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  • Ghosh, Amitav (Indian-born writer)

    Amitav Ghosh, Indian-born writer whose ambitious novels use complex narrative strategies to probe the nature of national and personal identity, particularly of the people of India and Southeast Asia. As a child, Ghosh, whose father was a diplomat, lived in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Iran. He

  • Ghosh, Girish Chandra (Indian writer, director, and actor)

    South Asian arts: Modern theatre: The actor-director-writer Girish Chandra Ghosh founded in 1872 the National Theatre, the first Bengali professional company, and took Nildarpan on tour, giving performances in the North Indian cities of Delhi and Lucknow. The instigatory speeches and lurid scenes of British brutality resulted in the banning of this…

  • Ghosh, Rituparno (Indian film director)

    Rituparno Ghosh, Indian film director (born Aug. 31, 1963, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India—died May 30, 2013, Kolkata), featured complex and sensitive themes such as sexuality, gender identity, divorce, and widowhood in films that defied conservative Indian principles. Ghosh studied economics at

  • ghost (spirit)

    Ghost, soul or spectre of a dead person, usually believed to inhabit the netherworld and to be capable of returning in some form to the world of the living. According to descriptions or depictions provided by believers, a ghost may appear as a living being or as a nebulous likeness of the deceased

  • Ghost (work by Whiteread)

    Rachel Whiteread: Whiteread’s next major project was Ghost (1990), which bumped the scale of her sculpture up to room size. For this work she chose a Victorian sitting room, complete with a window, a fireplace, and a door. In removing the plaster mold, she managed not only to transform the “roomness” of…

  • Ghost (film by Zucker [1990])

    Whoopi Goldberg: …less-successful films before appearing in Ghost (1990), for which she won both the Academy Award and the Golden Globe Award for best supporting actress. Goldberg followed up with numerous performances in film and television, including hosting her own talk show for a brief stint, serving as host of the Academy…

  • Ghost and Mr. Chicken, The (film by Rafkin [1966])

    The Ghost and Mr. Chicken, American screwball comedy, released in 1966, that was Don Knotts’s first feature film after he left the hit television program The Andy Griffith Show. Knotts played nervous Luther Heggs, a newspaper typesetter who, in the hope of being promoted to reporter, agrees to

  • Ghost and Mrs. Muir, The (film by Mankiewicz [1947])

    Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Directing: The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947) was a classic romantic fantasy, with Tierney as a widow courted by the ghost of a sea captain (played by Rex Harrison).

  • ghost bat (common name of several bats)

    Ghost bat, some of the few bats known to possess white or gray fur; not every bat with white fur is called a ghost bat. Ghost bats are tropical, but only one, also called the Australian giant false vampire bat (Macroderma gigas), is found outside Central and South America. The four ghost bat

  • ghost bat (mammal, Diclidurus species)

    ghost bat: Compared to other insect-eating bats, D. albus is medium-sized, with a length of about 9 cm (3.5 inches), a body mass of about 20 grams (0.7 ounce), and a wingspan of about 40 cm (16 inches). This species is widely distributed in tropical lowland forest and open areas throughout Central…

  • ghost bat (mammal)

    ghost bat: …(see sheath-tailed bat), whereas another New World ghost bat, also known as the Honduran white bat (Ectophylla alba), is a leaf-nosed bat. The Australian ghost bat (see false vampire bat) is a larger, grayish bat of the family Megadermatidae.

  • ghost bat (mammal, Macroderma gigas)

    ghost bat: …only one, also called the Australian giant false vampire bat (Macroderma gigas), is found outside Central and South America. The four ghost bat species of the New World belong to the genus Diclidurus.

  • Ghost Brothers of Darkland County (musical by King, Burnett and Mellencamp)

    T Bone Burnett: Ghost Brothers of Darkland County, a Southern gothic musical he created with Stephen King and John Mellencamp, premiered in 2014.

