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  • Gombroon ware (pottery)

    Gombroon ware, in Islāmic ceramics, pierced white pottery and porcelain dating from the 18th century and noted for its colourless glaze and delicate texture, seeming more like glass than porcelain. Simple patterns were inscribed in paste or punctured through the sides, while the glaze flooded the

  • Gombrowicz, Witold (Polish author)

    Witold Gombrowicz, Polish novelist and playwright whose works were forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd. Gombrowicz’s family were prosperous members of the gentry. He studied law at the University of Warsaw but abandoned his career to pursue his literary interests. After the initial huge

  • Gombu, Nawang (Indian explorer and mountaineer)

    Nawang Gombu, Sherpa mountaineer (born May 1, 1936, Minzu, Tibet?—died April 24, 2011, Darjiling, West Bengal, India), reached the summit of Mt. Everest on May 1, 1963 (with American James Whittaker), and again on May 20, 1965 (with Indian climber A.S. Cheema), and thereby became the first person

  • Gomel (Belarus)

    Homyel, city and administrative centre, Homyel oblast (region), Belarus, on the Sozh River. It was first mentioned in 1142 as Gomy. It passed to Lithuania in the 14th century and later to Poland, and it was acquired by Russia in 1772. In the late 19th century Homyel developed as a major railway

  • Gomel (province, Belarus)

    Homyel, voblasts (province), southeastern Belarus. It occupies the level plain of the middle Dnieper River and its tributaries. There are considerable areas of reed and grass marsh and of peat bog. Most of the drier areas lie in dense forest of oak, pine, and hornbeam on soils that are commonly

  • Gomer (biblical figure)

    biblical literature: Hosea: …prostitute by the name of Gomer as a symbol of Israel’s playing the part of a whore searching for gods other than the one true God. He is to have children by her. Three children are born in this marriage. The first, a son, is named Jezreel, to symbolize that…

  • Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. (American television program)

    Television in the United States: Rural humour: It also inspired two spin-offs, Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. (CBS, 1964–69) and Mayberry R.F.D. (CBS, 1968–71), both of which were also top-10 hits. The rural situation comedy had its foundation in a long American tradition of hayseed humour that included Al Capp’s Li’l Abner comic strip, vaudeville “rube” routines, and the…

  • Gomera, La (island, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Gomera, La, island, Santa Cruz de Tenerife provincia (province), in the Canary Islands comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Spain, in the North Atlantic Ocean. The island is circular in shape. Its coasts, especially on the west, are rugged and precipitous, and its interior is mountainous.

  • Gomes Júnior, Carlos (prime minister of Guinea-Bissau)

    Guinea-Bissau: Independence: In February Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior stepped down so that he could serve as the PAIGC’s presidential candidate in the upcoming election.

  • Gomes, Antonio Carlos (Brazilian composer)

    Latin American music: The 19th century: Brazilian opera was dominated by Antonio Carlos Gomes, the most successful opera composer of the Americas in the 19th century. He won international fame with his opera Il Guarany (produced in Milan in 1870), which had a picturesque libretto portraying Indian heroes and incorporating stylized indigenous dances. The first Brazilian…

  • Gomes, Diogo (Portuguese explorer)

    Diogo Gomes, Portuguese explorer sent by Prince Henry the Navigator to investigate the West African coast about 1456. Gomes sailed south beyond the Gêba River, now in Guinea-Bissau, and on the return trip ascended the Gambia River to the town of Cantor (now Kuntaur, Gambia), where he met men from

  • Gomes, Juvenico (Guinea-Bissau politician)

    Boé: …mayor of Bissau city, Juvencio Gomes, announced at the country’s independence in 1974 that Boé would replace Bissau as the capital of Guinea-Bissau as a symbol of the struggle against Portugal; this plan was not implemented, however, because of its economic impracticality. There are bauxite and iron-ore deposits in the…

  • Gomes, Peter John (American clergyman and author)

