• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • gliadin (chemistry)

    glutamine: First isolated from gliadin, a protein present in wheat (1932), glutamine is widely distributed in plants; e.g., beets, carrots, and radishes. Important in cellular metabolism in animals, glutamine is the only amino acid capable of readily crossing the barrier between blood

  • glial cell (biology)

    Neuroglia, any of several types of cell that function primarily to support neurons. The term neuroglia means “nerve glue.” In 1907 Italian biologist Emilio Lugaro suggested that neuroglial cells exchange substances with the extracellular fluid and in this way exert control on the neuronal

  • Glick, Virginia Kirkus (American critic, editor and author)

    Virginia Kirkus, American critic, editor, and writer, remembered for her original book review for booksellers, Kirkus Reviews. Kirkus attended private schools and in 1916 graduated from Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York. After taking courses at Columbia University Teachers College, New York

  • Glicksman, Marjorie (American philosopher)

    Marjorie Grene, American philosopher who is considered the founder of the philosophy of biology. Grene was known for her innovative theories on the nature of the scientific study of life, which she addressed in several works on Existentialism, including Dreadful Freedom: A Critique of

  • Glidden, Joseph Farwell (American inventor)

    Joseph Farwell Glidden, American inventor of the first commercially successful barbed wire, which was instrumental in transforming the Great Plains of western North America. Glidden attended Middlebury (Vt.) Academy and a seminary at Lima, N.Y., then taught school for several years before returning

  • glide (phonetics)

    Approximant, in phonetics, a sound that is produced by bringing one articulator in the vocal tract close to another without, however, causing audible friction (see fricative). Approximants include semivowels, such as the y sound in “yes” or the w sound in

  • glide (cricket)

    cricket: Batting: …back before playing the ball; leg glance (or glide), in which the ball is deflected behind the wicket on the leg side; cut, in which the batsman hits a ball on the uprise (after it has hit the ground on the off side), square with or behind the wicket; and…

  • glide bomb (weapon)

    rocket and missile system: Aerial rockets: These weapons were called glide bombs, and the Japanese had 100-kilogram and 370-kilogram (225-pound and 815-pound) versions. The Soviet Union employed 25- and 100-kilogram versions, launched from the IL-2 Stormovik attack aircraft.

  • glide plane (physics)

    slip: …on one side of the slip (or glide) plane do not slide simultaneously from one set of positions to the next. The atoms move sequentially one row at a time into the next position along the plane because of structural defects or spaces, called edge dislocations, in the crystal that…

  • glider (aircraft)

    Glider, nonpowered heavier-than-air craft capable of sustained flight. Though many men contributed to the development of the glider, the most famous pioneer was Otto Lilienthal (1848–96) of Germany, who, with his brother Gustav, began experiments in 1867 on the buoyancy and resistance of air.

  • glider (marsupial)

    Glider, any of about six small phalangers—marsupial mammals of Australasia—that volplane from tree to tree like flying squirrels. Most have well-developed flaps of skin along the flanks; these become sails when the limbs are extended. An eastern Australian species, which feeds on nectar and

  • gliding (animal locomotion)

    bird: Flight: …major types of modifications for gliding or soaring are found. Albatrosses and some other seabirds have long, narrow wings and take advantage of winds over the oceans, whereas some vultures and hawks have broad wings with slotted tips that permit more use of updrafts and winds deflected by

  • gliding (sport)

    Gliding, flight in an unpowered heavier-than-air craft. Any engineless aircraft, from the simplest hang glider to a space shuttle on its return flight to the Earth, is a glider. The glider is powered by gravity, which means that it is always sinking through the air. However, when an efficient

  • gliding bacterium

    Gliding bacterium, any member of a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that exhibit creeping or gliding forms of movement on solid substrata. Gliding bacteria are generally gram-negative and do not possess flagella. The complex mechanisms by which they move have not been fully ascertained, and

  • Glier, Reyngold Moritsevich (Soviet composer)

