartolomé Esteban Murillo: …church at Cádiz and the Two Trinities (popularly known as the “Holy Family”). The often mystical significance of his subjects is countered by the idealized reality of his figures based on familiar human archetypes, with natural gestures and tender, devout expressions, creating an effect of intimate rather than exalted religious…

  • Holy Family (art)

    Holy Family, as a theme in Christian art, representation of the infant Jesus with his immediate family. There are two major versions, one showing the Virgin and Child with St. Joseph and the other showing the Virgin and Child with the Virgin’s mother, St. Anne. Like a number of other themes dealing

  • Holy Family on the Steps, The (painting by Poussin)

    Nicolas Poussin: The Raphael of our century: …among them Eliezer and Rebecca, The Holy Family on the Steps, and The Judgment of Solomon. In all of those the artist integrated the figures with their setting in a strict and uncompromising manner that resulted in scenes that are not only conceived in depth but also highly unified across…

  • Holy Family with Angels (painting by Rembrandt)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: The myth of Rembrandt’s fall: A scene with the Holy Family (1645) is one of Rembrandt’s most-striking efforts to arrive at a different approach to the function of light in his paintings. Here he introduced three light sources and made abundant use of light reflecting on one surface from another. In this painting he…

  • Holy Family, Church of the (church, Barcelona, Spain)

    Western architecture: Spain and Portugal: …in the crypt of the church of the Holy Family in Barcelona, which he completed from 1884 to 1887, to the design of his master Francesc de Paula del Villar i Carmona. Gaudí also restored the Gothic cathedral of Palma, on the island of Mallorca, between 1901 and 1914. The…

  • Holy Family, Expiatory Temple of the (church, Barcelona, Spain)

    Western architecture: Spain and Portugal: …in the crypt of the church of the Holy Family in Barcelona, which he completed from 1884 to 1887, to the design of his master Francesc de Paula del Villar i Carmona. Gaudí also restored the Gothic cathedral of Palma, on the island of Mallorca, between 1901 and 1914. The…

  • Holy Family, Feast of the (Roman Catholicism)

    Feast of the Holy Family, Roman Catholic religious festival falling on the first Sunday after Christmas. Although major feast days dedicated to each member of the Holy Family—Jesus, Mary, and Joseph—also exist, the Feast of the Holy Family commemorates their life together, and the celebration

  • Holy Family, The (painting by Giorgione)

    Giorgione: Works: The Holy Family (c. 1500) and the Adoration of the Shepherds (1505/1510) are of equally fine quality. The latter is particularly noteworthy for its exquisite use of colour.

  • Holy Family, The (painting by Michelangelo)

    tondo: …for a painting of the Holy Family (Uffizi) commissioned by the Doni family.

  • Holy Family, The (work by Marx and Engels)

    Karl Marx: Brussels period: …published Die heilige Familie (1845; The Holy Family), a prolix criticism of the Hegelian idealism of the theologian Bruno Bauer. Their next work, Die deutsche Ideologie (written 1845–46, published 1932; The German Ideology), contained the fullest exposition of their important materialistic conception of history, which set out to show how,…

  • Holy Fire (novel by Sterling)

    Bruce Sterling: …the novels Heavy Weather (1994), Holy Fire (1996), Distractions (1998), The Caryatids (2009), and Love Is Strange (2012).

  • holy fool (religious personality)

    Christianity: The operations of the Holy Spirit: The “holy fool” type conceals a radical Christianity under the mask of foolishness and holds the truth of the gospel, in the disguise of folly, before the eyes of highly placed personalities: the worldly and the princes of the church who do not brook unmasked truth.…

  • Holy Ghost (Christianity)

    Holy Spirit, in Christian belief, the third person of the Trinity. Numerous outpourings of the Holy Spirit are mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, in which healing, prophecy, the expelling of demons (exorcism), and speaking in tongues (glossolalia) are particularly associated with the activity

  • Holy Ghost Fathers (religious order)

    Holy Ghost Father, a Roman Catholic society of men founded in 1703 at Paris by Claude-François Poullart des Places. Originally intended only for the training of seminarians, the congregation gradually took an active part in missionary work. Suppressed by the French Revolution, it was restored under

  • Holy Governing Synod (synod, Moscow, Russia)

    Russian Empire: Church and education: …to the state through the Holy Governing Synod, a ministry of ecclesiastical affairs under the direction of a lay chief procurator. The church—in 1722 the landlord of about 1 million peasant families—was nationalized also in the economic sense: the income from its lands was passed on to the state. Thus…

  • Holy Grail (Arthurian legend)

    Holy Grail, object sought by the knights of Arthurian legend as part of a quest that, particularly from the 13th century, had Christian meaning. The term grail evidently denoted a wide-mouthed or shallow vessel, though its precise etymology remains uncertain. The legend of the Grail possibly was

  • Holy Innocents, Feast of the (Christianity)

    Feast of the Holy Innocents, Christian feast in remembrance of the massacre of young children in Bethlehem by King Herod the Great in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:16–18). The feast is observed by Western churches on December 28 and in the Eastern churches on December 29. The

  • Holy Island (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Arran: …Brodick in Lamlash Bay lies Holy Island, a cone of basaltic rock 1,030 feet (314 metres) high containing the cave the 6th-century hermit St. Molaise used as a cell.

  • Holy Island (island, England, United Kingdom)

    Holy Island, historic small island (2 sq mi [5 sq km]) in the west North Sea, 2 mi (3 km) from the English Northumberland coast (in which county it is included), linked to the mainland by a causeway at low tide. It is administratively part of Berwick-upon-Tweed district. Holy Island’s importance as

  • Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America (work by Drew Ali)

    Moorish Science Temple of America: …group’s sacred text was the Holy Koran, which was distinct from the Qurʾān of orthodox Islam and which members considered to have been divinely revealed by Allah to Drew Ali. The work begins with a long narrative spanning from the Fall of Man to the Resurrection of Jesus; it includes…

  • Holy Lance (relic)

    Holy Lance, a relic discovered in June 1098 during the First Crusade by Christian Crusaders at Antioch. It was said to be the lance that pierced the side of Christ at the Crucifixion. The recovery of the relic inspired the Crusaders to take the offensive against the Muslims, routing them in battle

  • Holy Land

    Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River). The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes

  • Holy League (French history)

    Holy League, association of Roman Catholics during the French Wars of Religion of the late 16th century; it was first organized in 1576 under the leadership of Henri I de Lorraine, 3e duc de Guise, to oppose concessions granted to the Protestants (Huguenots) by King Henry III. Although the basic r

  • Holy League (European alliance [1571])

    Battle of Lepanto: …allied Christian forces of the Holy League and the Ottoman Turks during an Ottoman campaign to acquire the Venetian island of Cyprus. The battle marked the first significant victory for a Christian naval force over a Turkish fleet and the climax of the age of galley warfare in the Mediterranean.

  • Holy League (European alliance [1495])

    Holy League, either of two European leagues sponsored by the papacy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, formed for the purpose of protecting Italy from threatened French domination. The first was the League of 1495 between Pope Alexander VI, the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I, Aragon’s

  • Holy League (European alliance [1684])

    Battle of Zenta: …the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League (Austria–Poland–Venice–Russia), a victory that made Austria the foremost power in central Europe.

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