    Peter John Gomes, American clergyman and author (born May 22, 1942, Boston, Mass.—died Feb. 28, 2011, Boston), led Harvard University’s Memorial Church for nearly four decades, but in 1991 the fiery Republican Baptist minister (later a registered Democrat) stunned his more conservative supporters

  • gomez (Zoroastrianism)

    purification rite: The Zoroastrian Great Purification rite: …pour consecrated cow’s urine (gomez) upon the hands of the subject, who washes his hands with the urine three times. He then washes his entire body with gomez, progressing from the head down to the feet. The pollution is said to leave the toes in the form of a…

  • Gómez Bolaños, Roberto (Mexican actor and writer)

    Chespirito, Mexican comic actor and writer who became a cultural icon in Latin America for the characters he created and portrayed on the family-friendly TV sketch-comedy show Chespirito and its various spin-offs. Gómez Bolaños, whose father was a painter and an illustrator for periodicals, grew up

  • Gómez Castro, Laureano Eleuterio (president of Colombia)

    Laureano Eleuterio Gómez, extremely conservative politician who was president of Colombia (1950–53) until forced into exile by a coalition of Liberals and Conservatives. Gómez received an engineering degree in 1909 but immediately entered politics and journalism, serving in various ministries at

  • Gómez de Avellaneda, Gertrudis (Cuban Spanish playwright)

    Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cuban Spanish playwright and poet who is considered one of the foremost Romantic writers of the 19th century and one of the greatest women poets. In 1836 Gómez went to Spain, where, except for a short period from 1859 to 1863, she lived for the rest of her life.

  • Gómez de la Serna, Ramón (Spanish writer)

    Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Spanish writer whose greguerías, brief poetic statements characterized by a free association of words, ideas, and objects, had a significant influence on avant-garde literature in Europe and Latin America. Gómez de la Serna studied law but never practiced. He devoted his

  • Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas, Francisco (Spanish writer)

    Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas, poet and master satirist of Spain’s Golden Age, who, as a virtuoso of language, is unequaled in Spanish literature. Quevedo was born to a family of wealth and distinction. He studied at the universities of Alcalá and Valladolid from 1596 to 1606, was versed in

  • Gómez Farías, Valentín (president of Mexico)

    Valentín Gómez Farías, the leader of Mexican liberalism in the mid-19th century, notable for his social reforms of 1833–34, which earned him the enmity of the clergy, the army, and the gentry. After training as a physician, he was influenced by French liberal political ideas and participated in the

  • Gómez Palacio (Mexico)

    Gómez Palacio, city, now a suburb of Torreón (to the southeast across the Río Nazas), northeastern Durango estado (state), north-central Mexico. It is an important agricultural and industrial centre in the Laguna irrigation district. In the environs, cotton and wheat are the principal crops, but

  • Gómez y Báez, Máximo (Cuban general)

    Cuban Independence Movement: Máximo Gómez y Báez, who had commanded the rebel troops during the Ten Years’ War, was among those who joined Martí’s invasion force. Although Martí was killed (and martyred) in battle about one month after initiation of the invasion on April 11, 1895, Gómez and…

  • Gómez y Báez, Máximo (Cuban revolutionary commander)

    Máximo Gómez y Báez, commander in chief of the Cuban revolutionary forces in the unsuccessful Ten Years’ War (1868–78) and again in the successful Cuban revolution against Spain some 20 years later. Rejecting the clerical career that his mother desired for him, Gómez at age 16 fought against

  • Gomez, Jaime Luis (American musician)

    Black Eyed Peas: …Philippines) recruited MC and dancer Taboo (byname of Jaime Luis Gomez; b. July 14, 1975, East Los Angeles, California) to form the Black Eyed Peas. The group’s debut recording, Behind the Front (1998), gained attention for its positive socially conscious lyrics and musical dexterity.