    Reinhold Glière, Soviet composer, of German and Polish descent, who was noted for his works incorporating elements of the folk music of several eastern Soviet republics. Glière was the son of a musician and maker of wind instruments. He attended the Moscow Conservatory—where he studied violin,

  • Glière, Reinhold (Soviet composer)

    Reinhold Glière, Soviet composer, of German and Polish descent, who was noted for his works incorporating elements of the folk music of several eastern Soviet republics. Glière was the son of a musician and maker of wind instruments. He attended the Moscow Conservatory—where he studied violin,

  • Gliese 229 B (astronomical object)

    brown dwarf: …to a low-mass star called Gliese 229 B. The detection of methane in its spectrum showed that it has a surface temperature less than 1,200 K. Its extremely low luminosity, coupled with the age of its stellar companion, implies that it is about 50 Jupiter masses. Hence, Gliese 229 B…

  • Gliese 581 (extrasolar planetary system)

    Gliese 581, extrasolar planetary system containing four planets. One of them, Gliese 581d, was the first planet to be found within the habitable zone of an extrasolar planetary system, the orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet could possess liquid water on its surface and

  • Gliese 581d (extrasolar planet)

    Gliese 581: One of them, Gliese 581d, was the first planet to be found within the habitable zone of an extrasolar planetary system, the orbital region around a star in which an Earth-like planet could possess liquid water on its surface and possibly support life. Another, Gliese 581e, is the…

  • Gliese 581e (extrasolar planet)

    Gliese 581: Another, Gliese 581e, is the smallest planet seen in orbit around an ordinary main sequence star other than the Sun.

  • Gligoric, Svetozar (Yugoslav chess grandmaster)

    Svetozar Gligoric, Yugoslav chess grandmaster (born Feb. 2, 1923, Belgrade, Yugos. [now in Serbia]—died Aug. 14, 2012, Belgrade, Serbia), was acknowledged as one of the greatest chess players of the 1950s and ’60s; he won games in nontitle matches against such world champions as Mikhail Botvinnik,

  • Gligorov, Kiro Blagojev (Macedonian politician)

    Kiro Blagoje Gligorov, Macedonian politician (born May 3, 1917, Stip, Kingdom of Serbia [now in Macedonia]—died Jan. 1, 2012, Skopje, Maced.), as president (1991–99) steered his country through the difficult transition from a constituent republic within Yugoslavia to an independent state officially

  • Glikl of Hameln (German diarist)

    Glikl of Hameln, German Jewish diarist whose seven books of memoirs (Zikhroynes), written in Yiddish with passages in Hebrew, reveal much about the history, culture, and everyday life of contemporary Jews in central Europe. Written not for publication but as a family chronicle and legacy for her

  • glimepiride (drug)

    diabetes mellitus: Drugs used to control blood glucose levels: Sulfonylureas, such as glipizide and glimepiride, are considered hypoglycemic agents because they stimulate the release of insulin from beta cells in the pancreas, thus reducing blood glucose levels. The most common side effect associated with sulfonylureas is hypoglycemia (abnormally low blood glucose levels), which occurs most often in elderly patients…

  • Glimm, James (American mathematician)

    Peter Lax: …solutions, and, with American mathematician James Glimm, he made a profound analysis of the behaviour of solutions to these equations over long periods of time. Together with Robert D. Richtmeyer, a fellow mathematician at the Courant Institute, Lax showed that, in a wide class of cases, methods of numerical analysis…

  • Glimpses of the Modern World (work by Valéry)

    history of Europe: The phony peace: Paul Valéry, in Glimpses of the Modern World (1931), warned Europeans against abandoning intellectual discipline and embracing chauvinism, fanaticism, and war. Thomas Mann, in Warning Europe (1938), asked: “Has European humanism become incapable of resurrection?” “For the moment,” wrote Carl J. Burckhardt, “it…seems that the world will be…

  • Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (work by Hearn)

    Lafcadio Hearn: …published in two volumes as Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (1894).

  • Glinda the Good Witch (fictional character)

    The Wizard of Oz: Glinda the Good Witch (Billie Burke) instructs Dorothy to follow the yellow brick road that runs to the Emerald City, where it is said that a powerful wizard will be able to grant her wish to return home.