  • Ghost Country (novel by Paretsky)

    Sara Paretsky: …heroine with the publication of Ghost Country (1998), which features a pair of debutante sisters as amateur detectives, but she returned to Warshawski in Hard Time (1999). Subsequent books in the series included Total Recall (2001), in which Warshawski investigates a man claiming to be a Holocaust survivor, and Blacklist…

  • ghost crab (crustacean)

    Ghost crab, (genus Ocypode), any of approximately 20 species of shore crabs (order Decapoda of the class Crustacea). O. quadratus, the beach crabs noted for their running speed, occur on dry sand above the high-tide mark on the western Atlantic coast from New Jersey to Brazil. The crab, sandy or

  • Ghost Dance (North American Indian cult)

    Ghost Dance, either of two distinct cults in a complex of late 19th-century religious movements that represented an attempt of Indians in the western United States to rehabilitate their traditional cultures. Both cults arose from Northern Paiute prophet-dreamers in western Nevada who announced the

  • Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai (film by Jarmusch [1999])

    Jim Jarmusch: …Young and Crazy Horse; and Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai (1999). Coffee and Cigarettes (2003) consisted of a collection of brief exchanges between various well-known actors and musicians as they smoked and drank coffee. Jarmusch won the Grand Prix at the 2005 Cannes film festival for Broken Flowers…

  • Ghost Festival (Buddhism)

    purgatory: Purgatory in world religions: The popularity of the annual Ghost Festival (rite in which offerings are made to ancestral ghosts), as well as the persistence of other seasonal, domestic, and esoteric rites for the care and feeding of the dead, demonstrates that responsibility for beings in “purgatory” is an enduring preoccupation of Chinese society—as…

  • ghost flathead (fish)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: Family Hoplichthyidae (ghost flatheads or spiny flatheads) Small fishes with very depressed bodies. Scaleless; body with bony plates. Head with heavy spiny ridges. Vertebrae 26. Size to 43 cm (17 inches). Found in moderately deep water in Indo-Pacific region. 1 genus, Hoplichthys, with about 11 species. Family…

  • ghost glide (theatrical device)

    theatre: British theatre and stage design: …famous trap was a “ghost glide,” a sort of dumbwaiter that made actors appear to rise from the earth and glide through space.

  • Ghost Goes West, The (film by Clair)

    René Clair: …went to England to make The Ghost Goes West, an effective merging of English humour with French verve that became an international triumph. He returned to France but soon left again, in 1940, when the Germans overran the country in World War II. He spent the war years in Hollywood,…

  • Ghost in the Machine (album by the Police)

    the Police: …Mondatta (1980) and the synthesizer-rich Ghost in the Machine (1981) saw a marked evolution from the stripped-down arrangements of their early work to a more layered but still tightly focused sound. The group reached its commercial and critical peak with the multiplatinum album Synchronicity (1983). On all their work, Summers’s…

  • Ghost in the Shell (film by Sanders [2017])

    Scarlett Johansson: Johansson’s 2017 credits included Ghost in the Shell, in which she portrayed a cyborg woman who battles criminals, and Rough Night, a comedy about a bachelorette party. Two years later she played a mother harbouring a Jewish girl in the Nazi satire Jojo Rabbit and a woman undergoing a…

  • Ghost Is Born, A (album by Wilco)

    Wilco: …completing its fifth studio album, A Ghost Is Born (2004), the band was immersed in more turmoil. Tweedy checked himself into a rehab clinic for a longtime addiction to painkillers. The volatile lineup was shuffled again, with keyboardist Bach departing and guitarist Cline and multi-instrumentalist Sansone joining Tweedy, Stirratt, Kotche,…

  • ghost moth (insect)

    Swift, (family Hepialidae), any of approximately 500 species of insects in the order Lepidoptera that are some of the largest moths, with wingspans of more than 22.5 cm (9 inches). Most European and North American species are brown or gray with silver spots on the wings, whereas the African, New

  • Ghost of Frankenstein, The (film by Kenton [1942])

    Son of Frankenstein: …he reprised the role in The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942). Karloff, on the other hand, is less striking in Son of Frankenstein than in the film’s two predecessors, in part because—due to the explosion at the end of Bride of Frankenstein—the monster is once again mute, having lost the ability…

  • Ghost of the Sun (novel by Petrakis)

    Harry Mark Petrakis: …Kings (1966) and its sequel, Ghost of the Sun (1990); The Hour of the Bell (1976) and its sequel, The Shepherds of Shadows (2008); Nick the Greek (1979); Days of Vengeance (1983); and The Orchards of Ithaca (2004). He also published collections of short stories. His nonfiction works included a…

  • Ghost of Tom Joad, The (album by Springsteen)

    Bruce Springsteen: On his own: …both by his 1995 album, The Ghost of Tom Joad, which concerned itself with America’s economically and spiritually destitute, and by his 1994 hit single (his first in eight years), the AIDS-related “Streets of Philadelphia,” from the film Philadelphia, for which he won both an Academy Award and a Grammy…