  • Gómez, José Miguel (president of Cuba)

    Cuba: The Republic of Cuba: …government to the Liberal president, José Miguel Gómez. Meanwhile, Cuba’s economy grew steadily, and sugar prices rose continually until the 1920s.

  • Gómez, Juan Vicente (Venezuelan dictator)

    Juan Vicente Gómez, dictator of Venezuela from 1908 until 1935, reputed to have been the wealthiest man in South America. Although a nearly full-blooded Indian with almost no formal education, Gómez became a figure of local prominence in the Andean region. Joining the private army of Cipriano

  • Gómez, Laureano Eleuterio (president of Colombia)

    Laureano Eleuterio Gómez, extremely conservative politician who was president of Colombia (1950–53) until forced into exile by a coalition of Liberals and Conservatives. Gómez received an engineering degree in 1909 but immediately entered politics and journalism, serving in various ministries at

  • Gomez, Selena (American actress and singer)

    Selena Gomez, American actress and singer who won legions of young fans as the winsome star of the Disney television series Wizards of Waverly Place (2007–12) and as a pop vocalist. Gomez, who was named after the popular Tejano singer Selena Quintanilla-Perez, was raised in suburban Dallas.

  • Gomez, Selena Marie (American actress and singer)

    Selena Gomez, American actress and singer who won legions of young fans as the winsome star of the Disney television series Wizards of Waverly Place (2007–12) and as a pop vocalist. Gomez, who was named after the popular Tejano singer Selena Quintanilla-Perez, was raised in suburban Dallas.

  • Gomez, Wilfredo (Puerto Rican boxer)

    Salvador Sanchez: …when he faced Puerto Rican Wilfredo Gomez, the WBC junior featherweight (122 pounds; also known as super bantamweight) champion, who had moved up in weight class for the fight. Gomez stepped into the ring unbeaten in 33 fights and flaunting 32 knockouts. Sanchez knocked down Gomez in the first round…

  • Gomidas (Armenian composer)

    Komitas, ethnomusicologist and composer who created the basis for a distinctive national musical style in Armenia. Orphaned at age 11, he was sent to study liturgical singing at a seminary in Vagarshapat (now Ejmiadzin) in Armenia. He graduated in 1893 and adopted the name Komitas, that of a

  • Gommateshvara (Jainism)

    Bahubali, According to the traditions of the Indian religion Jainism, the son of the first Tirthankara (literally, “ford maker,” a metaphor for saviour), Rishabhanatha. He is said to have lived many millions of years ago. After Bahubali won a duel with his half brother for control of the kingdom,

  • Gōmōjigi (work by Itō Jinsai)

    Itō Jinsai: …in a small work called Gōmōjigi (1683), a commentary on the writings of the Chinese philosophers Confucius and Mencius. Jinsai was concerned with what he saw as the underlying truths of Confucian thought. He tried to develop a rational, as against an authoritarian, basis for human morality and the pursuit…

  • Gomorrah (Old Testament)

    Sodom and Gomorrah, notoriously sinful cities in the biblical book of Genesis, destroyed by “sulfur and fire” because of their wickedness (Genesis 19:24). Sodom and Gomorrah along with the cities of Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar (Bela) constituted the five “cities of the plain,” and they are referenced

  • Gomortega keule (plant)

    Laurales: Other families: Gomortega keule, the only member of the family Gomortegaceae, has an inferior ovary and bisexual flowers with only two or three carpels that are fused to form a compound ovary. As in many Monimiaceae species, the pollen sacs of the stamens have valvular dehiscence.

  • Gomortegaceae (plant family)

    Laurales: Distribution and abundance: Gomortegaceae, or the queule family, consists of a single species, Gomortega keule, which is a rare species native to central Chile.