  • Glinka, Mikhail (Russian composer)

    Mikhail Glinka, the first Russian composer to win international recognition and the acknowledged founder of the Russian nationalist school. Glinka first became interested in music at age 10 or 11, when he heard his uncle’s private orchestra. He studied at the Chief Pedagogic Institute at St.

  • Glinka, Mikhail Ivanovich (Russian composer)

    Mikhail Glinka, the first Russian composer to win international recognition and the acknowledged founder of the Russian nationalist school. Glinka first became interested in music at age 10 or 11, when he heard his uncle’s private orchestra. He studied at the Chief Pedagogic Institute at St.

  • Glinn, Burton Samuel (American photographer)

    Burton Samuel Glinn, American photographer (born July 23, 1925, Pittsburgh, Pa.—died April 9, 2008, Southampton, N.Y.), cemented his reputation as an eminent photographer with his 1959 images of Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro marching into Havana on the heels of fleeing dictator Fulgencio

  • glioblast (biology)

    human nervous system: Morphological development: …the precursors of neurons, and glioblasts, from which neuroglia develop. With a few exceptions, the neuroblasts, glioblasts, and their derived cells do not divide and multiply once they have migrated from the ventricular zone into the gray and white matter of the nervous system. Most neurons are generated before birth,…

  • glioblastoma (disease)

    glioma: Glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most frequently occurring and the most aggressive primary brain tumour. Other gliomas are of variable malignancy.

  • glioblastoma multiforme (disease)

    glioma: Glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most frequently occurring and the most aggressive primary brain tumour. Other gliomas are of variable malignancy.

  • glioma (tumour)

    Glioma, a cancerous growth or tumour composed of cells derived from neuroglial tissue, the material that supports and protects nerve cells. Gliomas typically form in the brain or spinal cord and are classified by cell type, location, or grade (based on microscopic features of tumour cells, usually

  • gliomas (tumour)

    Glioma, a cancerous growth or tumour composed of cells derived from neuroglial tissue, the material that supports and protects nerve cells. Gliomas typically form in the brain or spinal cord and are classified by cell type, location, or grade (based on microscopic features of tumour cells, usually

  • gliomata (tumour)

    Glioma, a cancerous growth or tumour composed of cells derived from neuroglial tissue, the material that supports and protects nerve cells. Gliomas typically form in the brain or spinal cord and are classified by cell type, location, or grade (based on microscopic features of tumour cells, usually

  • glipizide (drup)

    diabetes mellitus: Drugs used to control blood glucose levels: Sulfonylureas, such as glipizide and glimepiride, are considered hypoglycemic agents because they stimulate the release of insulin from beta cells in the pancreas, thus reducing blood glucose levels. The most common side effect associated with sulfonylureas is hypoglycemia (abnormally low blood glucose levels), which occurs most often in…

  • Glironia venusta (marsupial)

    woolly opossum: …black-shouldered opossum (Caluromysiops irrupta), the bushy-tailed opossum (Glironia venusta), and three species of true woolly opossums (genus Caluromys). The black-shouldered opossum is found only in southeastern Peru and adjacent Brazil. The bushy-tailed opossum is rare, known from only 25 specimens and a few records based on photographs from widely scattered…

  • Glirulus japonicus (rodent)

    dormouse: …of the smallest is the Japanese dormouse of southern Japan (Glirulus japonicus), weighing up to 40 grams and having a body that measures less than 8 cm long and a tail of up to 6 cm. Dormice are small to medium-sized and have large eyes, rounded ears, short legs and…

  • Glis glis (rodent)

    dormouse: …ounces), is the fat, or edible, dormouse (Glis glis) of Europe and the Middle East, with a body up to 19 cm (7.5 inches) long and a shorter tail up to 15 cm. One of the smallest is the Japanese dormouse of southern Japan (Glirulus japonicus), weighing up to 40…

  • Glischrochius fasciatus (insect)

    sap beetle: The picnic beetle (Glischrochilus fasciatus), a common North American species, is shiny black with two yellow-orange bands across the elytra.