  • ghost pipe (plant)

    Indian pipe, (Monotropa uniflora), nonphotosynthetic perennial herb of the heath family (Ericaceae). The plant is mycoheterotrophic, meaning it lives in close association with a fungus from which it acquires most of its nutrition. The fungus, in turn, lives in association with neighbouring beeches

  • ghost pipefish (fish)

    Ghost pipefish, (genus Solenostomus), any of a group of small, rare marine fishes characterized by long snouts and enlarged fins that belong to the family Solenostomidae (order Gasterosteiformes). Ghost pipefishes inhabit the Indian and western Pacific oceans and reach lengths of 7.5 to 17 cm

  • ghost plant (plant)

    Indian pipe, (Monotropa uniflora), nonphotosynthetic perennial herb of the heath family (Ericaceae). The plant is mycoheterotrophic, meaning it lives in close association with a fungus from which it acquires most of its nutrition. The fungus, in turn, lives in association with neighbouring beeches

  • Ghost Rider (comic-book character)

    Ghost Rider, American comic strip superhero whose best-known incarnation was created for Marvel Comics by writer Gary Friedrich and artist Mike Ploog. The character first appeared in Marvel Spotlight no. 5 (August 1972). The original Ghost Rider was a western antihero created by writer Ray Krank

  • Ghost Rider (film by Johnson [2007])

    Nicolas Cage: …superhero, and the action thriller Ghost Rider (2007) and its sequel, Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance (2011), in which he appeared as a demonically possessed motorcyclist. His atypically subdued work in Joe (2013), in which he played a former criminal who takes a protective interest in one of his young…

  • ghost shark (fish subclass)

    Chimaera, (subclass Holocephali), any of numerous cartilaginous fishes related to sharks and rays in the class Chondrichthyes but separated from them as the subclass (or sometimes class) Holocephali. Like sharks and rays, chimaeras have cartilaginous skeletons, and the males possess external

  • ghost shrimp (crustacean)

    perciform: Interspecific relationships: …upon holes dug by the ghost shrimp (Callianassa) for a home and is unable to live without its help. Other gobies are known to share holes with burrowing worms, pea crabs, and snapping shrimps.

  • Ghost Sonata, The (play by Strindberg)

    The Ghost Sonata, one-act drama in three scenes by August Strindberg, written and published as Spöksonaten in 1907 and performed the following year. The drama is considered the best of Strindberg’s four chamber plays, written during his years as director of Stockholm’s Intima Theatre, and it is one

  • ghost story (narrative genre)

    Ghost story, a tale about ghosts. More generally, the phrase may refer to a tale based on imagination rather than fact. Ghost stories exist in all kinds of literature, from folktales to religious works to modern horror stories, and in most cultures. They can be used as isolated episodes or

  • Ghost Town (film by Koepp [2008])

    Ricky Gervais: With Ghost Town (2008), he starred in his first leading role in a feature film, playing a man who emerges from a near-death experience with an ability to see ghosts. Gervais also wrote and directed (with Matthew Robinson) The Invention of Lying (2009), which centres on…

  • Ghost Town (recording by the Specials)

    Two-Tone Movement: …number one hit with “Ghost Town” (1981), which evocatively addressed racial tension and whose timely release coincided with riots in Liverpool and London.

  • Ghost Who Walks, The (fictional character)

    Phantom, the first costumed, fictional superhero, known as “The Ghost Who Walks.” Comics scholars generally agree that Superman was the first true superhero of the comic books, clearly marking the entrance of a new kind of hero into the marketplace. Though Superman wears an iconic costume, he was

  • Ghost Writer, The (film by Polanski [2010])

    Pierce Brosnan: …Thief (2010) and Roman Polanski’s The Ghost Writer (2010), in which he played a former British prime minister accused of war crimes. In 2011 he appeared as a flirtatious businessman in the comedy I Don’t Know How She Does It and as a widowed writer in the TV miniseries Bag…

  • Ghost Writer, The (novel by Roth)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: …Jewish novelist named Zuckerman, especially The Ghost Writer (1979), The Anatomy Lesson (1983), and, above all, The Counterlife (1987). Like many of his later works, from My Life as a Man (1974) to Operation Shylock (1993), The Counterlife plays ingeniously on the relationship between autobiography and fiction. His best later…

  • Ghost, The (film by Polanski [2010])