  • Gompers v. Bucks Stove and Range Company (law case)

    Joseph Rucker Lamar: …opinion on two important cases: Gompers v. Bucks Stove and Range Company (1911), which upheld the power of the courts to punish violations of injunctions but set aside the convictions of Samuel Gompers and other labour leaders on procedural grounds, and United States v. Midwest Oil Company (1914), which upheld…

  • Gompers, Samuel (American labour leader)

    Samuel Gompers, American labour leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Gompers emigrated in 1863 from England to New York City, where he took up his father’s trade of cigar making and in 1872 became a naturalized citizen. His careful leadership of labour interests

  • Gompertz function (gerontology)

    aging: …the survivorship curve and the age-specific death rate, or Gompertz function. The relation of such factors as aging characteristics, constitutional vigour, physical factors, diet, and exposure to disease-causing organisms to the actuarial functions is complex. There is, nevertheless, no substitute for them as measures of the aging process and of…

  • Gomperz, Lucie (British potter)

    Dame Lucie Rie, Austrian-born British studio potter. Her unique and complex slip-glaze surface treatment and inventive kiln processing influenced an entire generation of younger British ceramists. Rie was educated at the Vienna Gymnasium and at the Arts and Crafts School. Her early ceramics

  • Gomperz, Theodor (Austrian philosopher and classical scholar)

    Theodor Gomperz, philosopher and classical scholar, remembered chiefly for his Griechische Denker: eine Geschichte der antiken Philosophie, 2 vol. (1893–1902; Greek Thinkers: A History of Ancient Philosophy, 4 vol., 1901–12). He was professor of classical philology at Vienna (1873–1901) and was

  • Gomphales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Gomphales Most are mycorrhizal, some are saprotrophic; spores may be olive-shaped, usually rough; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Gomphus, Gautieria, and Ramaria. Order Hysterangiales Most are saprotrophic; resembles puffballs when small, becoming pear-shaped and finally globose when mature; fruiting

  • gomphosis (anatomy)

    joint: Fibrous joints: A gomphosis is a fibrous mobile peg-and-socket joint. The roots of the teeth (the pegs) fit into their sockets in the mandible and maxilla and are the only examples of this type of joint. Bundles of collagen fibres pass from the wall of the socket to…

  • Gomphostrobus (paleontology)

    Lebachia: …as detached fossils, are called Gomphostrobus) at the ends of the side branches.

  • gomphothere (fossil mammal)

    Gomphothere, any member of a line of extinct elephants that formed the most numerous group of the order Proboscidea and lived from perhaps as early as the end of the Oligocene Epoch (33.9 million to 23 million years ago) to the late Pleistocene (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago) and early Holocene

  • Gomphrena globosa (plant)

    Globe amaranth, (Gomphrena globosa), ornamental garden plant of the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), grown for its showy spherical flower clusters. Globe amaranth is native to Guatemala, Panama, and Brazil and is cultivated around the world. The flowers are attractive to butterflies and are often

  • Gomringer, Eugen (German author)

    concrete poetry: Max Bill and Eugen Gomringer were among the early practitioners of concrete poetry. The Vienna Group of Hans Carl Artmann, Gerhard Rühm, and Konrad Bayer also promoted concrete poetry, as did Ernst Jandl and Friederike Mayröcker. The movement drew inspiration from Dada, Surrealism, and other nonrational 20th-century movements.…

  • Gomułka, Władysław (Polish politician)

    Władysław Gomułka, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party, the ruling communist party of Poland, from 1956 to 1970. Before Gomułka’s birth his parents had emigrated to the United States but had returned disillusioned. His father, Jan, was a socialist and worked

  • Gona (Papua New Guinea)

    World War II: The Solomons, Papua, Madagascar, the Aleutians, and Burma, July 1942–May 1943: …the Japanese had landed near Gona on the north coast of Papua (the southeastern extremity of the great island) on July 24, 1942, in an attempt to reach Port Moresby overland, via the Kokoda Trail. Advanced Japanese units from the north, despite Australian opposition, had reached a ridge 32 miles…

  • gonad (anatomy)