  • glissade (ballet)

    Glissade, (French: “sliding”), in ballet, a sliding step beginning and ending in the fifth position (feet turned out and pressed closely together, the heel of the right foot against the toe of the left, and vice versa). Used primarily as a preparation for jumps and leaps, the glissade begins when

  • Glissant, Édouard (Martinican author)

    Édouard Glissant, French-speaking West Indian poet and novelist who belonged to the literary Africanism movement. Glissant was a disciple and fellow countryman of the poet Aimé Césaire, who founded the Negritude movement to promote an African culture free of all colonial influences. Glissant

  • glitch (astronomy)

    pulsar: Period changes: …period changes, which are called glitches, in which the period suddenly increases and then gradually decreases to its pre-glitch value. Some glitches are caused by “starquakes,” or sudden cracks in the rigid iron crust of the star. Others are caused by an interaction between the crust and the more fluid…

  • Glitter Mountain (mountain, Norway)

    Glitter Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Scandinavian Peninsula, in the Jotunheim Mountains (Jotunheimen), south-central Norway. Rising to 8,084 feet (2,464 metres), it has a permanent glacial icecap about 65 feet (20 metres) thick. Glitter Mountain is a popular tourist

  • glitter rock (music)

    Glam rock, musical movement that began in Britain in the early 1970s and celebrated the spectacle of the rock star and concert. Often dappled with glitter, male musicians took the stage in women’s makeup and clothing, adopted theatrical personas, and mounted glamorous musical productions frequently

  • Glitter, Mount (mountain, Norway)

    Glitter Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Scandinavian Peninsula, in the Jotunheim Mountains (Jotunheimen), south-central Norway. Rising to 8,084 feet (2,464 metres), it has a permanent glacial icecap about 65 feet (20 metres) thick. Glitter Mountain is a popular tourist

  • Glittering Gate, The (play by Dunsany)

    Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th baron of Dunsany: …Pegana (1905); his first play, The Glittering Gate, was produced by the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in 1909; and his first London production, The Gods of the Mountain, at the Haymarket Theatre in 1911. As in his more than 50 subsequent verse plays, novels, short stories and memoirs, in these…

  • Glittertind (mountain, Norway)

    Glitter Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Scandinavian Peninsula, in the Jotunheim Mountains (Jotunheimen), south-central Norway. Rising to 8,084 feet (2,464 metres), it has a permanent glacial icecap about 65 feet (20 metres) thick. Glitter Mountain is a popular tourist

  • Glittertinden (mountain, Norway)

    Glitter Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Scandinavian Peninsula, in the Jotunheim Mountains (Jotunheimen), south-central Norway. Rising to 8,084 feet (2,464 metres), it has a permanent glacial icecap about 65 feet (20 metres) thick. Glitter Mountain is a popular tourist

  • Glivec (drug)

    Imatinib, anticancer drug used primarily in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Imatinib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 under the trade name Gleevec for the treatment of CML. The following year it was approved for the treatment of advanced

  • Gliwice (Poland)

    Gliwice, city, Śląskie województwo (province), southern Poland. An old settlement of Upper Silesia, Gliwice was chartered in 1276 and became capital of the Gliwice principality in 1312. It passed first to Bohemia, then to the Habsburgs, and in 1742 was incorporated (as part of Silesia) with

  • Gliwice Canal (canal, Poland)

    Gliwice: …city’s inland port on the Gliwice Canal, Poland’s busiest port, ships Silesian exports via the Oder (Odra) River to the Baltic Sea. Gliwice has a polytechnical institute (1945) and a fine museum and is noted for its parks and landscape. Pop. (2011) 187,474.

  • Gliwicki, Kanał (canal, Poland)

    Gliwice: …city’s inland port on the Gliwice Canal, Poland’s busiest port, ships Silesian exports via the Oder (Odra) River to the Baltic Sea. Gliwice has a polytechnical institute (1945) and a fine museum and is noted for its parks and landscape. Pop. (2011) 187,474.