    Pierce Brosnan: …Thief (2010) and Roman Polanski’s The Ghost Writer (2010), in which he played a former British prime minister accused of war crimes. In 2011 he appeared as a flirtatious businessman in the comedy I Don’t Know How She Does It and as a widowed writer in the TV miniseries Bag…

  • Ghostbusters (film by Feig [2016])

    Melissa McCarthy: Ghostbusters (2016), a remake of the 1984 classic comedy about hunting spirits and other supernatural creatures, featured McCarthy alongside Kristen Wiig, Kate McKinnon, and Leslie Jones. The film was noted for casting the titular team of wisecracking enforcers as women. They had been portrayed by…

  • Ghostbusters (film by Reitman [1984])

    Bill Murray: …Aykroyd and Harold Ramis in Ghostbusters, which became one of the highest-grossing films of the decade.

  • GhostNet (worldwide spy network)

    cybercrime: Hacking: …worldwide spy network known as GhostNet was discovered by researchers at the University of Toronto, who had been asked by representatives of the Dalai Lama to investigate the exiled Tibetan leader’s computers for possible malware. In addition to finding out that the Dalai Lama’s computers were compromised, the researchers discovered…

  • ghosts (word game)

    Ghosts, word game in which each player in turn presents a letter that must contribute to the eventual formation of a word but not complete it. The player whose letter completes a word loses the round and becomes one-third of a ghost. Three losses make a player a full ghost, putting him out of the

  • Ghosts (short story by Auster)

    Paul Auster: …him to assume various identities; Ghosts (1986), about a private eye known as Blue who is investigating a man named Black for a client named White; and The Locked Room (1986), the story of an author who, while researching the life of a missing writer for a biography, gradually assumes…

  • Ghosts (work by Ibsen)

    Ghosts, a drama in three acts by Henrik Ibsen, published in 1881 in Norwegian as Gengangere and performed the following year. The play is an attack on conventional morality and on the results of hypocrisy. Ostensibly a discussion of congenital venereal disease, Ghosts also deals with the power of

  • Ghosts I-IV (album by Nine Inch Nails)

    Nine Inch Nails: …its creation were collected in Ghosts I–IV (2008). Having become dissatisfied with the traditional music-distribution model, Reznor released both Ghosts I–IV and the song-oriented The Slip (2008) as free digital downloads from the Nine Inch Nails Web site. He returned to a major record label, however, for Hesitation Marks (2013),…

  • Ghosts of Mississippi (film by Reiner [1996])

    Rob Reiner: Later films: …a lobbyist (Annette Bening), and Ghosts of Mississippi (1996), about the 1994 trial of Byron De La Beckwith, the assassin of civil rights activist Medgar Evers, were relatively warmly received, Reiner’s output at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st became more uneven. The romantic…

  • Ghostwritten (work by Mitchell)

    David Mitchell: Mitchell’s first published work was Ghostwritten (1999), a collection of interconnected narratives that take place in a variety of locations throughout the world. While criticized by some as derivative of the novels of Murakami Haruki, the book is nevertheless noteworthy for its plotting and realistic characterizations, which are unusually sophisticated…

  • Ghotbzadeh, Sadegh (Iranian politician)

    Sadegh Ghotbzadeh, Iranian politician who helped establish Iran as an Islamic republic and was foreign minister of the country from 1979 to 1980. Involved in anti-shah activities, Ghotbzadeh was imprisoned briefly and at age 24 left Iran. He lived in various countries, including France and the

  • ghotul (dormitory)

    Gond: …for their youth dormitories, or ghotul, in the framework of which the unmarried of both sexes lead a highly organized social life; they receive training in civic duties and in sexual practices.

  • ghoul (Arabian mythology)

    Ghoul, in popular legend, demonic being believed to inhabit burial grounds and other deserted places. In ancient Arabic folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. They were capable of constantly

  • Ghoussoub, Mai (Lebanese writer, publisher, and sculptor)

    Mai Ghoussoub, Lebanese writer, publisher, and sculptor (born Nov. 2, 1952 , Beit Shabab, Leb.—died Feb. 17, 2007 , London, Eng.), cofounded (with her longtime friend André Gaspard) Al Saqi (1979), the first bookshop in London to focus on Arab literature and Middle Eastern culture, and Saqi Books