    Gonad, in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). In males the gonads are called testes; the gonads in females are called ovaries. (see ovary; testis). The gonads in some lower invertebrate groups (e.g., hydrozoans) are temporary organs; in higher forms they

  • gonad-stimulating substance (biochemistry)

    endocrine system: Phylum Echinodermata: A neuropeptide called the gonad-stimulating substance (also called the gamete-shedding substance) is released from the radial nerves into the body cavity about one hour before spawning. Gonad-stimulating substance has been reported in more than 30 species of sea star. This neuropeptide contacts the ovaries directly and causes formation of…

  • gonadal dysgenesis (pathology)

    Turner syndrome, relatively uncommon sex-chromosome disorder that causes aberrant sexual development in human females. Turner syndrome occurs when one sex chromosome is deleted, so that instead of the normal 46 chromosomes, of which two are sex chromosomes (XX in females and XY in males), the

  • gonadotroph (anatomy)

    pituitary gland: The anterior pituitary: gonadotrophs, both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); the corticotrophs, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin); the somatotrophs, growth hormone (GH; somatotropin); and the lactotrophs,

  • gonadotropic hormone (hormone)

    Gonadotropin, any of several hormones occurring in vertebrates that are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and that act on the gonads (i.e., the ovaries or testes). Gonadotrophs, cells that constitute about 10 percent of the pituitary gland, secrete two primary gonadotropins: luteinizing

  • gonadotropin (hormone)

    Gonadotropin, any of several hormones occurring in vertebrates that are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland and that act on the gonads (i.e., the ovaries or testes). Gonadotrophs, cells that constitute about 10 percent of the pituitary gland, secrete two primary gonadotropins: luteinizing

  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone (biochemistry)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins—luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)—by the anterior

  • gonads (anatomy)

    Gonad, in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). In males the gonads are called testes; the gonads in females are called ovaries. (see ovary; testis). The gonads in some lower invertebrate groups (e.g., hydrozoans) are temporary organs; in higher forms they

  • Gonaibo (Haiti)

    Gonaïves, city, western Haiti, on the northeastern shore of the Gulf of La Gonâve. Originally an Indian village called Gonaibo, it is now the commercial centre and port of the fertile Artibonite Plain, with a natural harbour; coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, mangoes, and cabinet woods are exported.

  • Gonaïves (Haiti)

    Gonaïves, city, western Haiti, on the northeastern shore of the Gulf of La Gonâve. Originally an Indian village called Gonaibo, it is now the commercial centre and port of the fertile Artibonite Plain, with a natural harbour; coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, mangoes, and cabinet woods are exported.

  • gonane (chemistry)

    steroid: Steroid numbering system and nomenclature: This parent structure (1), named gonane (also known as the steroid nucleus), may be modified in a practically unlimited number of ways by removal, replacement, or addition of a few atoms at a time; hundreds of steroids have been isolated from plants and animals, and thousands more have been prepared…

  • Gonardiya (Hindu author, mystic, and philosopher)

    Patanjali, author or one of the authors of two great Hindu classics: the first, Yoga-sutras, a categorization of Yogic thought arranged in four volumes with the titles “Psychic Power,” “Practice of Yoga,” “Samadhi” (state of profound contemplation of the Absolute), and “Kaivalya” (separateness);

  • gonbad (mausoleum)

    Türbe, (Turkish: “tomb-tower”, ) form of mausoleum architecture developed by and popular among the Seljuq Turks in Iran (mid-11th to 13th century) and later carried by them into Iraq and Anatolia. The tower form of the tomb may have been based on the cylindrical and conical forms of Seljuq tents.