  • global analysis (mathematics)

    analysis: Variational principles and global analysis: …to what is now called global analysis.

  • Global Anglican Future Conference (religion)

    Lambeth Conference: …world’s Anglicans lived—to attend the Global Anglican Forum Conference (GAFCON) in Jerusalem. About 230 of these traditionalist bishops boycotted the following month’s 2008 Lambeth Conference.

  • Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (geology)

    Guzhangian Stage: …Commission on Stratigraphy established the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) defining the base of this unit in the carbonate rock beds of the Huaqiao Formation in the Wuling Mountains of Hunan, China. The GSSP marks the first appearance of the trilobite Lejopyge laevigata in the fossil record. The Guzhangian…

  • Global Challenges to the United States in a New Millennium: An Interview with Jimmy Carter

    Few people in the United States have a better overview of the state of the world than Jimmy Carter. He has been a submarine officer in the U.S. Navy, a successful peanut farmer, governor of Georgia (1971–75), the 39th president of the U.S. (1977–81), and, with his wife, Rosalynn, founder of The

  • global city

    Global city, an urban centre that enjoys significant competitive advantages and that serves as a hub within a globalized economic system. The term has its origins in research on cities carried out during the 1980s, which examined the common characteristics of the world’s most important cities.

  • global civil society (political science)

    governance: Resistance and civil society: Global civil society typically refers to nongovernmental groups such as Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and the International Labour Organization as well as less formal networks of activists and citizens. Questions can arise, of course, as to whether these groups adequately represent their members, let alone a…

  • Global Commission on International Migration

    Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), organization established in December 2003 to promote global discussion and cooperation on issues related to the international movement of persons. Formed by then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and the governments of 19 UN member

  • Global Compact (United Nations initiative)

    Global Compact, United Nations (UN) initiative launched in 2000 to bring business, labour, and civil society together around ethical principles and standards. The Global Compact was proposed in the late 1990s by UN secretary-general Kofi Annan in response to widespread concerns about the negative

  • global conference (international relations)

    United Nations: Global conferences: Global conferences have a long history in multilateral diplomacy, extending back to the period after World War I, when conferences on disarmament and economic affairs were convened by the League of Nations. With the UN’s establishment after World War II, the number and frequency…

  • global cooling (Earth science)

    climate change: Cenozoic climates: intervals of global warming and cooling. Earth has experienced both extreme warmth and extreme cold during this period. These changes have been driven by tectonic forces, which have altered the positions and elevations of the continents as well as ocean passages and bathymetry. Feedbacks between different components of the Earth…

  • Global Corruption Barometer (annual report by Transparency International)

    Transparency International: …the Global Corruption Report, the Global Corruption Barometer, and the Corruption Perceptions Index, which ranks countries by perceived level of corruption based on surveys of experts. It also publishes books on specific regions and issues Integrity Awards to individuals who expose corruption in their countries.

  • Global Corruption Report (annual report by Transparency International)

    Transparency International: …several annual reports, including the Global Corruption Report, the Global Corruption Barometer, and the Corruption Perceptions Index, which ranks countries by perceived level of corruption based on surveys of experts. It also publishes books on specific regions and issues Integrity Awards to individuals who expose corruption in their countries.

  • Global Digital Seismographic Network (geology)

    earthquake: Earthquake observatories: The Global Digital Seismographic Network in particular has remarkable capability, recording all motions from Earth tides to microscopic ground motions at the level of local ground noise. At present there are about 128 sites. With this system the long-term seismological goal will have been accomplished to…

  • global economic downturn (global economics)

    Financial crisis of 2007–08, severe contraction of liquidity in global financial markets that originated in the United States as a result of the collapse of the U.S. housing market. It threatened to destroy the international financial system; caused the failure (or near-failure) of several major

  • Global Exchange (international organization)

    Global Exchange, U.S.-based international human rights organization founded in 1988 by political activists Kevin Danaher and Medea Benjamin to promote social, economic, and environmental justice. The membership-based organization, headquartered in San Francisco, criticized the model of