  • GHP (physics)

    geothermal energy: Geothermal heat pumps: Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) take advantage of the relatively stable moderate temperature conditions that occur within the first 300 metres (1,000 feet) of the surface to heat buildings in the winter and cool them in the summer. In that part of the…

  • ghrelin (peptide)

    Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide produced primarily in the stomach but also in the upper small intestine and hypothalamus. Ghrelin acts to stimulate appetite, and its secretion increases before meals and decreases after food is eaten. The pattern of ghrelin secretion is similar when caloric intake

  • GHRH

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a large peptide hormone that exists in several forms that differ from one another only in the number of amino acids, which can vary from 37 to 44. Unlike other neurohormones (substances produced by specialized cells typical of the nervous system), GHRH is

  • ghrṭa (butterfat)

    Ghee, clarified butter, a staple food on the Indian subcontinent. As a cooking oil, ghee is the most widely used food in India, apart from wheat and rice. Ghee is produced as follows. Butter made from cow’s milk is melted over a slow fire and then heated slowly until the separated water boils off.

  • Ghudāmis (oasis, Libya)

    Ghadames, oasis, northwestern Libya, near the Tunisian and Algerian borders. It lies at the bottom of a wadi bordered by the steep slopes of the stony al-Ḥamrāʾ Plateau. Located at the junction of ancient Saharan caravan routes, the town was the Roman stronghold Cydamus (whose ruins remain). It was

  • Ghufron, Ali (militant)

    2002 Bali Bombings: In December 2002 Ali Ghufron (also known as Mukhlas) was arrested in Java. He confessed that he had participated in the planning of the Bali bombings, primarily as a religious guide, and had recruited two of his brothers (Ali Imron and Amrozi bin Nurhasyim) to help assemble and…

  • ghūl (Arabian mythology)

    Ghoul, in popular legend, demonic being believed to inhabit burial grounds and other deserted places. In ancient Arabic folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. They were capable of constantly

  • ghulām (Persian soldier)

    ʿAbbās I: Life: …on the loyalty of these ghulāms (“slaves”) of the shah, as they were known, and he used them to counterbalance the influence of the Kizilbash, whom he distrusted. Ghulāms soon rose to high office and were appointed governors of crown provinces.

  • Ghulām Aḥmad, Mīrzā (Indian Muslim leader)

    Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad, Indian Muslim leader who founded an Islamic religious movement known as the Aḥmadiyyah. The son of a prosperous family, Ghulām Aḥmad received an education in Persian and Arabic. He initially refused his father’s urgings that he go into British government service or practice law.

  • Ghulam Muhammad (governor general of Pakistan)

    Bangladesh: The Pakistani period, 1947–71: …as prime minister and installed Ghulam Mohammad, a Punjabi, as governor-general. Ghulam Mohammad consolidated a coalition of civil and military forces in the central government and secured a virtual transfer of power from the politicians to the coalition, first by dismissing Nazimuddin (who still had a majority in the legislature)…

  • Ghulām Muḥammad Barrage (dam, Pakistan)

    Indus River: Irrigation: The Kotri Barrage, also known as the Ghulam Muhammad Barrage, was opened in 1955. It is near Hyderabad and is nearly 3,000 feet (900 metres) long. The right-bank canal provides additional water to the city of Karachi. Sugarcane cultivation has been expanded, and yields of rice…

  • ghulāt (Islamic history)
  • ghuluww (Islamic history)
  • Ghundah Zhur (mountain, Iraq)

    Iraq: The northeast: …is the country’s highest point, Ghundah Zhur, which reaches 11,834 feet (3,607 metres). The region is heavily dissected by numerous tributaries of the Tigris, notably the Great and Little Zab rivers and the Diyālā and ʿUẓaym (Adhaim) rivers. These streams weave tortuously south and southwest, cutting through ridges in a…

  • Ghūrī, Muḥammad (Ghūrid ruler of India)

    Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām, the Ghūrid conqueror of the north Indian plain; he was one of the founders of Muslim rule in India. Muʿizz al-Dīn’s elder brother, Ghiyāth al-Dīn, acquired power east of Herāt in the region of Ghūr (Ghowr, in present Afghanistan) about 1162. Muʿizz al-Dīn always

  • Ghūrid dynasty (historical kingdom, Afghanistan)

    Ghūrid sultanate, kingdom centred in Ghūr (modern Ghowr) in west-central Afghanistan from the mid-12th to the early 13th century. Its founder was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn. Ghūr is a mountainous territory situated southeast of the region of Herāt and northwest of the Helmand River valley. Ghūr was

  • Ghūrid sultanate (historical kingdom, Afghanistan)

    Ghūrid sultanate, kingdom centred in Ghūr (modern Ghowr) in west-central Afghanistan from the mid-12th to the early 13th century. Its founder was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn. Ghūr is a mountainous territory situated southeast of the region of Herāt and northwest of the Helmand River valley. Ghūr was

  • Ghurkha (people)

    Joanna Lumley: …British government to give all Gurkhas who had fought for the British army the right to settle in Britain.