  • Gonbad-e Qābūs (tomb, Iran)

    türbe: …oldest surviving türbe is the Gonbad-e Qābūs, in the Gorgān region of northeastern Iran, which was built in 1006–07 for the emir Shams al-Maʿālī Qābūs (d. 1012). The tower rises to a height of 200 feet (60 m). Its conical roof created a type, but its 10-pointed, star-shaped ground plan…

  • Gonçalves da Silva, Neuma (Brazilian dancer)

    Neuma Gonçalves da Silva, Brazilian samba dancer (born May 8, 1922, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.—died July 17, 2000, Rio de Janeiro), widely known as the “first lady of samba,” helped run one of Rio de Janeiro’s most famous samba schools, Mangueira, and for many years represented the school as a dancer i

  • Gonçalves Dias, Antônio (Brazilian poet)

    Antônio Gonçalves Dias, Romantic poet generally regarded as the national poet of Brazil. His “Canção do Exílio” (1843; “Song of Exile”), beginning “Minha terra tem palmeiras” (“My land has palm trees”), is known to every Brazilian schoolchild. Though Gonçalves Dias lived much of the time abroad

  • Gonçalves, António Aurélio (Cabo Verdean writer)

    António Aurélio Gonçalves, Portuguese African story writer, novelist, critic, and teacher whose works challenge the traditional social role of women in the Cape Verde Islands. Gonçalves attended the University of Lisbon and later taught history and philosophy at the Liceu Gil Eanes in São Vicente.

  • Gonçalves, Hermenegildo (Portuguese ruler)

    Portugal: The county and kingdom of Portugal to 1383: …Mumadona Dias and her husband Hermenegildo Gonçalves and their descendants, one of whom was tutor and father-in-law to the Leonese ruler Alfonso V. However, when this dynasty was overthrown by the Navarrese-Castilian house of Sancho III Garcés (Sancho the Great), the western county lost its autonomy. Sancho’s son Ferdinand I…

  • Gonçalves, Lopo (Portuguese explorer)

    Port-Gentil: The Portuguese navigator Lopo Gonçalves first rounded Cape Lopez in 1473. By the end of the 19th century several commercial houses were established there, and okoume wood (Gabonese mahogany) was exported. The discovery of oil offshore at nearby Ozouri and Pointe Clairette in 1956 stimulated Port-Gentil’s commercial and…

  • Gonçalves, Nuno (Portuguese painter)

    Nuno Gonçalves, Portuguese painter recognized as one of the genuine masters of the 15th century. After the discovery in 1882 of the only extant work certain to be his—the altarpiece for the convent of São Vicente—he was, after 400 years of anonymity, finally acknowledged as the founder of the

  • Gonçalves, Vasco dos Santos (Portuguese military officer)

    Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves, Portuguese military officer (born May 3, 1921, Lisbon, Port.—died June 11, 2005, Almancil, Port.), was a key figure in the Armed Forces Movement (MFA), which overthrew Portuguese Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano in the Revolution of the Carnations (1974), ending almost 5

  • Goncharov, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Russian writer)

    Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov, Russian novelist and travel writer, whose highly esteemed novels dramatize social change in Russia and contain some of Russian literature’s most vivid and memorable characters. Goncharov was born into a wealthy merchant family and, after graduating from Moscow

  • Goncharova, Nataliya Sergeyevna (Russian artist)

    Natalya Goncharova, innovative Russian painter, sculptor, and stage designer who was a founder, with Mikhail Larionov, of Rayonism (c. 1910) and was a designer for the Ballets Russes. In the 21st-century art market, Goncharova’s paintings brought some of the highest prices for works by women

  • Goncharova, Natalya (Russian artist)

    Natalya Goncharova, innovative Russian painter, sculptor, and stage designer who was a founder, with Mikhail Larionov, of Rayonism (c. 1910) and was a designer for the Ballets Russes. In the 21st-century art market, Goncharova’s paintings brought some of the highest prices for works by women

  • Goncourt, Edmond (French author)

    Edmond and Jules Goncourt: …perceptive, revealing Journal and for Edmond’s legacy, the Académie Goncourt, which annually awards the Prix Goncourt to the author of an outstanding work of French literature.