  • global extinction event (biology)

    extinction: Mass extinctions:

  • global financial crisis (global economics)

    Financial crisis of 2007–08, severe contraction of liquidity in global financial markets that originated in the United States as a result of the collapse of the U.S. housing market. It threatened to destroy the international financial system; caused the failure (or near-failure) of several major

  • Global Flyer (aircraft)

    Steve Fossett: Piloting the GlobalFlyer, a specialized plane that featured 13 fuel tanks and a 7-foot (2-metre) cockpit, he took off from Salina, Kansas, on February 28 and returned there some 67 hours later, on March 3. On February 8, 2006, he undertook the longest nonstop airplane flight, taking…

  • Global Footprint Network (environmental organization)

    ecological footprint: The Global Footprint Network (GFN)—a nonprofit organization that partnered with hundreds of cities, businesses, and other entities to advance the EF as a metric of sustainability—calculates the per capita global footprint. In 2014 the per capita global footprint was 2.8 gha. Since global biocapacity that year…

  • Global Greens Charter

    Global Greens Charter, cooperative agreement made by an international group of environmentally minded political parties (green parties) and other organizations, who have pledged to work together on environmental and social causes on the basis of six guiding principles. The Global Greens Charter was

  • Global Health Council (international organization)

    Global Health Council, global nonprofit alliance devoted to improving health around the world. It comprises corporations, foundations, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and universities. The National Council of International Health was created in 1972 and was renamed the Global

  • Global Health Initiative

    World Economic Forum: …global economic enterprises, including the Global Health Initiative (2002), and has published numerous research reports, including Faith and the Global Agenda: Values for a Post-Crisis Economy (2010).

  • Global Illumination (breast cancer awareness project)

    Breast Cancer Awareness Month: …fragrance and cosmetics company, launched Global Illumination, a project in which major global landmarks are illuminated by pink light for one or more days in October in support of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Illuminated landmarks have included the Sydney Opera House, Niagara Falls, the Brandenburg Gate, the Empire State Building,…

  • Global Information Solutions (American company)

    NCR Corporation, American manufacturer of cash registers, computers, and information-processing systems. Although James Ritty invented the cash register in 1879, it was John H. Patterson (1844–1922) who, through aggressive marketing and innovative production and sales techniques, made the cash

  • Global Initiative for Asthma

    asthma: …of the aims of the Global Initiative for Asthma, which since 1998 has sponsored World Asthma Day, an annual event occurring on the first Tuesday in May that is intended to raise awareness of the disorder.

  • global logistics (military)

    logistics: Strategic mobility: …to deal with the classic logistic problem of deploying and supporting forces over sea lines of communication exposed to enemy attack. The Soviet Union was able in 1962 to establish a missile base in Cuba manned by some 25,000 troops without interference by the United States until its offensive purpose…

  • Global Malaria Action Plan

    World Malaria Day: …prompted the formation of the Global Malaria Action Plan (GMAP), an aggressive unified strategy designed to reduce the incidence of malaria worldwide. The three components of this strategy are control, elimination, and research. Research to develop new drugs and new approaches to prevention is fundamental to efforts aimed at first…

  • Global Malaria Eradication Campaign

    malaria: Malaria through history: …Health Organization (WHO) inaugurated its Global Malaria Eradication Campaign, to be based mainly on the spraying of insecticide in designated “malarious areas” of the world. The program resulted in the elimination of endemic malaria from Europe, Australia, and other developed areas and in a radical reduction of cases in less-developed…

  • global map (cartography)

    map: Greek maps and geography: …an orientation line on the world map, running east and west through Gibraltar and Rhodes. Eratosthenes, Marinus of Tyre, and Ptolemy successively developed the reference-line principle until a reasonably comprehensive system of parallels and meridians, as well as methods of projecting them, had been achieved.