  • Ghurni (India)

    Krishnanagar: Ghurni, a suburb, is famous for the manufacture of coloured clay figures. Krishnanagar was constituted a municipality in 1864. It contains the residence of the maharaja of Nadia and is a Christian evangelistic centre. A large fair is held there annually. Pop. (2001) 139,110; (2011)…

  • ghusl (Islam)

    Ghusl, in Islām, the “major ablution” that entails washing the entire body in ritually pure water and is required in specified cases for both the living and the dead. The ghusl, accompanied by a statement of intent, must be performed whenever a state of major ritual impurity has been incurred:

  • Ghūṭah, al- (oasis, Syria)

    Damascus: City site: This tract, al-Ghūṭah, has supported a substantial population for thousands of years. Damascus itself grew on a terrace 2,250 feet (690 metres) above sea level, south of Mount Qāsiyūn and overlooking the Baradā River. The original settlement appears to have been situated in the eastern part of…

  • ghuṭrah (clothing)

    dress: The Middle East from the 6th century: …Arab headdress has been the kaffiyeh. It is still worn today, although it may now accompany a business suit. Basically, the kaffiyeh is a square of cotton, linen, wool, or silk, either plain or patterned, that is folded into a triangle and placed upon the head so that one point…

  • Ghuzz (people)

    Oğuz, confederation of Turkic peoples whose homeland, until at least the 11th century ad, was the steppes of central Asia and Mongolia. The Orhon inscriptions (q.v.), describing an early Turkic people, probably refer to the Oğuz. The Seljuqs, who comprised one branch of the Oğuz, controlled an

  • gi (measurement)

    Gill, in measurement, unit of volume in the British Imperial and United States Customary systems. It is used almost exclusively for the measurement of liquids. Although its capacity has varied with time and location, in the United States it is defined as half a cup, or four U.S. fluid ounces, which

  • GI Bill of Rights (United States [1944])

    G.I. Bill, U.S. legislation adopted in 1944 that provided various benefits to veterans of World War II. Through the Veterans Administration (later the Department of Veterans Affairs; VA), the act enabled veterans to obtain grants for school and college tuition, low-interest mortgage and

  • GI fiber

    telecommunications media: Optical fibres: Graded-index (GI) fibre reduces multimode dispersion by grading the refractive index of the core so that it smoothly tapers between the core centre and the cladding. Another type of fibre, known as single-mode (SM) fibre, eliminates multimode dispersion by reducing the diameter of the core…

  • GIA (Algerian militant group)

    Armed Islamic Group, Algerian militant group. It was formed in 1992 after the government nullified the likely victory of the Islamic Salvation Front in 1991 legislative elections and was fueled by the repatriation of numerous Algerian Islamists who had fought in the Afghan War (1978–92). The GIA

  • Gia Long (emperor of Vietnam)

    Gia Long, emperor and founder of the Nguyen dynasty, the last dynasty of Vietnam before conquest by France. Nguyen Anh—the nephew of Hue Vuong, the legitimate heir to the throne, who died in prison during a civil war in 1766—became a great general. He was aided in winning his kingdom by French

  • Giac, Pierre de (French official)

    Georges de La Trémoille: …had King Charles VII’s favourite, Pierre de Giac, kidnapped and drowned; he then married Giac’s widow, Catherine (who was probably an accessory), and took Giac’s place on the king’s council. Named grand chamberlain of France, he soon forced the Constable de Richemont to leave court.