  • Goncourt, Edmond and Jules (French authors)

    Edmond and Jules Goncourt, French brothers, writers and constant collaborators who made significant contributions to the development of the naturalist novel and to the fields of social history and art criticism. Above all, they are remembered for their perceptive, revealing Journal and for Edmond’s

  • Goncourt, Edmond-Louis-Antoine Huot de (French author)

    Edmond and Jules Goncourt: …perceptive, revealing Journal and for Edmond’s legacy, the Académie Goncourt, which annually awards the Prix Goncourt to the author of an outstanding work of French literature.

  • Goncourt, Jules (French author)

    Edmond and Jules Goncourt: …Journal no doubt belonged to Jules, whose fatal stroke presumably was preceded by syphilis.

  • Goncourt, Jules-Alfred Huot de (French author)

    Edmond and Jules Goncourt: …Journal no doubt belonged to Jules, whose fatal stroke presumably was preceded by syphilis.

  • Goncz, Arpad (Hungarian writer, translator, and political dissident)

    Arpad Goncz, (“Uncle Arpi”), Hungarian writer, translator, and political dissident (born Feb. 2, 1922, Budapest, Hung.—died Oct. 6, 2015, Budapest?), was the first president (1990–2000) of postcommunist Hungary after having spent six years (1957–63) in prison for treason in the aftermath of the

  • Gond (people)

    Gond, group of aboriginal peoples (now officially designated as Scheduled Tribes) of central and south-central India, about two million in number. They live in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, and Odisha. The majority speak various and, in part, mutually

  • Gonda (India)

    Gonda, city, east-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies about 60 miles (95 km) northeast of Lucknow, on a tributary of the Ghaghara River. Gonda is situated at the junction of several roads and rail lines and is a trade centre for agricultural products. Gonda’s main industries are

  • Gondar (Ethiopia)

    Gonder, city, northwestern Ethiopia. It stands at an elevation of 7,500 feet (2,300 metres) on a basaltic ridge from which streams flanking the town flow to Lake Tana, 21 miles (34 km) south. Gonder was the capital of Ethiopia from 1632 to 1855, and it has the remains of castles and palaces

  • Gondelach, Franz (German engraver)

    glassware: Germany: …of all the relief engravers, Franz Gondelach, handled glass with a truly sculptural feeling.

  • Gonder (Ethiopia)

    Gonder, city, northwestern Ethiopia. It stands at an elevation of 7,500 feet (2,300 metres) on a basaltic ridge from which streams flanking the town flow to Lake Tana, 21 miles (34 km) south. Gonder was the capital of Ethiopia from 1632 to 1855, and it has the remains of castles and palaces

  • Gonderia (protozoan genus)

    theileriasis: …protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria (Gonderia), transmitted by tick bites. The most serious is East Coast fever of cattle, caused by T. parva; it has 90–100 percent mortality in Africa. Tropical theileriasis, from T. annulata (T. dispar), is a milder disease of cattle along the Mediterranean and in the…

  • Gondēshāpūr, Academy of (school, Iran)

    education: Ancient Persia: …as it developed in the Academy of Gondēshāpūr. There Zoroastrian culture, Indian and Greek sciences, Alexandrian-Syrian thought, medical training, theology, philosophy, and other disciplines developed to a high degree, making Gondēshāpūr the most advanced academic centre of learning in the later period of Sāsānian civilization. Students from various parts of…

  • Gondi family (French family)

    Gondi Family, French family of Florentine origin, whose diplomats and bankers were prominent in France from the 16th century. The family established itself in France after gaining the confidence and patronage of Catherine de Médicis. Antoine II (1486–1560) was the first Gondi to settle in France

  • Gondi language

    Gondi language, one of the Dravidian languages of India. In the early 21st century it was spoken by about 2.7 million people, mostly Gonds. Gondi has many dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible. It is not a written language and as such has no well-attested history before European