  • Global Media Monitoring Project (journalism)

    soft news: Studies by the Global Media Monitoring Project, begun in 1995, found women reporters more likely to be assigned soft-news stories about entertainment, arts, and culture. Such stories were also more likely to feature women in traditional, rather than professional, roles. Beginning in the late 1990s, media critics and…

  • Global Navigation Satellite System (navigation)

    space exploration: Positioning, navigation, and timing: …System (GPS) and the Soviet Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS)—that did much to solve the problems of their predecessors. The original purpose of the systems was the support of military activities, and they have continued to operate under military control while serving a wide variety of civilian uses.

  • Global Ocean Commission (international organization)
  • Global Ocean Conveyor, the (oceanography)

    Thermohaline circulation, the component of general oceanic circulation controlled by horizontal differences in temperature and salinity. It continually replaces seawater at depth with water from the surface and slowly replaces surface water elsewhere with water rising from deeper depths. Although

  • Global Polio Eradication Initiative

    polio: A global campaign: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was joined by UNICEF, Rotary International, and other organizations, and by 2000 the number of new cases of paralytic polio had been reduced from more than 250,000 per year to approximately 1,000–2,000. Complete elimination of the disease by the target year…

  • Global Political Agreement (international agreement)

    Robert Mugabe: Sharing power: …power-sharing agreement—referred to as the Global Political Agreement—on September 15, 2008. As part of the agreement, Mugabe would remain president but would cede some power to Tsvangirai, who would serve as prime minister; Mutambara would serve as a deputy prime minister.

  • Global Positioning System (navigation)

    GPS, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near Earth. In the United States’ Navstar GPS, 24 main satellites in 6 orbits circle Earth every 12 hours. In addition, Russia maintains a constellation called GLONASS (Global Navigation

  • Global Poverty Project (nonprofit organization)

    Simon McKeon: …and a director of the Global Poverty Project. From 2010 to 2015 he served as chairman of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the national science agency of Australia. McKeon became chancellor of Monash University in 2016.

  • global recession (economics [2007–2009])

    Great Recession, economic recession that was precipitated in the United States by the financial crisis of 2007–08 and quickly spread to other countries. Beginning in late 2007 and lasting until mid-2009, it was the longest and deepest economic downturn in many countries, including the United

  • Global Reporting Initiative (environment)

    Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies: In 1997 CERES launched the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which provides guidelines for participating companies and organizations to use in reporting on their sustainability practices and the social, environmental, and economic impact of their activities. The GRI was designed to stimulate change for the organizations by allowing them to track…

  • Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (UN)

    rinderpest: …launch in 1994 of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations led to the implementation of effective rinderpest-control programs in affected areas of the world. The targeted date for eradication was 2011. In 2010 a preliminary report by GREP suggested…

  • Global Seed Vault (agricultural project, Norway)

    Svalbard Global Seed Vault, secure facility built into the side of a mountain on Spitsbergen, the largest of the Svalbard islands (a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean), that is intended to safeguard the seeds of the world’s food plants in the event of a global crisis. The site was chosen

  • Global Skyship Industries (British company)

    aerospace industry: Airships: …company’s blimp operations passed to Global Skyship Industries. With its sister company, Airship Operations, Inc., Global Skyship Industries builds and operates blimps for commercial advertising, military, and government applications worldwide.

  • global standard section and point marker (geology)

    Guzhangian Stage: …Commission on Stratigraphy established the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) defining the base of this unit in the carbonate rock beds of the Huaqiao Formation in the Wuling Mountains of Hunan, China. The GSSP marks the first appearance of the trilobite Lejopyge laevigata in the fossil record. The Guzhangian…

  • Global Stratotype Section and Point (geology)

    Guzhangian Stage: …Commission on Stratigraphy established the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) defining the base of this unit in the carbonate rock beds of the Huaqiao Formation in the Wuling Mountains of Hunan, China. The GSSP marks the first appearance of the trilobite Lejopyge laevigata in the fossil record. The Guzhangian…

  • global system for mobile communications

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …European Community announced the digital global system for mobile communications, referred to as GSM, the first such system that would permit any cellular user in one European country to operate in another European country with the same equipment. GSM soon became ubiquitous throughout Europe.

  • Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!