  • Giacconi, Riccardo (Italian physicist)

    Riccardo Giacconi, Italian-born physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for his seminal discoveries of cosmic sources of X-rays, which helped lay the foundations for the field of X-ray astronomy. Raymond Davis, Jr., and Koshiba Masatoshi also won a share of the award for their

  • Giacinta (work by Capuana)

    Luigi Capuana: …first of his six novels, Giacinta, a psychological study of a wronged woman. Another important novel, Il marchese di Roccaverdina (1901; “The Marquis of Roccaverdina”), is an excellent study of guilt. Though he wrote much additional fiction—including stories for children—he is probably best known for Giacinta and Il marchese di…

  • Giacometti, Alberto (Swiss sculptor and painter)

    Alberto Giacometti, Swiss sculptor and painter, best known for his attenuated sculptures of solitary figures. His work has been compared to that of the existentialists in literature. Giacometti displayed precocious talent and was much encouraged by his father, Giovanni, a Post-Impressionist

  • Giacomino da Verona (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Religious poetry: …and the Franciscan from Verona, Giacomino da Verona, author of De Jerusalem celesti (c. 1250; “On the Heavenly Jerusalem”) and De Babilonia civitate infernali (c. 1250; “On the Infernal City of Babylon”), were the liveliest and most imaginative of this group.

  • Giacomo da Lentini (Italian poet)

    Giacomo Da Lentini, senior poet of the Sicilian school and notary at the court of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II. Celebrated during his life, he was acclaimed as a master by the poets of the following generation, including Dante, who memorialized him in the Purgatorio (XXIV, 55–57). Giacomo

  • Giacosa, Dante (Italian auto designer)

    Dante Giacosa, Italian auto designer for Fiat whose small, economical cars, particularly the popular Fiat 500, helped motorize Italy in the 1950s (b. Jan. 3, 1905--d. March 31,

  • Giacosa, Giuseppe (Italian dramatist)

    Giuseppe Giacosa, Italian dramatist who collaborated with Luigi Illica to write the libretti for three of Giacomo Puccini’s most famous operas. The son of a Piedmontese lawyer, Giacosa earned a law degree from the University of Turin but soon abandoned the law to write for the theatre. His first

  • Giaever, Ivar (American physicist)

    Ivar Giaever, Norwegian-born American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973 with Leo Esaki and Brian Josephson for work in solid-state physics. Giaever received an engineering degree at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1952 and became a patent examiner for

  • Giai Pham Mua Xuan (Vietnamese magazine)

    Phan Khoi: …of Nhan Van (“Humanism”) and Giai Pham Mua Xuan (“Beautiful Flowers of the Spring”), two radical literary reviews that took advantage of the liberalizing proclamation of Mao Zedong, of China, to offer stringent criticisms of the Hanoi regime. Phan Khoi accused the Communist Party of corruption, attacked alleged anti-intellectualism of…

  • Giai Truong-Son (mountain range, Asia)

    Annamese Cordillera, principal mountain range of Indochina and the watershed between the Mekong River and the South China Sea. It extends parallel to the coast in a gentle curve generally northwest-southeast, forming the boundary between Laos and Vietnam. A fairly continuous range for about 700

  • Giall, An (play by Behan)

    The Hostage, play in three acts by Brendan Behan, produced in 1958 and published in 1962. The play, which is considered Behan’s masterwork, employs ballads, slapstick, and fantasies to satirize social conditions and warfare. In the play, an English soldier is held hostage in a brothel by members of

  • Giamame (Somalia)

    Jamaame, town, southern Somalia, eastern Africa. Jamaame is situated on the eastern bank of the lower Jubba River, in the southeastern coastal lowlands near the Indian Ocean. The town is an important agricultural, commercial, and industrial centre. Bananas, the major crop, are exported through

  • Giamatti, A. Bartlett (American baseball commissioner)

    United States: Sports: …fatuous—onetime Major League Baseball commissioner Bartlett Giamatti wrote a book called Take Time for Paradise, finding in baseball a powerful metaphor for the time before the Fall. But the myths of baseball remain powerful even when they are not aided, or adulterated, by too-self-conscious appeals to poetry. The rhythm and…

  • Giamatti, Angelo Bartlett (American baseball commissioner)

    United States: Sports: …fatuous—onetime Major League Baseball commissioner Bartlett Giamatti wrote a book called Take Time for Paradise, finding in baseball a powerful metaphor for the time before the Fall. But the myths of baseball remain powerful even when they are not aided, or adulterated, by too-self-conscious appeals to poetry. The rhythm and…

  • Giamatti, Paul (American actor)

    Paul Giamatti, American actor who excelled at portraying likable idiosyncratic everyman characters. Giamatti was born into an intellectually active family; his mother, Toni, was a former actor who taught English at a preparatory school, and his father, A. Bartlett, was a professor and president of

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