  • Gondi, Albert (Florentine diplomat and politician)

    Gondi Family: Antoine II’s oldest son, Albert (b. Nov. 4, 1522, Florence—d. April 21, 1602), went to the court of Henry II in 1547. Serving valiantly in several military campaigns, he took the part of the monarch during the Wars of Religion. Albert himself served as proxy in the marriage of…

  • Gondi, Antoine II (French banker)

    Gondi Family: Antoine II (1486–1560) was the first Gondi to settle in France and started the most illustrious branch of the family. At first a banker in Lyon, he was brought to Paris by Catherine de Médicis, who made him steward to the Duke d’Anjou, later Henry…

  • Gondi, Henry I (French bishop)

    Gondi Family: His second son, Henry I (1572–1622), succeeded his uncle Pierre as bishop of Paris. His third son, Philippe-Emmanuel (b. 1581, Limoges—d. June 29, 1662, Joigny), Marquis de Belle-Isle, Count de Joigny, and Baron de Montmirail, was an outstanding military commander. After his great success in the naval battle…

  • Gondi, Jean-Baptiste (French historian)

    Gondi Family: Jean-Baptiste (1501–1580), nephew of Antoine, was steward to Catherine herself. A great-nephew, Jérôme II (1550–1600), Baron de Codun, helped arrange the marriage of Charles IX and Elizabeth of Austria (1570). Under Henry III, he served as ambassador to Venice and Rome, and Henry IV reappointed…

  • Gondi, Jean-François (French archbishop)

    Gondi Family: …youngest of Albert’s four sons, Jean-François (1584–1654), succeeded his brother Henry I as bishop of Paris, later becoming archbishop.

  • Gondi, Jean-François-Paul de (French priest)

    Jean-François-Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz, one of the leaders of the aristocratic rebellion known as the Fronde (1648–53), whose memoirs remain a classic of 17th-century French literature. Of Florentine origin, the family into which Gondi was born had risen to prominence in the French court in

  • Gondi, Jérôme II (French historian)

    Gondi Family: A great-nephew, Jérôme II (1550–1600), Baron de Codun, helped arrange the marriage of Charles IX and Elizabeth of Austria (1570). Under Henry III, he served as ambassador to Venice and Rome, and Henry IV reappointed him as ambassador to Rome.

  • Gondi, Philippe-Emmanuel (French military commander)

    Gondi Family: His third son, Philippe-Emmanuel (b. 1581, Limoges—d. June 29, 1662, Joigny), Marquis de Belle-Isle, Count de Joigny, and Baron de Montmirail, was an outstanding military commander. After his great success in the naval battle of La Rochelle (Oct. 26, 1622), he entered a religious order (Oratorians) in 1625,…

  • Gondi, Pierre (French cardinal)

    Gondi Family: His brother Pierre, bishop of Paris, made cardinal in 1587, was sent by Henry IV as ambassador to Rome in 1595. He became a principal adviser to Louis XIII.

  • Gondoin, Jacques (French architect)

    Western architecture: France: …architect of the Paris Odéon; Jacques Gondoin, architect of the School of Medicine (1769–76), which, with its Corinthian temple portico and Roman-inspired amphitheatre covered by a coffered half dome and lit from a half oculus (a round opening in the top of a dome), was one of the most advanced…

  • gondola (railroad vehicle)

    freight car: Gondola cars have fixed bottoms and must be unloaded from above with the help of a crane; they are used to transport manufactured goods. Boxcars are enclosed cars with sliding doors on the sides; they serve to transport manufactured goods requiring protection from the weather…

  • gondola (balloon component)

    balloon flight: Elements of balloon flight: …sport ballooning, the traditional wicker basket, albeit with a stainless steel frame, is popular. Criteria for evaluation of a basket design should include toughness, energy absorption, and electrical resistance, but style and marketability are more often the governing factors.

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